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review of Christian sources by notice of the Balance, briefly mentioned in the Qur'an,1 but surrounded by a vast variety of Coptic tales. Two Egyptian books (one of ancient date placed in the tombs to be read by the dead) are quoted at length; a wonderful Egyptian picture exhibits how the Balance weighs the spirits, good and bad; and strange sights are given of Adam and Abraham in the Heavens beyond.

Chapter v. relates many things from ancient Zoroastrian and even Hindu writings.  Persia, far ahead of Arabia, had a sensible influence upon it, and much of what is Oriental in the Qur'an and Tradition is evidently derived from Pehlavi and other Eastern sources. Thus we have the marvels of the Seven heavens, seen by the Prophet on his ascent from Jerusalem; the Houries; Azāzīl and other spirits coming up from Hades; the Light of Muhammad, the bridge of Sirāt, etc. — all illustrated by the author's marvellous knowledge of Eastern literature, beliefs, and history. The Prophet must have learned all these things from the foreigners who frequented Medina.  Suspected of this, he indignantly replied that his tongue was not foreign, but pure Arabic alone.2

The concluding chapter tells us of a few inquirers in Arabia, called Hanefites, just before the time of Muhammad. There were four at Mecca, of whom one became a Christian, another a Muslim, and a third joined

1 S. xlii. 16; ci. 5 and 6: "He whose balance is heavy shall live in pleasure; but whose balance is light, his dwelling-place shall be hell fire."
2 S. xvi. 103: "They say a certain man teacheth him; but the tongue of him whom they mention is foreign, while this is simple Arabic" — hardly an answer in point!



Caesar. The fourth, Waraca, was first a Jew and then a Christian. One of these, a pious devotee, worshipped yearly in a cave near Mecca, and no doubt influenced the Prophet, who used to visit the same place for quiet and lonely contemplation.

The Sources of Islam, our Author in conclusion shows, have been altogether human and misleading. They all passed through the Prophet's mind as he composed the Qur'an, which thus bears throughout the impress of his own heart and character. One good thing there is in it, namely, a thorough testimony to the Gospel and "Torah"; all true Muslims are accordingly invited to study both, and thus through our Saviour Christ obtain the true promises of their father Abraham.

The Sources is a noble work, and reflects high distinction on the writer. Hitherto much labour has been spent in showing the falsity and errors of Islam, as has been ably done by Wander and others. It has remained for our Author not only to conceive a new, and perhaps more thorough and effective, mode of treating the socalled divine and eternal faith, but also in doing so to prove its Sources to be of purely human origin; and that in so masterly and effective a way that it seems impossible for good Muslims to resist the conclusion drawn. And for all this the thanks of the Christian world are eminently due to the Rev. W. St. Clair-Tisdall.



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