The Samaritan Pentateuch SP

The only Paleo-Hebrew Bible on earth

Acquired from Josiah in 610 BC

 

Quick links:

1.         Preamble: must read first

2.         12 Quick facts about the Samaritan Pentateuch

3.         Detailed outline on Samaritan history

4.         Ancient literary sources that mention the Samaritans

5.         The Text of the Samaritan Pentateuch is equal to the Masoretic and LXX

6.         Samaritan Messianic expectation at the time of Jesus

7.         Three Samaritan false messiahs at the time of Jesus

8.         Master summary of Variant in the Samaritan Pentateuch

a.         Ezra’s Variants:

                                                               i.      The “smoking gun” that Ezra changed the Hebrew text and not the Samaritans

                                                             ii.      Ezra’s Variant: Deut 27:4: Joshua’s Altar on Mt. Gerizim

                                                           iii.      Ezra’s Variant: Change of tense from past “has chosen” to future “will chose”

                                                           iv.      Ezra’s Variant: Lev 26:31 change of singular “sanctuary” to plural “sanctuaries” 

                                                             v.      Ezra’s Variant: Deut 11:30 Deleted words “opposite Shechem”

b.        Samaritan corrupted Genesis 11:32: The age of Terah at dead is reduced from 205 to 145 years

c.         Samaritan corrupted the Genesis 5 Chronology by reducing the age of the earth from 5554 BC to 4475 BC

d.        Samaritan Harmonising Alterations: 40 “SP Harmonizations” witnessed in Dead Sea Scrolls

e.        Samaritan “Harmonising Additions” in the Ten Commandments:

f.          Alleged Anthropomorphic representations of God removed by Samaritans

9.         Dead Sea Scrolls that validate the Samaritan Pentateuch:

a.         Dead Sea Scrolls that validate the Samaritan Pentateuch (SP) and Septuagint (LXX) against the (MT)

b.        Hebrew DSS that validate the Samaritan Pentateuch and LXX

c.         40 “SP Harmonizations” witnessed in Dead Sea Scrolls

d.        154 Dead Sea Scroll variants identical to SP & LXX against the MT

10.    471 LXX Verses Identical with SP and Different from MT

 

 

 

Preamble:

Its time to thank the Samaritans for their respect for scripture! The Samaritan Pentateuch (SP) is the oldest Paleo-Hebrew Bible manuscript in the world. Although the extant copy is 1065 AD the Samaritans acquired it from Josiah around 610 BC. Samaritan theology venerates Joshua’s altar on Mt. Gerizim at Shechem and rejects all scripture except for the first five books of Moses. (Torah). Although there are up to 6000 variants in the Samaritan Pentateuch when compared to the Masoretic, most of these are minor and orthographic which do not change the meaning like spelling, word forms and emphasis. Below, we have documented 665 of the most significant variants between the Samaritan Pentateuch (SP) and Masoretic Text (MT) where entire words or sentences are either changed, added or absent. Yet the Samaritan Pentateuch agrees in these 665 places with the Septuagint (LXX) and/or the Dead Sea scrolls (DSS) but disagrees against the Masoretic Text 100% of the time! Specifically, there are 471 verses where the Samaritan Pentateuch (SP) and Septuagint (LXX) are identical but different from Masoretic Text (MT). There are 154 Dead Sea Scroll verses that are identical with the Samaritan Pentateuch against the Masoretic Text, 89 of the 154 are identical to both the Samaritan Pentateuch (SP) and the Septuagint (LXX) against the Masoretic Text (MT). There are 40 Samaritan Pentateuch Harmonizations (text from one location in the Torah replicated into a new second location) also witnessed in Dead Sea Scrolls against both the Septuagint (LXX) and the Masoretic Text (MT).

 

“Raphael Weiss, the brilliant scholar of the relation between the LXX Greek translation of the Pentateuch and the SP, discovered, after relentless counting, that in 1,900 differences of the LXX from the MT the text of the LXX is identical with the SP. There are some 6,000 differences between the SP and MT, approximately 50 percent of them orthographic, so it remains that the 1,900 differences between LXX and MT are in the actual text and style of the writing. This means that the LXX is much closer to the SP than to the MT. This leads to the conclusion that the translators of the LXX had before them, among many of the most ancient manuscripts of the Pentateuch up until their time (the third century B.C.E.), texts that were closer in content to the SP and were likely similar to those found in Qumran Cave 4, written in the same script that Jewish writers called "Samaritan Hebrew." Scholars call these manuscripts "Proto-Samaritan" or "Pseudo-Samaritan." These texts from Qumran, and undoubtedly the earlier texts that were in the hands of the LXX translators, are the earliest texts of the Pentateuch in use in ancient times that are known today. Thus, the SP presents the earliest known text of the Pentateuch. One final suggestion: It is more logical that a group of people who always lived in the same place from the time that the Pentateuch was first written till the present would be less likely to alter the Pentateuch in their possession, in comparison to others who left and were dispersed amidst many cultures throughout the world.” (The Israelite Samaritan version of the Torah: First English translation compared with the Masoretic version, Benyamim Tsedaka, Sharon Sullivan, The First English Translation of the Israelite Samaritan Torah, Benyamim Tsedaka, p xxix, 2013 AD)

 

The most famous “variant” in the Samaritan Pentateuch is Deut 27:4 which reads that Joshua’s altar was to be built on Mt. Gerizim against both the Septuagint (LXX) and the Masoretic Text (MT). See: Deut 27:4: Joshua’s Altar on Mt. Gerizim. It was inevitable that the hated “pagan half-Jews” who rejected David, Jerusalem and the prophets would be universally accused of changing the text. But that all changed with the newly discovered Dead Sea Scroll fragment of Deuteronomy [27:4B-6] that reads that Joshua’s altar was on “Mt. Gerizim” not Mt Ebal. The “Mt. Gerizim” reading is also witnessed in the Vetus Latina (LV) [200AD] and Papyrus Giessen (PG) [475 AD]. It is unfortunate that the only other Dead Sea Scroll of Deut 27:4 has a lacuna (damaged) at the name of the mountain (DSS: 4Q33 Deuteronomy f). All this validates the Samaritan reading of “Mt. Gerizim” and points to Ezra in 458 BC who made the change from Gerizim to Ebal in one of a series of anti-Samaritan changes to the original text. Of course, the Septuagint (LXX) translators in 282 BC inherited the corrupt reading from Ezra which explains why the both the Septuagint (LXX) and Masoretic (MT) both read “Ebal”.

 

So the Samaritans have been wrongly accused of changing the text of their Bible to support their anti-Jerusalem ideology until the recent discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls. We now know that an entire collection of variants that support Samaritan theology favoring Mt. Gerizim and Shechem as God’s holy mountain are the original readings changed by Ezra in 458 BC to eliminate the erroneous (and irritating) Samaritan proof texting. The fact that the Samaritans routinely engaged in what are called “Harmonising Alterations” between two similar texts but left Leviticus 21:23 untouched to read “sanctuaries”, (a reading that hurts their pro-Shechem theology) is a monument to their overall respect for scripture and more importantly, is the smoking gun that the Jews, not the Samaritans changed the text of the Torah.

 

The Samaritan Pentateuch retains the original reading against the LXX and MT

4 Ant-Samaritan variants created

by Ezra in 458 BC.

1.         Deut 27:4: Joshua’s Altar on Mt. Gerizim

2.         Change of tense from past “has chosen” to future “will chose”

3.         Lev 26:31 change of singular “sanctuary” to plural “sanctuaries”

4.         Deut 11:30 Deleted words “opposite Shechem”

 

The Samaritans weren’t perfect angels because we know they deliberately changed the text of the Genesis 5 chronology and Genesis 11:32. The unique SP chronology in Gen 5 and Terah living 145 years is not witnessed in any other known literary source except the Samaritan Pentateuch. For reasons not understood at present (but we are working on it) the Samaritans fudged the numbers in the Genesis 5 chronology which reduced the age of the earth by 949 years. (LXX vs. SP) While the Gen 11 chronology is almost identical to the Septuagint (LXX) and Josephus, but very different from the Masoretic Text (MT).

The Samaritans did reduce the life span of Terah from 205 to 145 years in a misguided effort to solve an apparent contradiction that Abraham was born when Terah was 75. This was solved in Acts 7:4 where Terah’s begetting age was 130 not 70 years old when Abraham was born. While the many ancient literary sources wrongly viewed Terah’s age as 70 when Abraham was born, including the Book of Jubilees (170 BC), Josephus (70 AD) , Seder Olam Rabbah (160 AD) and Augustine (400 AD), none dare change the lifespan of Terah of 205 total years lived.

 

The “Cainan conundrum” is also unsolved: The Genesis 5 chronology of the Samaritan Pentateuch (SP) skips “Cainan” in agreement with both Josephus (who used a Hebrew text) and the Masoretic Text (MT) against the both the Septuagint (LXX) and the New Testament in Luke 3:36 which includes “Cainan”. Perhaps the original text of the Septuagint also skipped “Cainan” which latter Christians added into Genesis 5 BECAUSE of its inspired inclusion in Luke 3:36. This would be an example of a Christian using the common Jewish and Samaritan first century practice of Harmonising Alterations because inspired text from Lk 3:36 was replicated into Genesis 5. If Christians did add “Cainan” to the Greek text, it follows a common historic practice of both Samaritans and Jews also engaging in similar “Harmonising Alterations”. No Dead Sea Scrolls have been found of either Gen 5 or 11 so until we do, the “Cainan conundrum” remains a mystery. 

 

The Samaritans not only made “Harmonising Alterations” they also made “Harmonising Additions”. The Samaritans are accused making “Harmonising Additions” by copying large chunks of text from Deuteronomy and replicating it in both Exodus and Numbers in their Samaritan Pentateuch. An important specific example of making “Harmonising Additions” is seen in the content and organization of the 10 commandments in both Exodus 20 and Deut 5. In Exodus 20:13-23, the Samaritan Pentateuch copies 5 different chunks of text from Deuteronomy (Deut 27:2-7; 11:30; 5:24–27; 4:40; 18:18-22; 5:30-31) and splices them into the Ten Commandments. In Deut 5:18-19 the Samaritan Pentateuch copies 2 different chunks of text from Deuteronomy (Deut 27:2-7; 11:30) and weaves them into the Ten Commandments. Remember, there are no actual changes in the Bible text of the Ten Commandments, just new text is added/replicated from other places in the Torah. Yet these same “Harmonising Additions” are witnessed in Jewish Hebrew Dead Sea Scrolls like 4QpaleoExodm, 4QNumb, and 4QDeutn and 4QReworked Pentateucha. Again we are left to wonder if the Samaritans ADDED the text or Ezra DELETED it in 458 BC! The worst the Samaritans can be found guilty of is added the construction of Joshua’s Altar on Mt. Gerizim from Deut 27:4 into the of text of the 10th commandment. In other words, Thou Shalt not kill and Thou shalt build an altar on Mt. Gerizim! But again, they did not invent new scripture, they merely copied it from Deut 27:4 and inserted it into the 10th commandment.

 

The origin of Synagogues date back to the initial distribution of the Septuagint after it was translated in 282 BC. From about 250 BC down to 70 AD the Jews practiced a dichotomous religion, opposite in almost every way, through Temple worship in Jerusalem and the 480 Synagogues also in Jerusalem for weekly Sabbath worship. After 70 AD Temple worship went irrevocably extinct and all the Jews were left with was synagogue worship, which is a mirror image of the Christian church in work, worship and function. For 2000 years the Jews have been worshipping in Synagogues for which there is zero Torah authority or example in the Tanakh but Samaritans are the only religious group on earth to have continued Mosaic temple worship. While they have the wrong temple on Mt. Gerizim, they otherwise practice the ancient Mosaic sacrificial law. Today, it is the Samaritans who are closer to Moses, not the Jews in their synagogues.  

 

WHO HAS CHANGED? Scholars conclude that the Israelite Samaritan pronunciation of Hebrew has not changed since the Second Temple period, and likewise the cantillation of their vocalizations remains unique. The Samaritans have maintained the Passover sacrifice without change since the time of the exodus, beginning their calendar in the Spring as specified in the Pentateuch (Exod. 12:2). They have made their pilgrimages for the three main festivals to Mount Gerizim without change since ancient times. They enter their synagogue barefoot, as instructed in the Torah (Exod. 3:5), covering their heads while entering the holy place, wearing special clothes on their Sabbaths — as since ancient times. They write in a form of ancient Hebrew script, as found in some of the Dead Sea Scrolls. They keep the laws of impurity and have done so since ancient times, insisting on total separation of the husband from his wife when she is impure. These facts lead to the next question in regard to the two versions of the Torah: If indeed the Samaritans have never changed most of the original customs throughout the ages, did they preserve the ancient text better than other Israelite groups who have altered most of their customs?” (The Israelite Samaritan version of the Torah: First English translation compared with the Masoretic version, Benyamim Tsedaka, Sharon Sullivan, The First English Translation of the Israelite Samaritan Torah, Benyamim Tsedaka, p xxx, 2013 AD)

 

So we need to thank the ancient Samaritans for their high respect for scripture and perhaps forgive them of their historic trespasses. Without them, we would not be in possession of the oldest paleo-Hebrew Torah on earth.

 

We know the Samaritans at the time of Christ accepted the widely believed eschatological view that there was 6000 year limit for the age of the earth followed by the coming of the “prophet” who executes judgement, defeat of enemies and eternal blessing. Using only the Torah, there are only three Messianic passages to instruct the Samaritans about the coming messiah: Genesis 3:15; Numbers 24:17; Deuteronomy 18:18–19. While there were differences in details with the Jews of how the Samaritans viewed the coming Messiah, the Samaritans shared a common expectation which Jesus of Nazareth fit perfectly. The inspired record in John 4 of the messianic expectation of the woman at the well in John 4 demonstrated four key points of Samaritan belief:

1.       An anointed one (Messiah) Jn 4:29 + Numbers 24:17

2.       A prophet Jn 4:19 + Deut 18:18

3.       A proclaimer of truth: John 4:25-26 + Deut 18:18

4.       A savior of the world to crush enemies: John 4:42 + Numbers 24:17

 

This messianic expectation among the Samaritans is further proven by the rise of three exclusively SAMARITAN false messiahs:

1.       30 AD: Dositheus the Samaritan, (Tertullian, Adv. omn. haer. 1, 200 AD)

2.       36 AD: “Simon Magus” the sorcerer of Acts 8 36 AD: Acts 8:5–11

3.       36 AD: Unnamed False Messiah (Josephus, Antiquities 18.84-89, 36 AD)

 

The New testament records large numbers of Samaritans converting to Jesus in John 4 and Acts 8.

 

As of 1 January 2017, there are only 796 Samaritans living in the world who are lost without any hope except mass conversion to Jesus Christ as their messianic saviour.

 

If you are a Samaritan, click here to find a good church for you to attend, learn about your saviour Jesus Christ and be immersed in water in the name of Jesus for the remission of your sins.

 

Steve Rudd Nov 2017

 

 

I. Quick facts about Samaritan Pentateuch (SP):

1.         The Samaritan Pentateuch is found in four ancient manuscripts:

a.           1065 AD: Abisha Scroll is the most prized Torah scroll of the Samaritans housed in the synagogue at Nablus.

b.          “This translation is based on four ancient thirteenth century C.E. Samaritan manuscripts of the Samaritan Pentateuch copied by Abu al-Barakat: two Mount Gerizim Synagogue manuscripts copied in 1199 and 1210 C.E., the third at the National Library, Jerusalem, copied in 1215 C.E., and the fourth manuscript, no. 751, at the Chester Beatty Library in Dublin, Ireland, copied in 1225 C.E. This translation is also based on the present oral reading of the Samaritans and the reading published by Zeev Ben-Hayyim in his phonetic edition.” (The Israelite Samaritan version of the Torah: First English translation compared with the Masoretic version, Benyamim Tsedaka, Sharon Sullivan, The First English Translation of the Israelite Samaritan Torah, Benyamim Tsedaka, p xxv, 2013 AD)

c.           The manuscript most venerated by the Samaritans, from which all other copies are reported to originate, is the Abisha Scroll, housed in the synagogue at Nablus. This scroll presents itself as written by Abisha, son of Pinhas, son of Eleazar, son of Aaron, in the thirteenth year after the Israelites entered the land of Canaan. Its reputed antiquity, traced back to the very earliest days of the Israelite experience, gives the scroll a place of honor within the Samaritan community. Unfortunately, modern scholarship has been unable to substantiate this claim of the scroll’s ancientness. Although the scroll gives the appearance of “great antiquity” and the scribal notation dates the scroll to 1065 c.e., a significant portion of modern research dates the scroll to no earlier than the middle of the twelfth century c.e. Even if it cannot be attributed to the great-grandson of Aaron, the scroll’s great age and its special place within the Samaritan community make the scroll worthy of high regard.” (Tradition Kept: The Literature of the Samaritans, R. Anderson, Giles, p11, 2005 AD)

2.         The Samaritan Pentateuch or Samaritan Torah (Gen, Ex, Lev, Num, Deut) is the only books in the Bible that the Samaritans consider inspired. The Samaritans reject Joshua to Malachi as scripture but us the first five books of Moses exclusively.

3.         It is both the ONLY and the OLDEST Paleo-Hebrew bible manuscript of the Torah known to exist on earth apart from a few Dead Sea scroll fragments.

4.         The Samaritans acquired their copy from Josiah after he found the book of the law (Torah) in 723 AD.

5.         The Samaritan Pentateuch is closer in text to the Septuagint (LXX) than the Masoretic text. (MT)

6.         Unique readings and organization of the Samaritan Pentateuch have been validated by Hebrew Dead Sea Scrolls.

7.         The Samaritan made fewer changes in their Bible over time than the Jews did like Ezra in 458 BC at Jerusalem and Rabbi Yose ben Halafta in 160 AD at Zippori.

8.         The Samaritan Pentateuch is an equal witness to the autograph word of God as the Septuagint (LXX) than the Masoretic text. (MT).

9.         The Samaritan Pentateuch’s reading at Deut 27:4 that Joshua’s Altar was build on Mt. Gerizim is the original reading. The text was changed to read “on Mt. Ebal” by Ezra to counter Samaritan claims that Gerizim, not Jerusalem was God’s holy Mountain. See:  Deut 27:4: Joshua’s Altar on Mt. Gerizim.

a.           “This new discovery from Qumran, and the fact that the same reading for Deut. 27:4-6 occurs also in Vetus Latina as well as in the Samariticon, the Greek translation of the Samaritan Pentateuch, leads the translator to suggest that "in Mount Gerizim" should no longer be considered a "Samaritan correction" but should be regarded as an original Israelite text, dating many hundreds of years before the rise of the Jewish-Samaritan polemics of the Second Temple period. Regarding the close relationship between the Samaritan Pentateuch and some of the Dead Sea Scrolls, Martin Abegg explains that the 4QpaleoExod(m) reading of Exod. 6:25 is "the most extensive witness to the book of Exodus. Besides being written in Paleo Hebrew, it is important because it introduces passages from Numbers and Deuteronomy. Before the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, we had known this practice only from the later manuscripts of the Samaritan Pentateuch. 4QpaleoExod(m) thus forms an early witness to the form of the Bible that was later adopted by the Samaritan community.” (The Israelite Samaritan version of the Torah: First English translation compared with the Masoretic version, Benyamim Tsedaka, Sharon Sullivan, The First English Translation of the Israelite Samaritan Torah, Benyamim Tsedaka, p xxv, 2013 AD)

b.          The second option is to assume that this fragment preserves the original reading. Thus, some scribe changed "Ebal" to "Gerizim." Not knowing the newly recovered fragment shown earlier but well aware of the Old Greek and Old Latin readings as well as the MT, Magnar Kartveit states: "The conclusion is that the `Gerizim' in Deut. 27:4 is older than the reading `Ebal' of the MT." In exploring these options, two categories should be distinguished: fragments of the Samaritan Pentateuch and fragments of manuscripts that preserve Samaritan readings (and may be pre-Samaritan). One should distinguish between a copy of the Samaritan Pentateuch and old readings (known in the Samaritan Pentateuch and reflected often in the LXX and elsewhere) that appear in pre-70 AD Hebrew scrolls. Hence, "Proto-Samaritan Texts" should be defined as manuscripts preserving textual traditions that are not caused by Samaritan editing and appear not only in the Samaritan Pentateuch but also in some Qumran biblical manuscripts, namely 4QpaleoExodm;16 4QNumb;17 41158; and 4Q364.18 These manuscripts are not portions of the Samaritan Pentateuch, because they do not contain the Samaritan redactional features of the Pentateuch. The study of the transmission of the Pentateuch indicates that Samaritans and other early Jews shared an early stage of traditions and Scripture. We should keep in focus the possibility that a manuscript with a reading found in the Samaritan Pentateuch may not be the result of editing by Samaritans; it may represent an early reading. Thus, the MT and other related text types may represent redactions by others, notably Jews in Judea, especially after the burning of the Samaritan "altar" by John Hyrcanus in the late second century B.C.E. … I suggest that our fragment preserves the original reading and indicates that the MT and related textual traditions reflect alterations.” (The Israelite Samaritan version of the Torah: First English translation compared with the Masoretic version, Benyamim Tsedaka, Sharon Sullivan, What Is the Samaritan Pentateuch?, James H. Charlesworth, p xix, 2013 AD)

10.    The “smoking gun” that Ezra changed the Hebrew text and not the Samaritans, is Ezra’s variant in Lev 26:31 that changes the singular “sanctuary” to plural “sanctuaries”. The Samaritans used this verse to prove that ONE and only ONE sanctuary (singular) was Joshua’s Altar, the FIRST sanctuary after crossing the Jordan.  

a.           The importance of the plural “sanctuaries” in Leviticus 21:23 in the Samaritan Pentateuch cannot be understated in proving the Samaritans did not make these changes in their scripture but the Jews changed theirs to counter Samaritan theology against Jerusalem.

b.          Before Ezra changed the text, one verse was read “Sanctuary-Singular” in Lev 26:31 and a second verse that read “Sanctuaries-plural” in Lev 21:23. Ezra only needed to change one text (Lev 26:31) so that BOTH texts were plural.

c.           Ezra changed the text to “sanctuaries – plural” so that Joshua’s Altar, Shiloh and Jerusalem were ALL foreseen as the place where “God’s name resided’”.

d.          This supposedly nullified the Samaritan claim that ONLY Shechem (Joshua’s Altar) was a holy place for God’s name.

e.           All Ezra needed to do is make one change to cut off the Samaritan argument in Lev 26:31 and justify it by saying “I am only making the two texts agree with each other.”

f.            The fact that the Samaritans routinely engaged in what are called “Harmonising Alterations” between two similar texts but left Leviticus 21:23 untouched to read “sanctuaries”, (a reading that hurts their pro-Shechem theology) is a monument to their overall  respect for scripture.

Who changed the Scripture?

If the Samaritans changed the text from plural to singular in Lev 26:31, they would also have changed Lev 21:23 which reads plural in the Samaritan Pentateuch to this very day!

 

"only he shall not go in to the veil or come near the altar because he has a defect, that he will not profane My sanctuaries. For I am the Shehmaa [Lord] who sanctifies them. (Leviticus 21:21-23, SP)

Ezra changed the Scripture!

 

11.    Ancient Literary references to Samaritans:

a.           175 BC: "My soul was irritated by two nations, and the third is not a nation: those who sit on the mountain of Samaria, Phylistieim, and the stupid people who dwell in Shechem." (Sirach 50:25–26, 175 BC)

b.          124 BC: "He also left magistrates to afflict the nation. In Jerusalem he left Philip from the Phrygian nation, but he had a more barbarous manner than the one who appointed him. In Gerizim he left Andronicus, and with these Menelaus, more wicked than the others. He lorded it over the citizens and had a hateful disposition toward the Judean citizens." (2 Maccabees 5:22–23, 124 BC)

c.           111 BC: Hycranus destroys the Samaritan temple: “But when Hyrcanus heard of the death of Antiochus he presently made an expedition against the cities of Syria, hoping to find them destitute of fighting men, and of such as were able to defend them. (255) However, it was not till the sixth month that he took Medaba, and that not without the greatest distress of his army. After this he took Samega, and the neighboring places; and, besides these, Shechem and Gerizzim, and the nation of the Cutheans, (256) who dwelt at the temple which resembled that temple which was at Jerusalem, and which Alexander permitted Sanballat, the general of his army, to build for the sake of Manasseh, who was son-in-law to Jadua the high priest, as we have formerly related; which temple was now deserted two hundred years after it was built.” (Josephus Antiquities 13.254–256, destruction of Samaritan temple in 111 BC, 70 AD)

d.          100 BC Dead Sea Scroll: “God, and Judah as well, together with him, and he stood at a crossroads, to d[o …] 10 to be together with his two brothers. And while all this happened, Joseph was thrown into lands which he did not kn[ow …] 11 among a foreign people, and they were scattered in the whole world. All their mountains were deserted by them … [… and fools (?) …] 12 and building a high place for themselves on a high mountain to arouse the jealousy of Israel. And they spoke with wor[ds of …] 13 the sons of Jacob, and they terrified (them) with the words from their mouths, blaspheming against the tent of Zion; they spoke [false words and all …] 14 and deceitful words, they spoke them to anger Levi, Judah and Benjamin with their words. And while all this happened, Joseph [was delivered] 15 into the hand of foreigners who consumed his strength and broke all his bones up the time of his end. And he became wear[y …] 16 and he summoned the powerful God to save him from their hands.” (Dead Sea Scroll: 4Q372, [4QapocrJosephb, 4QApocryphon of Josephb] Frag. 1:10-16, 100 BC)

12.    The Samaritan Pentateuch is as important as the Masoretic or Septuagint:

a.       “The Samaritan Pentateuch is one such text, with an ancient history of competition with the Jewish Masoretic Text.  It contains many similarities to the Septuagint and the Dead Sea Scrolls.  In addition, the Samaritan Pentateuch offers new perspectives on problematic Biblical passages.  Far too often the Samaritan Pentateuch is relegated to an inferior position, designated as a borrowed and edited text of the Jews.  The Septuagint, a Greek translation composed around the second century BCE, actually shares over 6000 commonalities with the Samaritan Pentateuch and less with the Jewish Masoretic Text.” (Variants in the Samaritan Pentateuch of the Hebrew Bible as Compared to the Masoretic Text, Sharon Sullivan Dufour, Senior Honors Theses 247, 2009 AD)

b.      “Scholars are beginning to note that the Samaritan Pentateuch represents ancient readings that should be included in the study of the biblical text. What were dismissed as late and secondary readings in the Samaritan Pentateuch sometimes can be seen in Qumran biblical texts.” (The Israelite Samaritan version of the Torah: First English translation compared with the Masoretic version, Benyamim Tsedaka, Sharon Sullivan, What Is the Samaritan Pentateuch?, James H. Charlesworth, p xvi, 2013 AD)

c.       “The pre-Samaritan texts lack the distinguishing Samaritan characteristics, that is, the ideological and phonological changes. However, they share linguistic corrections, harmonizations in minutiae, and various readings with SP.” (The Israelite Samaritan version of the Torah: First English translation compared with the Masoretic version, Benyamim Tsedaka, Sharon Sullivan, Foreword, Emanuel Tov, p xi, 2013 AD)

d.      “Recently, in conversation with Michael Corinaldi that took place in October 2008, following his massive comparative research of the text of the Torah from Qumran along with the new discovery of Deut. 27:4-6, Shemaryahu Talmon changed his view of the SP to accept the necessity of giving the same respect to the SP and MT. The discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls renewed the debate among scholars, due to the fact that in Qumran Cave 4 were discovered ancient fragments identical in textual structure to the Samaritan Pentateuch, especially many fragments of the book of Exodus. As well, many fragments were identical with the version of the Greek Septuagint, the "Translation of the Seventy.".” (The Israelite Samaritan version of the Torah: First English translation compared with the Masoretic version, Benyamim Tsedaka, Sharon Sullivan, The First English Translation of the Israelite Samaritan Torah, Benyamim Tsedaka, p xxi, 2013 AD)

e.      “There is no doubt that this distinct version of the Israelite Samaritan Torah originated during the most ancient period of the people of Israel.” (The Israelite Samaritan version of the Torah: First English translation compared with the Masoretic version, Benyamim Tsedaka, Sharon Sullivan, The First English Translation of the Israelite Samaritan Torah, Benyamim Tsedaka, p xxi, 2013 AD)

 

 

 

II. Brief chronological summary of Samaritan History:

1.      See also: Detailed outline on Samaritan history

2.      723 BC: Assyrian captivity of 723 BC

3.      670 BC: ORIGIN OF THE SAMARITAN PEOPLE: Mix of YHWH and Idolatry worship

4.      623 BC: Abisha Torah Scroll: 1065 AD: The Samaritan priest at Bethel acquires a Paleo-Hebrew copy of the Torah from Jerusalem.

a.       The Samaritans got a copy of the paleo Hebrew Torah from Josiah after he found the book of the law in 623 BC. He was a good king and a reformer king. Surely, he would give a copy very willingly to anyone wanting to follow God and give up idolatry. At the time of Josiah there was really no difference in God’s eyes between the Judea Jews and the Samaritan/Assyrians because both worshipped YHWH and idols.

b.      JOSIAH FINDS LOST BOOK OF THE LAW: "Then Hilkiah the high priest said to Shaphan the scribe, “I have found the book of the law in the house of the Lord.” And Hilkiah gave the book to Shaphan who read it. Shaphan the scribe came to the king and brought back word to the king and said, “Your servants have emptied out the money that was found in the house, and have delivered it into the hand of the workmen who have the oversight of the house of the Lord.” Moreover, Shaphan the scribe told the king saying, “Hilkiah the priest has given me a book.” And Shaphan read it in the presence of the king. When the king heard the words of the book of the law, he tore his clothes. Then the king commanded Hilkiah the priest, Ahikam the son of Shaphan, Achbor the son of Micaiah, Shaphan the scribe, and Asaiah the king’s servant saying, “Go, inquire of the Lord for me and the people and all Judah concerning the words of this book that has been found, for great is the wrath of the Lord that burns against us, because our fathers have not listened to the words of this book, to do according to all that is written concerning us.”" (2 Kings 22:8–13)

5.      561-533 BC: The Great Samaritan conversion to Monotheism.

6.      536 BC: Decree of Cyrus to end captivity and allow Jews to return to Judea

7.      533 BC: Jews arrive in Jerusalem, rebuild the alter of burnt offerings on its old foundation and lay the foundation of the Temple in a smaller footprint size: Ezra 3:3-10

8.      533 BC: EZRA CREATES HIS OWN ENEMY: SAMARITAN VS. JEW WAR IS STARTED: Sincere Samaritans made a genuine offer to rebuilt the Jerusalem Temple but are rejected

9.      533 BC: SAMARITAN TEMPLE ON MT. GERIZIM BUILD:

10.  531-520 BC: Enemies, including the Samaritans, stop work on temple from time of Cyrus to 2nd year of Darius I: Ezra 4:4-7,24

11.  520 BC: The prophets Haggai and Zechariah order the Jews to resume building the temple: Ezra 5:1

12.  516 BC: Ezra 6:13-18: Jerusalem temple is completed

13.  486-465 BC: Ezra 4:6: Enemies hinder Jews rebuilding city of Jerusalem during the reign of Xerxes (Ahasuerus): 486-465 BC

14.  465 BC: Ezra 4:7-16: The Samaritans (in part, see Ezra 4:10) hinder Jews rebuilding city of Jerusalem during the reign of Artaxerxes I: 465-423 BC.

15.  465 BC: The Samaritan Jewish Torah wars become intense:

16.  458-445 BC: EZRA TRANSLATES PALEO-HEBREW BIBLE INTO “ARAMAIC HEBREW” MANUSCRIPTS AMONG THE JEWS:

17.  458-445 BC: EZRA creates minor variant changes in the text of the Torah to counter Samaritan arguments favoring Mt. Gerizim

18.  458 BC: Ezra was the resident expert on the Law of Moses with his brand new “Aramaic Hebrew” bible manuscripts

19.  445 BC: Neh 6:5: Jerusalem City walls rebuilt

20.  333 BC: Large number of Samaritans deported to Alexandria Egypt:

21.  333-323 BC: Samaritan temple on Mt. Gerizim rebuilt and enlarged:

22.  282 BC: The Septuagint Torah is translated from the Aramaic (square) Hebrew manuscript:

23.  250 BC: Samaritan Synagogue: Synagogue on Delos Island in Greece In 250 BC, the Samaritans built one of the earliest synagogues known to exist.

24.  150 BC: Samaritans begin to make three kinds of changes in the Samaritan Pentateuch:

25.  111 BC: Destruction of the Samaritan temple in 111 BC by John Hycranus: Josephus Antiquities 13.254–256

26.  30 AD: The Samaritans in the New Testament: Jn 4; Acts 8

27.  67 AD: 11,600 Samaritans at Mt. Gerizim are killed by the Romans: (Josephus Wars 3.307–315)

28.  See also: Detailed outline on Samaritan history

 

 

III. Messianic expectation among the Samaritans:

1.          The Samaritan Messianic expectation was a primitive and undeveloped concept that involved the return of a Moses like figure who would vindicate and sanctify the Mt. Gerizim temple of YHWH.

a.           In spite of not having the benefit of all the messianic information in the prophetic books they rejected (Jeremiah, Isaiah, Daniel etc) their view was more an sufficient to view Jesus as the exact object of their hope.

b.          The New testament records large numbers of Samaritans converting to Jesus in John 4 and Acts 8.

2.          Three Messianic passages in the Samaritan Torah:

a.           "And I will put enmity Between you and the woman, And between your seed and her seed; He shall bruise you on the head, And you shall bruise him on the heel.”" (Genesis 3:15)

b.          "I see him, but not now; I behold him, but not near; A star shall come forth from Jacob, A scepter shall rise from Israel, And shall crush through the forehead of Moab, And tear down all the sons of Sheth." (Numbers 24:17)

c.           "‘I will raise up a prophet from among their countrymen like you, and I will put My words in his mouth, and he shall speak to them all that I command him. ‘It shall come about that whoever will not listen to My words which he shall speak in My name, I Myself will require it of him." (Deuteronomy 18:18–19)

3.          The direct inspired record of the woman of the well of Jacob in Shechem (Nablus) indicates that the Samaritans were looking for four things:

a.           The coming of a figure prophesied in the Torah only: “Come, see a man who told me all the things that I have done; this is not the Christ, is it?”" (John 4:29)

b.          A prophet: “Sir, I perceive that You are a prophet.” Jn 4:19 + Deut 18:18

c.           One who would proclaim truth: "The woman said to Him, “I know that Messiah is coming (He who is called Christ); when that One comes, He will declare all things to us.” Jesus said to her, “I who speak to you am He.”" (John 4:25–26)

d.          A person who would save the world from being ruled by unbelievers: "and they were saying to the woman, “It is no longer because of what you said that we believe, for we have heard for ourselves and know that this One is indeed the Savior of the world.”" (John 4:42) + Numbers 24:17

4.          Samaritan Eschatology at the time of Jesus:

a.           We know that the eschatological 6000 year limit for the age of the earth followed by the coming of the “prophet” who executes judgement, defeat of enemies and eternal blessing was believed by the Samaritans at the time of Christ. The only difference is that the standard Jewish view was that the “days of the Messiah” would last 1000 years, whereas the Samaritans viewed it as a “second kingdom” of eternal blessing on earth.

b.          “Day of Vengeance and Recompense; Taheb; Ra’utah, and Fanutah: For the Samaritans, there are three great eras of history, the present era of divine disfavor sandwiched between two periods of divine favor. The original period of divine favor existed when the tabernacle was on Mount Gerizim in the early days of Palestinian settlement, a period of 260 years by Samaritan calculation. The period of divine disfavor (Fanutah) began when Eli moved the sanctuary to Shiloh. Samaritans now look forward to the Ra’utah, the return of God’s favor. A human figure, the Taheb, modeled on the promise of Deut 18:18, will be the harbinger of the new era. During the middle ages the concept of a Second Kingdom, political world dominion was added to the Ra’utah. Beyond that a cosmic eschatology has been added.” (The New Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible, Volume 5, Page 81, 2009 AD)

c.           “A useful guide to the nature of Samaritan eschatology is the subtitle of Gaster's Eschatology in which the nature of Samaritan eschatology is de-scribed as "The belief of the Samaritans in immortality, resurrection, future punishment and reward, the Taheb (the coming prophet) and the second Kingdom." (A Companion to Samaritan Studies, Alan D Crown, p86, 1983 AD)

d.          “Eschatology dominion to the concept of Rhwth (time of favour). … The term presupposes a First Kingdom. As for the beginning of the Second Kingdom it is brought into connection with the schema of the six thousand years of the duration of the world. In the anonymous, eleventh century work, the Asatir, the duration of the world is said to be six thousand years. The Pitron, a fifteenth century commentary on the Asatir, comments on this number as follows: "For from the beginning of the days of creation to the end there will be six thousand years. And the explanation of this is: From Adam until the Taheb will be six thousand years and the seventh thousand will be the Jubilee". It is self-evident that this 'world scheme' is not of Samaritan origin. Rabbinic sources are aware of it and it is to be noted both in bSanh. 97a and PRE 18(end). The six thousand year· scheme has obviously been adapted to Samaritan needs. Furthermore, through the harmonising of the three eschatological themes of Rhwth, Taheb and the Second Kingdom by late Samaritan theological thinking the Second Kingdom became an intermediate stage only. The Second Kingdom is thought of as a lasting, unspecified, earthly, universal, ideal realm. It thus becomes a link between the earthly and the cosmic eschatology.” (A Companion to Samaritan Studies, Alan D Crown, p86, 1983 AD)

5.          Samaritan Eschatology today:

a.           Present Samaritan theology differs markedly with that at the time of Jesus’ visit to Shechem and the woman at the well. A similar evolution of messianic theology has occurred among the Jews living today.

b.          “The Samaritan eschatological prophet is no kingly Messiah but is an eschatological salvation figure accumulating very many disparate expectations. According to the final systematization of Samaritan eschatology the millennium lies between the appearance of the Taheb, the end of the world, the resurrection and the Day of Vengeance. The time of the Taheb, the earthly eschatology, is characterized by several political expectations. The Hebrew language will be dominant whereas the language of the Arabs will be confused. This goes together with the liberation of the Samaritans from foreign oppression. There will be no more foreign rulers, but the Samaritans themselves will take over the government. Other peoples will become their subjects. Mt Gerizim will be liberated from foreign occupation and will regain its cultic purity. The goal of all of that is peace for the whole world and the glorification of the truth. As far as individual eschatology is concerned, the belief in individual life after death connected with punishment and reward is essential to Samaritan eschatology. This includes the belief in resurrection at a later stage of Samaritanism. The eschatological destination of the righteous and the wicked is seen to be different. It is in this respect that notions of Gan Eden and Gehinnom have a place in Samaritan eschatology. The final judgement will take place on the Day of Vengeance and Recompense. The innocent will pass into the Garden of Eden and the wicked will be burned in the fire. The 'fire' is the regular term for the place of eschatological punishment. It is interesting to note that the Samaritans do use the terms Gehin-nom and Sheol, the latter term appearing in the Samaritan Pentateuch whereas Gehinnom does not. Its om-mission may not be so surprising when one recalls that it originally designated a valley in Jerusalem. The word Gehinom is only used in late texts (e. g. the Hillukh) and it has the appearance of being used only as a superficial terminological assimilation to the Jewish and Christian usage. To a certain degree the same may be true of the name Sheol for it appears as the place for eschatological punishment no earlier than late medieval texts (e. g. the Hymn of Abisha). The Pentateuchal usage of Sheol does not yet include the connotation of eschatological punishment. The late, but apparently full terminological agreement with what is found in the intertestamental period does not permit the conclusion that these very detailed notions are quite so old among the Samaritans. On the contrary, the late use of this terminology would rather point to the fact that Samaritanism, due to the time of its origin, did not follow the specific developments of the Jewish creed which, ultimately, were adopted by Rabbinic Judaism and Christianity. Gan Eden is conceived as the eschatological habitat designed for the righteous. In eschatological geography it is Mt Gerizim with which the future, like the lost paradise, is connected.” (A Companion to Samaritan Studies, Alan D Crown, p87, 1983 AD)

6.          Further study:

a.           See full outline on Jewish messianic expection at the time of Christ 

b.          See: Messianic expectation in Dead Sea scrolls and coins

 

 

IV. Three False Samaritan Messiahs at the time of Christ:

1.       Dositheus the Samaritan 30 AD:

a.         After having thus examined our Document in its entirety, we can only arrive at the one conclusion that the messianic pronunciamento and the constitution we have before us in fragmentary form emanated from the immediate followers of Dositheus, the Samaritan heresiarch, who claimed to be the Messiah from the Samaritan line of the Zadokite priesthood and was declared to be “the only teacher of righteousness” (Zedek), as he wanted to have the law restored in full conformity with the view and tradition of the Zadokite priesthood. While in accord with the Samaritan views in the main, he differs from them particularly in regard to the prophetic books, which he recognizes as more or less inspired, rejecting merely the Judaic hopes founded on the Davidic dynasty, while at the same time he makes ample use of the pseudepigraphic literature that seems then to have been widely read, but was lost sight of thereafter in the rabbinic schools.” (The American Journal of Theology, Volume XV, Nos. 1–4, p 431, 1911 AD)

b.        “DOSITHEUS, dō-sith′e-ʊs*, THE SAMARITAN: A false Messiah among the Samaritans, and founder of a religious sect. Very little is known of him; and the uncertainty of the reports is increased by his being confounded with an older Dositheus, the teacher of Zadok, who founded the sect of the Sadducees. He was probably a contemporary of Jesus, or perhaps a little later. In those days of great religious excitement he presented himself to the Samaritans as the prophet promised in Deut. 18:18 (which passage, according to Samaritan doctrine, is the only true Messianic prophecy ever given) and as the Son of God” (The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia, Volume 3, Page 495, 1914 AD)

c.         Origen (ca. 185–ca. 254), dating Dositheus the Samaritan in the time of the apostles and of Simon Magus, writes that the Dositheans are named after him. Like Simon the Magician, Dositheus performed magic and considered himself either the “Son of God” or the “Christ prophesied by Moses.” The latter may be a reference to Deut. 18:15” (The Samaritans: A Profile, R. Pummer, p 125, 2016 AD)

d.        Of which heretics I will (to pass by a good deal) summarize some few particulars. For of Judaism’s heretics I am silent—Dositheus the Samaritan, I mean, who was the first who had the hardihood to repudiate the prophets, on the ground that they had not spoken under inspiration of the Holy Spirit.” (Tertullian, Adv. omn. haer. 1, 200 AD)

e.        “Nay, he who carefully considers (the famous injunction relating to) the Sabbath, “Ye shall sit each one in your dwellings: let no one go out from his place on the seventh day,” will deem it impossible to be literally observed: for no living being is able to sit throughout a whole day, and remain without moving from a sitting position. And therefore those who belong to the circumcision, and all who desire that no meaning should be exhibited, save the literal one, do not investigate at all such subjects as those of the goat-stag and griffin and vulture, but indulge in foolish talk on certain points, multiplying words and adducing tasteless12 traditions; as, for example, with regard to the Sabbath, saying that two thousand cubits is each one’s limit. Others, again, among whom is Dositheus the Samaritan, condemning such an interpretation, think that in the position in which a man is found on the Sabbath-day, he is to remain until evening. Moreover, the not carrying of a burden on the Sabbath-day is an impossibility; and therefore the Jewish teachers have fallen into countless absurdities, saying that a shoe of such a kind was a burden, but not one of another kind; and that a sandal which had nails was a burden, but not one that was without them; and in like manner what was borne on one shoulder (was a load), but not that which was carried on both.” (Origen, De princ. 4.1.17, 200 AD)

2.       “Simon Magus” the sorcerer of Acts 8 in 36 AD

a.         "Philip went down to the city of Samaria [likely Nablus, not Sebastes which was pagan Gentile not Samaritan] and began proclaiming Christ to them. ... Now there was a man named Simon, who formerly was practicing magic in the city and astonishing the people of Samaria, claiming to be someone great [Magnus]; and they all, from smallest to greatest, were giving attention to him, saying, “This man is what is called the Great Power of God.” And they were giving him attention because he had for a long time astonished them with his magic arts." (Acts 8:5–11)

3.       Unnamed False Messiah in 36 AD

a.         The timing is the same time of the great persecution and scattering of Acts 8:1-4

b.        This man lived in the same place and time of Simon the Sorcerer of Acts 8

c.         A man rises and speaks lies to the Samaritans, claiming to be “the coming one”, a prophet and will show them the original sacred vessels of Moses.

d.        Unnamed Samaritan messiah 36 AD: “But the nation of the Samaritans did not escape without tumults. The man [false messiah] who excited them to it, was one who thought lying a thing of little consequence [spoke lies], and who contrived everything so, that the multitude might be pleased [attracted a great following]; so he bade them get together upon Mount Gerizzim, which is by them looked upon as the most holy of all mountains, and assured them that, when they were come thither, he would show them those sacred vessels which were laid under that place, because Moses put them there. (86) So they came thither armed, and thought the discourse of the man probable; and as they abode at a certain village, which was called Tirathaba, they got the rest together to them, and desired to go up the mountain in a great multitude together. (87) But Pilate prevented their going up, by seizing upon the roads with a great band of horsemen and footmen, who fell upon those that were gotten together in the village; and when they came to an action, some of them they slew, and others of them they put to flight, and took a great many alive, the principal of whom, and also the most potent of those that fled away, Pilate ordered to be slain. 2. (88) But when this tumult was appeased, the Samaritan senate sent an embassy to Vitellius, a man that had been consul, and who was now president of Syria, and accused Pilate of the murder of those that were killed; for that they did not go to Tirathaba in order to revolt from the Romans, but to escape the violence of Pilate. (89) So Vitellius sent Marcellus, a friend of his, to take care of the affairs of Judea, and ordered Pilate to go to Rome, to answer before the emperor to the accusation of the Jews. So Pilate, when he had tarried ten years in Judea, made haste to Rome, and this in obedience to the orders of Vitellius, which he durst not contradict; but before he could get to Rome, Tiberius was dead.” (Josephus, Antiquities 18.84-89, 36 AD)

 

 

 

V. Master Summary list of Variants in the Samaritan Pentateuch (SP vs. LXX vs. MT)

1.       Discussion:

a.       “It seems that the Samaritans made but few ideological and phonological changes to the presumed base text. All other characteristics of SP were already found in early texts such as the so-called pre-Samaritan Qumran texts. At the same time, SP also differs in small details from these Qumran texts. The paucity of information on the pre-Samaritan texts does not allow us to make precise statements on all the types of differences. What characterized the ancient scribes of SP and the pre-Samaritan texts is the freedom with which they approached the biblical text during the last pre-Christian centuries as opposed to the tradition of meticulous copying that characterized other texts. In contrast, at a second stage, after the content of the Samaritan tradition had been fixed, SP was copied with great precision, like the texts belonging to the MT group.” (The Israelite Samaritan version of the Torah: First English translation compared with the Masoretic version, Benyamim Tsedaka, Sharon Sullivan, Foreword, Emanuel Tov, p viii, 2013 AD)

b.      “The so-called pre-Samaritan texts are not Samaritan documents, as they lack the specifi­cally Samaritan readings. In our view, the pre-Samaritan texts formed a relatively siz­able group that may well have been a popular textual tradition of the Torah used in an­cient Israel in the last pre-Christian centuries in addition to texts of the MT family. It is reflected in 4QpaleoExodm, 4QExod-Levf, 4QNumb and secondarily also 4QDeutn and possibly 4CLLevd (it is also found in a recently found fragment of Deut. 27:4-6 that is still under investigation). It is also reflected in 4QRPa (4Q158) and 4QRPb (4Q364), which were previously considered to be rewritten Bible texts, and it is used by 4QTest (4Q175) in the quotation from Exodus and by the author of the Jubilees manuscripts. The best-preserved pre-Samaritan text is 4QpaleoExodm, of which large sections of forty-four columns from Exodus 6-37 have been preserved. Significant sections of several additional texts have also been found.” (The Israelite Samaritan version of the Torah: First English translation compared with the Masoretic version, Benyamim Tsedaka, Sharon Sullivan, Foreword, Emanuel Tov, p x, 2013 AD)

2.       Anti-Samaritan Variants by Ezra in 458 BC against both the LXX and MT. (Remember, the Septuagint was translated from the Hebrew text in 282 BC that also contained Ezra’s variants.

a.       Ezra’s Variant: Deut 27:4: Joshua’s Altar on Mt. Gerizim: Variant at Deut 27:4: The substitution by Ezra in 458 BC of the original Mt. Gerizim for Mt. Ebal as the location of Joshua’s altar. (Mt. Gerizim is witnessed in the newly discovered fragment of Deuteronomy [27:4B-6] that places Joshua`s altar on Mt. Gerizim [100 BC], Vetus Latina (LV) [200AD], Papyrus Giessen (PG) [475 AD].

b.      Ezra’s Variant: Change of tense from past “has chosen” to future “will chose”: Variant: The meaningless and irrelevant change by Ezra in 458 BC of tense from past “has chosen” to future “will chose” (a place for the name of God to dwell) in 21 places: Deut 12:5, 11, 14, 18, 21, 26; 14:23, 24, 25; 15:20; 16:2, 6, 7, 11, 15, 16; 17:8, 10; 18:6; 26:2; 31:11.

                                                               i.      God’s foreknowledge clearly chose Jerusalem at the time of Abraham. God could choose in the future Gerizim, Shiloh where God’s name dwelt for 305 years: Jeremiah 7:12, Gibeon, Nob, Jerusalem, the church, the Heavenly Jerusalem

                                                             ii.      “Closely connected with this addition are various alterations in Deuteronomy where the characteristic expression "the place which the Lord your God will choose" is changed to "the place which the Lord your God has chosen" (e.g., Deut 12:10,11). From the Samaritan perspective, Shechem was already the chosen place in the time of Abraham, whereas from the historical perspective of Deuteronomy, the choice of God's place (Jerusalem) yet lay in the future, after the conquest of the land and the election of David.” (A Companion to Samaritan Studies, Alan D Crown, p182, 1983 AD)

c.       Ezra’s Variant: Lev 26:31 change of singular “sanctuary” to plural “sanctuaries”: Variant: Lev 26:31 The meaningless and irrelevant change by Ezra in 458 BC of plural “sanctuaries” to singular “sanctuary”. (Singular is wrong since God chose his sanctuary to dwell at Shiloh for 305 years before Jerusalem: Jeremiah 7:12)

d.      Ezra’s Variant: Deut 11:30 Deleted words “opposite Shechem”: Variant: Deut 11:30 The meaningless deletion of the words “opposite Shechem” by Ezra in 458 BC. (Judges 9:7 clearly identifies Mt. Gerizim beside Shechem.)

3.       Samaritan corrupted Genesis 11:32: The age of Terah at dead is reduced from 205 to 145 years.

a.       While the numbers in the MT show that Terah was 130 when Abraham was born and that Abraham left Haran at age 75 after Terah died at age 205, the Jews incorrectly interpreted the birth of Abraham when Terah was 70. What this meant in their interpretation, was that Tarah continued to live in Haran for another 60 years after Abraham left for Canaan. This was always problematic until the Christian Bible explicitly stated that Abraham did not leave Haran until after the death of Terah at age 205 (see Acts 7:4).

b.      The Samaritans fudged the numbers for the life span of Terah from 205 down to 145 in order to have Terah die before Abraham left Haran. So in the Samaritan corrupted chronology they incorrectly have Abraham born when Terah was 70 and Terah dying at age 145 when Abraham leaves for Canaan at age 75. But today we are certain that Terah was 130 years old when Abraham was born which creates a huge problem for the Samaritan Pentateuch because this means Terah dies when Abraham is only 15 years old and now Abraham continues to live in Haran for another 60 years after Terah dies before he leaves for Canaan.

c.       This is clear proof of a corrupt and fabricated Samaritan chronology because the prevailing FALSE view of Jews as far back as 150 BC to the present, is that Terah was 70 when Abraham was begotten.

d.      Had the Samaritans just left the text alone, they never would have been caught red handed with irrefutable proof (Abraham was not 15 years old when Terah died), that they deliberately corrupted the Samaritan Pentateuch chronology in Gen 5 and in Genesis 11:32.

e.      See: Terah died at 205 not 145 years old.

4.       Samaritan corrupted the Genesis 5 Chronology by reducing the age of the earth from 5554 BC to 4475 BC

5.       Variants created by Samaritan “Harmonising Alterations” in two parallel passages.

a.       See also: 40 “SP Harmonizations” witnessed in Dead Sea Scrolls

b.      Harmonising Alterations. The Samaritan Pentateuch contains various kinds of harmonising alterations, especially additions (to one passage on the basis of another one) that, by definition, are secondary. These alterations appear inconsistently (i. e., features which have been harmonised in one place have been left in others). The Samaritan Pentateuch was not sensitive to differences between parallel laws within the Pentateuch which, as a rule, have remained intact, while differences between parallel narrative accounts, especially in the speeches in the first chapters of Deuteronomy and their "sources", were closely scrutinised. The most frequent type of harmonising alterations happens when one of two differing parallel verses in the Samaritan Pentateuch is adapted to the other. Thus, in the Massoretic text the fourth commandment in Exod 20:8 begins with zakor 'remember' and in Deut 5:12 with samor `observe', but the Samaritan Pentateuch reads samor in both verses. As a rule, however, the Samaritan Pentateuch puts both parallel verses (or parallel details) after each other in the earlier of the two texts. Thus the parallel verses from Deut 1:9-8 are added in Exodus (after 18:24 and within v. 25), resulting in a double account of the story of Moses appointing of the judges. For similar additions. see Num 10:10 (= Deut 1:67) and 12:16 (= Deut 1:20-23). In this way the nature of the book of Deuteronomy as a "repetition of the law" (mishnah torah in Jewish sources) has been reinforced, since on a strictly formal level Deuteronomy can only "repeat" something if it is also found verbatim in an earlier book. Another kind of harmonising change concerns the addition of details in the Samaritan Pentateuch with which the reader should actually be familiar, even though they are not explicitly mentioned in the Bible. In Exod 14:12, for example, the Israelites murmur against Moses after he has led them through the Red Sea: "Is not this what we said to you in Egypt, 'Let us alone and let us serve the Egyptians?'" This complaint is not mentioned earlier on the Massoretic text; but the Samaritan Pentateuch inserts this quote in an earlier verse (Exod 6:9). Another illustration is Gen 31:11-13, where Jacob relates a dream not mentioned in any earlier verses in the Massoretic text; in the Samaritan Pentateuch, however, the account of this dream is added after 30:36.” (A Companion to Samaritan Studies, Alan D Crown, p180, 1983 AD)

c.       “An important group of early texts unearthed at Qumran have been classified as "proto-Samaritan". That name may be somewhat misleading since these particular Qumran MSS are neither Samaritan (pace Baillet 1971) nor sectarian in any way. This term is used, as in other cases (cf. proto-Theodotion, proto-Lucian), to designate a group of texts on one of which the Samaritan Pentateuch seems to have been based. The prominent characteristic which these texts have in common is the occurrence of major harmonising elements such as evidenced in the Samaritan Pentateuch (see above). There are large harmonising additions from Deuteronomy in Exodus and Numbers (and in one case vice versa), well attested in 4QpaleoExodm, 4QNumb, and 4QDeutn. The Exodus text adds, for example, details after 7:18 based on 7:16-18; after 7:29 based on 7:26-29; and after 8:19 based on 8:16-19, all agreeing with the Samaritan Pentateuch and all referring to the explicit execution of the divine commands to Moses and Aaron telling them to warn Pharaoh before each plague. 4QDeutn adds Exod 20:11 after Deut 5:15. A similar type of text is quoted in 4Q158, 4Q364 (both biblical "paraphrases"), and 4Q175 (Test). All these form a typologically similar group, related in character, yet sometimes different in content. As for differences, the texts (except for 4QpaleoExodm) are written in square Hebrew characters. Also, they lack the distinctive phonetic features of the Samaritan Pentateuch. As for similarities they share the SP's linguistic simplifications, its harmonisations in minor matters, as well as its non-characteristic readings, although differing in many details in these areas. The spelling of 4QpaleoExodm is fuller than that of the Samaritan Pentateuch, while that of the other texts is not. They are not sectarian in any way. Moreover, they contain various readings not known from other sources. At the same time, these pro-to-Samaritan texts share a sufficient amount of significant details with the Samaritan Pentateuch to demonstrate the close relationship with that text. In the same way as the proto-Samaritan texts relate to each other, the Samaritan Pentateuch is akin to all of them, although that text is a bit remote from them because of its subsequent ideological and phonetic developments.” (A Companion to Samaritan Studies, Alan D Crown, p182, 1983 AD)

6.       Samaritan “Harmonising Additions” in the Ten Commandments:

a.       Variants created by Samaritan “Harmonising Additions” by copying text from one place in the Torah and replicating it in a new location.

b.      Duplication of Bible verses spliced into the text of the Ten Commandments by the Samaritans: Exodus 20:14; Deut 5:18. The basic formula of sewing Bible verses into the ten commandments is Witnessed in Dead Sea Scroll 4QReworked Pentateucha. There are no actual changes in the Bible text of the Ten Commandments, just added text that is replicated from other places. Self-servingly, the Samaritans added the construction of Joshua’s Altar on Mt. Gerizim from Deut 27:4 into the of text of the 10th commandment.

7.       False accusations of Samaritans changing the text of the Torah, when they did not:

Alleged Anthropomorphic representations of God removed by Samaritans

 

Anthropomorphic

Masoretic and Septuagint

Non-Anthropomorphic

Samaritan Pentateuch

Ex 4:22

Israel is My son, My firstborn

my own people

Ex 15:3

The Lord is a warrior

The Lord is mighty in warfare

Ex 15:8

blast of Your nostrils (MT)

 

breath from you (SP)

blast of your anger (LXX)

a.       Discussion:

                                                               i.      The charge that the Samaritans removed anthropomorphic imagery of God in Ex 4:22; 15:3,8 is false because the Samaritan Pentateuch refers to God’s arm (Ex 6:6), eyes (Gen 6:8), ears (Num 11:18) and as a father in Deut 32:6. This alleged variant is a fiction created by scholars who did incomplete and poor research and should be rejected as such.

                                                             ii.      The Samaritans many have taken steps to avoid viewing God in human terms and occasionally would alter the text to remove these Anthropisms but the evidence leads us to conclude this was not the case.

                                                           iii.      Exod 15:3 is found in stone inscriptions and is used as a favorite text in liturgies

                                                           iv.      It is interesting that in Ex 15:8 the LXX exchanges the anthropomorphic for ANGER. This may indicate that in ancient times this passage was changed by the Jews to read “nostrils”. After all, it is implied that the blast of air came from God.

b.      Anthropism of God is found in the SP read identical to the MT:

                                                             v.      However in: “I will also redeem you with an outstretched arm” (Ex 6:6, SP)

                                                           vi.      "But Noah found favor in the eyes of Shemhmaa [Lord]" (Genesis 6:8, SP)

                                                         vii.      you have wept in the ears of Shemhmaa [Lord]" (Num 11:18, SP)

                                                       viii.      So the entire concept that the Samaritans removed God-man imagery is weak.

                                                           ix.      “He is indeed your Father who has created you. He has not made you and established you?" (Deut 32:6, SP)

c.       If the Samaritans actually removed some Anthropisms of God they did a lousy and inconsistent job of it.

                                                             x.      This leads us to conclude in this case the variants are interpretive not a change in text.

                                                           xi.      The entire idea that the Samaritans removed the God-man imagery from their Torah is a fiction created by scholars who did incomplete and poor research.

                                                         xii.      The variant of in Ex 4:22; 15:3,8 can be explained through translation equivalents.

8.       Dead Sea Scrolls that validate the Samaritan Pentateuch:

a.       One of the chief characteristics of the SP is a trend toward internal harmo­nization. Yet, as Emanuel Tov has noted, this trend is by no means unique: "Almost all Qumran MSS contain sporadic harmonizing readings." The editorial practice of harmonization found in the pre-Samaritan texts is evidenced throughout the Hebrew Bible and in the Synoptic Gospels of the New Testament. Harmonization is not an exclusively Samaritan or pre-Samaritan phenomenon. In broad strokes, scribal harmonizations fall into two patterns. First, details from one parallel passage may be inserted into the other to "fill out" the passage missing those details. Second, details in one parallel passage may be changed in order to bring it into agreement with the other, thus eliminating the impression of contradictions Both of these procedures are found in the pre-Samaritan text group and the SP. (The Samaritan Pentateuch, Robert T. Anderson, Terry Giles, SBL 72, p 60, 2012 AD)

b.      Dead Sea Scrolls that validate the Samaritan Pentateuch (SP) and Septuagint (LXX) against the Masoretic (MT)

c.       Hebrew DSS that validate the Samaritan Pentateuch and LXX

d.      40 “SP Harmonizations” witnessed in Dead Sea Scrolls

e.      154 Dead Sea Scroll variants identical to SP & LXX against the MT

9.       The Septuagint and Samaritan Pentateuch are very close but both are far from the Masoretic Text

a.       471 LXX Verses Identical with SP and Different from MT

 

 

 

VI. Genesis Chronological variants of the Samaritan Pentateuch

1.        (Rabbi Yose ben Halafta reduced the age of the earth in the Hebrew Masoretic Bible (MT) from 5554 BC to 4174 BC.)

 

Primeval Chronology of Genesis 5

 

Greek Septuagint (LXX)

(Correct original)

Hebrew Masoretic (MT)

(Corrupted in 150 AD)

Samaritan Pentateuch (SP)

(corrupted)

Man

Age at Son's Birth

Remaining Years

Life

Age at Son's Birth

Remaining Years

Life

Age at Son's Birth

Remaining Years

Life

Adam

230

700

930

130

800

930

130

800

930

Seth

205

707

912

105

807

912

105

807

912

Enosh

190

715

905

90

815

905

90

815

905

Cainan

170

740

910

70

840

910

70

840

910

Mahalalel

165

730

895

65

830

895

65

830

895

Jared

162

800

962

162

800

962

62

785

847

Enoch

165

200

365

65

300

365

65

300

365

Methuselah

187

782

969

187

782

969

67

653

720

Lamech

1821

565

753

182

595

777

53

600

653

Noah

5022

450

950

5022

4503

950

5022

450

950

Total years4

2158 years

1558 years

1209 years

Flood5

 3298 BC

2518 BC6

3108 BC

1 Lamech’s begetting age for Noah in the LXX reads 188 but this is a scribal error and the correct age Lamech’s son Noah was born is in his 182th year in the MT which is the autograph reading.

2 Japheth was firstborn when Noah was 500, Shem second-born when Noah was 502 and Ham the youngest. We know for certain that Shem was not firstborn as per Gen 11:10 and that Ham was the youngest as per Gen 9:24 which obviously makes Japheth the oldest. In Gen 10:21 English translators are split on which of Shem and Japheth were the oldest. The Hebrew in the MT and SP could mean either that Japheth or Shem were the older brother. The Greek LXX calls Japheth “the great” which may mean he is older than Shem or that he was older and/or more famous than Shem.

3 Gen 9:28-29 says Noah lived 350 years after the flood but for a total life of 950 years. Genesis 7:6 says the flood occurred when Noah was 600 years old.

4 Creation to birth of Shem in Noah’s 502nd year as per Gen 11:10.

5 Flood occurred in the 600th year of Noah or 98 years after Shem was begotten when Noah was 502 years old.

6 Because Jews have wrongly believed from 300 BC to the present that Terah was 70 years old when Abraham was born instead of the correct begetting age of 130 you must add 60 years to the MT flood date of 2558 BC to arrive at the actual MT flood date of 2618 BC.

 

 

Primeval Chronology of Genesis 11

 

Septuagint (LXX)

(Correct original)

Masoretic (MT)

(Corrupted in 150 AD)

Samaritan (SP)

(Corrupted)

Man

Year at Birth

Rem./Life9

Year at Birth

Rem./Life9

Year at Birth

Rem. Years

Life9

Shem1

100

500/600

100

500/600

100

500

600

Arphaxad

135

430/565

35

403/438

135

303

438

Cainan

130

330/460

Skipped

-

skipped

-

-

Shelah

130

330/460

30

403/433

130

303

433

Eber

134

370/504

34

430/464

134

270

404

Peleg

130

209/339

30

209/239

130

109

239

Reu

132

207/339

32

207/239

132

107

239

Serug

130

200/330

30

200/230

130

100

230

Nahor

79

129/208

29

119/148

79

69

149

Terah2

130

75/205

130

75/205

708 (130)

75 (158)

145

Gen 11 Yrs3

1230 years

450 years

1100 years

Gen 5 Yrs

2158 years

1558 years

1209 years

Abram born

2166 BC

2166 BC

2166 BC

Creation4

5554 BC

4174 BC5

4475 BC

Flood6

3298 BC

2518 BC7

3168 BC

1 Shem begat Arphaxad at age 100 which was two years after the flood.

2 Christians know from Acts 7:4 that Abraham was born when Terah was 130 years old not 70. This is an interpretive variance, not a textual one in spite of the fact that Jews from 300 BC to the present wrongly maintain that Terah was 70 when Abraham was born.

3 Total years from birth of Arphaxad to birth of Abraham in 2166 BC.

4 Creation date is derived by adding the begetting columns in both charts to the date Abraham was born in 2166 BC.

5 The Jews from 300 BC down to the present day wrongly set the age of Terah at the birth of Abraham at 70 which calculates an age of the earth at 4114 BC. The truth is that Terah was 130 years old, which calculates age of the earth according to the MT at 4114 BC + 60 = 4174 BC.

6 Flood date is calculated by subtracting [total Gen 5 years] from [creation date] and adding [98 years] because Shem was born in Noah’s 502nd year and the flood occurred when Noah was 600 years old.

7 Because Jews have wrongly believed from 150 BC to the present that Terah was 70 years old when Abraham was born instead of the correct begetting age of 130 you must add 60 years to the MT flood date of 2458 BC to arrive at the actual MT flood date of 2518 BC.

8 While the numbers in the MT show that Terah was 130 when Abraham was born and that Abraham left Haran at age 75 after Terah died at age 205, the Jews incorrectly interpreted the birth of Abraham when Terah was 70. What this meant in their interpretation, was that Tarah continued to live in Haran for another 60 years after Abraham left for Canaan. This was always problematic until the Christian Bible explicitly stated that Abraham did not leave Haran until after the death of Terah at age 205 (see Acts 7:4). The Samaritans fudged the numbers for the life span of Terah from 205 down to 145 in order to have Terah die before Abraham left Haran. So in the Samaritan corrupted chronology they incorrectly have Abraham born when Terah was 70 and Terah dying at age 145 when Abraham leaves for Canaan at age 75. But today we are certain that Terah was 130 years old when Abraham was born which creates a huge problem for the Samaritan Pentateuch because this means Terah dies when Abraham is only 15 years old and now Abraham continues to live in Haran for another 60 years after Terah dies before he leaves for Canaan. This is clear proof of a corrupt and fabricated Samaritan chronology because the prevailing FALSE view of Jews as far back as 150 BC to the present, is that Terah was 70 when Abraham was begotten. Had the Samaritans just left the text alone, they never would have been caught red handed with irrefutable proof (Abraham was not 15 years old when Terah died), that they deliberately corrupted the Samaritan Pentateuch chronology in Gen 5,11.

9 Life numbers (total years lived) are not in the text of either the LXX or MT. However they are added in the SP. For example, in Gen 11:11 the Samaritan Pentateuch adds the words: “All the days of Shehm [Shem] were 600 years and he died”. The SP adds the total life years lived for each person in the Gen 11 chronology. This is a corruption of the original text.  

 

 

VII. Samaritan “Harmonising Additions” in the Ten Commandments: Exodus 20:14; Deut 5:18

1.             Discussion:

a.             The Samaritan Pentateuch as a large textual insert after the tenth commandment to covet and before the next section on slavery in both Ex 20 and Deut 5. The Samaritan Tenth commandment is “THOU SHALT build an altar at Mt. Gerizim” whereas the Jewish and Christian 10th commandment regards coveting. A similar but not identical insert is found in the Dead Sea Scrolls: 4Q158 (4QRPa, 4QReworked Pentateucha).

b.             What this shows is that the SP “insert” is in fact an ancient tradition that predates the time of Christ, perhaps even the translating of the Septuagint in 282 BC.

c.              “The main ideological change in SP concerns the central place of worship. In every verse in the Torah in which Jerusalem is alluded to as the central place of worship, the Samaritans have inserted in its stead, sometimes by way of allusion, their own center, Mount Gerizim, (one word in their orthography). This change is particularly evident in both versions of the Decalogue with the Samaritan tenth commandment referring to the sanctity of Mount Gerizim. The commandment is made up entirely of verses occurring elsewhere in the Torah: Deut. 11:29a; Deut. 27:2b-3a; Deut. 27:4a; Deut. 27:5-7; Deut. 11:30 — in that sequence in SP (Exodus and Deuteronomy). The addition includes the reading of SP in Deut. 27:4 "Mount Gerizim," instead of "Mount Ebal" in most other witnesses, as the name of the place where the Israelites were commanded to erect an altar after the crossing of the Jordan. The same change based on the Samaritan ideology pertains to the frequent Deuteronomic formulation, "the site which the Lord will choose," alluding to Jerusalem. From the Samaritan perspective, however, Shechem had already been chosen at the time of the patriarchs (Gen. 12:6; Gen. 33:18-20), and therefore from their point of view the future form "will choose" needed to be changed to a past form -inn, "has chosen." See, e.g., Deut. 12:5.” (The Israelite Samaritan version of the Torah: First English translation compared with the Masoretic version, Benyamim Tsedaka, Sharon Sullivan, Foreword, Emanuel Tov, p x, 2013 AD)

2.             Variant Texts: Exodus 20:13-23; Green text is variant (Ex 20:13-26 in Christian Bible)

a.             Masoretic Text, NASB: “You shall not murder. “You shall not commit adultery. “You shall not steal. “You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor. “You shall not covet your neighbor’s house; you shall not covet your neighbor’s wife or his male servant or his female servant or his ox or his donkey or anything that belongs to your neighbor.” All the people perceived the thunder and the lightning flashes and the sound of the trumpet and the mountain smoking; and when the people saw it, they trembled and stood at a distance. Then they said to Moses, “Speak to us yourself and we will listen; but let not God speak to us, or we will die.” Moses said to the people, “Do not be afraid; for God has come in order to test you, and in order that the fear of Him may remain with you, so that you may not sin.” So the people stood at a distance, while Moses approached the thick cloud where God was. Then the Lord said to Moses, “Thus you shall say to the sons of Israel, ‘You yourselves have seen that I have spoken to you from heaven. ‘You shall not make other gods besides Me; gods of silver or gods of gold, you shall not make for yourselves. ‘You shall make an altar of earth for Me, and you shall sacrifice on it your burnt offerings and your peace offerings, your sheep and your oxen; in every place where I cause My name to be remembered, I will come to you and bless you. ‘If you make an altar of stone for Me, you shall not build it of cut stones, for if you wield your tool on it, you will profane it. ‘And you shall not go up by steps to My altar, so that your nakedness will not be exposed on it.’" (Exodus 20:13–26, MT)

b.       Samaritan Pentateuch: Green text is variantv13 You shall not murder. You shall not commit adultery. You shall not steal. You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor. v14 You shall not covet your neighbor's house, and you shall not covet of your neighbor his field and wife or ... his male slave or his female slave, his bull and  his donkey or anything that belongs to your neighbor. v14a cf Deut 27:2-7 And when Shehmaa your Eloowwem will bring you to the land of the Kaa-nannee which you are going to inherit it. v14b You shall set yourself up great stones and lime them with lime. And you shall write on them all the words of this law. v14c And when you have passed over the Yaardaan you shall set up these stones, which I command you today, in Aargaareezem [Mt Gerizim]. v14d And there you shall build an altar to Shehmaa your Eloow-wem, an altar of stones. you shall lift up no iron on them. v14e And you shall build the altar of Shehmaa your Eloowwem of complete stones. v14f And you shall offer burnt offerings. thereupon to Shehmaa your Eloowwem. v14g And you shall sacrifice offerings and shall eat there. And you shall rejoice before Shehmaa your Eloowwem. v14h cf Deut 11:30 That mountain, in the other side of the Yaardaan, beyond the way toward the sunset, in the land of the Kaanannee who dwell in the prairie, before the Gaalgaal, beside the Aalone moora, before Ashkem."" v15 And all the people heard the voices, and the ram's horn voice, and saw the lightning flashes, and the Mountain smoking. And when all the people saw, they trembled and stood at a distance. v16 And they said to Mooshe, Surely Sheh-maa our Eloowwem has shown us His glory and His greatness. v16a cf. Deut 5:24–27 And we heard His voice from the midst of the fire. v16b We have seen this day that Eloowwem speaks with man, yet he still lives. v16c And now, why should we die, for this great fire will consume us. v16d If we hear the voice of Shehmaa our Eloowwem any more, then we shall die. v16e For who is there of all flesh who has heard the voice of the living Eloowwem speaking from the midst of the fire, as we have, and lived. v16f You go near and hear all that Shehmaa our Eloowwem may say. And tell us all that Shehmaa our Eloowwem says to you, and we will hear and do it. v16g And let not the Eloowwem speak with us, or we will die. v17 And Mooshe said to the people, Do not be afraid, for Eloowwem has come in order to test you, and in order that the fear of Him may be before you, that you sin not. v18 And the people stood at a distance, while Mooshe approached the fog where Eloow-wem was. v18a cf. Deut 4:40 And Shehmaa spoke to Mooshe, saying. v18b I have heard the voice of the words of this people which they have spoken to you. v18c They are right in all that they have spoken. Who will wish that they had such a heart in them that they would fear me, and all the days keep my commandments. v18d That it will be well unto them and unto their children forever. v18e cf. Deut 18:18-22 I will raise up for them a prophet like you from among their brethren and will put my words in his mouth. And he shall speak to them all that I will command him. V18f And it shall be that the man who will not hear his words which he will v18g speak in my name, I will require it from him. But the prophet who will dare with malignity to speak a word on my behalf which I have not commanded him to speak, and he speaks on behalf of other gods, that prophet shall die. v18h And if you say in your heart, how will it be known the word which Shehmaa has not spoken. v18i That the prophet speaking on behalf of Shehmaa, the thing will not happen and will not come, this is the thing which Shehmaa has not spoken. v18j The prophet has spoken it in malignity. v18k You shall not be afraid of him. cf. Deut 5:30-31 Go say to them, return to your tents. v18L And you stand here by me, and I will speak to you all the commandments, the statutes, and the judgments which you shall teach them. v18m And they will do so in the land which I am giving them to inherit:" v19 And Shehmaa spoke to Mooshe, saying, speak to the Sons of Yishraael. You have seen that I have spoken with you from the heavens. v20 You shall not make with Me gods, gods of silver and gods of gold you shall not make for yourselves. v21 You shall make an altar of earth for Me, and you shall sacrifice on it your burnt offerings, and your peace offerings, some of your sheep, and some of your bulls. In .... the place where I have mentioned My name, there I will come to you and bless you. v22 And if you make an altar of stone for Me, you shall not build it of cut stones, for if you wield your sword on it, you have profaned it. v23 You shall not go up by stairs to My altar, that your nakedness will not be ex-posed to it." (Exodus 20:13-23, [Ex 20:13-26 in Christian Bible] Samaritan Pentateuch)

2.      Variant Texts: Deut 5:18-19 Green text is variant (Deut 5:21-22 in Christian Bible)

a.       Masoretic Text, NASB: "v18 ‘You shall not covet your neighbor’s wife, and you shall not desire your neighbor’s house, his field or his male servant or his female servant, his ox or his donkey or anything that belongs to your neighbor.’ v19 “These words the Lord spoke to all your assembly at the mountain from the midst of the fire, of the cloud and of the thick gloom, with a great voice, and He added no more. He wrote them on two tablets of stone and gave them to me." (Deuteronomy 5:21-22, MT)

b.      Samaritan Pentateuch: Green text is variantv18 You shall not covet the house of your fellow, and you shall not covet the wife of your fellow, his field, his male slave, and his female slave, his bull and his donkey and anything that belongs to your fellow. v18a cf Deut 27:2-7 And when Shehmaa [Adonai-Lord] your Eloowwem [Elohim-God] will bring you to the land of the Kaa-nannee [Canaan], of which you are going to in­herit it. v18b And you shall set yourself up great stones and lime them with lime. And you shall write on the stones all the words of this law. v18c And when you have passed over the Yaardaan [Jordan] you shall set up these stones, which I command you today, in Aargaareezem [Mt. Gerizim]. v18d And there you shall build an altar to Shehmaa your Eloowwem, an altar of stones. You shall lift up no iron on them. You shall build the altar of Shehmaa your Eloow-wem of complete stones. v18e And you shall offer burnt offerings thereupon to Shehmaa your Eloowwem. v18f And you shall sacrifice offerings, and shall eat there. And you shall rejoice before Sheh-maa your Eloowwem. v18g cf Deut 11:30 That moun­tain, in the other side of the Yaardaan [Jordan], beyond the way toward the sunset, in the land of the Kaanannee [Canaan] who dwell in the prairie, before the Gaalgaal [Gilgal], beside the Aalone moora [Oak of Moreh]. Before Ashkem [Shechem]. v19 These words Shehmaa [Lord] spoke to all your assembly at the mountain from the midst of the fire, darkness, a cloud and a gloom, with a great voice, and He added no more.” (Deut 5:18-19, [Deut 5:21-22 in Christian Bible] Samaritan Pentateuch)

3.      Archeological Literary Texts:

a.       DEAD SEA SCROLL: Green text is variant from MTLine 1 cf. Exod 20:12–17 your [father] and your mother [so that your days on the soil which YHWH your God gives you are lengthened. You shall not kill. You shall not commit adultery. You shall not rob. You shall not give] L2 false evidence [against] your [neigh]bour. You shall not covet the wife of [your] neigh[bour, or his house, or his servant, or his maid, or his ass, or anything of what belongs to your neighbour.] L3 And YHWH said to Moses: cf. Deut 5:30–31 Go and tell them: Go back to [your tents! You, however, stay here with me, for I am going to explain to you all the commandments, the laws] L4 and the statutes, which you shall teach them, so that they shall do (them) in the land which [I give them so that they can possess it …] L5 And the people did return, each man to his tent. But Moses remained in the presence [of YHWH …] L6 cf. Exod 20:22–26 You have seen that I have spoken with you from the heavens. You shall not make [alongside me gods of silver or gods of gold, do not make them! You shall construct for me an earthen altar, and sacrifice] L7 on it your holocausts and your peace-offerings, your flocks [and your cattle. In any place where I make you commemorate my name, I shall come to you and bless you. If] L8 you construct [an altar of stone] for me, you are not to chisel it in the manner of blocks of stone, for by [passing] your chisel [over each one of them you will desecrate it. Nor are you to climb to my altar by steps, in case you reveal your nakedness] L9 on it. Blank cf. Exod 21:1–10 These are the statutes [which] you are to pro[pound to them. When you purchase a Hebrew slave he will serve for six years, but on the seventh he shall go away free] L10 [for nothing. If] he came in alone he will go away alone; i[f he was married, his wife will go with him. If his master gave him a wife and she bore him sons or daughters] L11 [the wife and her children will be] for his [m]aster and he [will go away alone. But if the slave should say clearly: I love my master, my wife and my children; I do not wish to go away free,] L12 [his master] will [lead him before God, place him near the door or the jambs … His master will pierce] L13 his ear with an awl, [and he will serve him for ever. When a man sells his daughter as a slave-girl, she is not to leave as the slaves leave. If she turns out to be unpleasant in the eyes of her master, who had intended her for himself, he shall allow her to be] L14 redeemed; [he cannot sell her] to a [foreign] peo[ple, …] L15 […] n[ot …] (Dead Sea Scroll, 4Q158 (4QRPa, 4QReworked Pentateucha) Frags. 7–8:1-15; Deut 5:20-21; Ex 20:22:26)

b.      It is important to remember that 4Q158 is a Jewish document, not a Samaritan one. The proof this is NOT a Samaritan document is in line 7 of 4Q158: “In any place where I make you commemorate my name”. If this were Samaritan, it would read “In the place I have already chosen to commemorate my name”. Also, it lacks the inclusion of Mt. Gerizim. If this were a Samaritan manuscript these two items would not be overlooked.

c.       “As pointed out by Sanderson, the 4QExod text of Exod 20 shares all of the major expansions found in the sp, with several minor variants, except that of the peculiarly Samaritan expansion of the tenth commandment, in which the sp adds material gleaned from Deut 11 and 27. In particular, 4QExod lacks the peculiarly Samaritan inclusion of Gerizim. This text should now be compared with the dss text appearing below. Even though extremely fragmentary, with substantial elements missing, fragment 6 of 4Q158 does appear to include the promise of the prophet in a fashion very similar to the sp rendition of Exod 20.” (Tradition Kept: The Literature of the Samaritans, R. Anderson, Giles, p11, 2005 AD)

 

 

 

VIII. 471 Septuagint (LXX) Verses than are Identical with Samaritan Pentateuch (SP) but Differ from the Masoretic (MT)

 

471 LXX Verses Identical with SP and Different from MT

#

Text

SP and LXX agree against the MT

1.

Genesis 2:2

"And in the sixth day"

2.

Genesis 3:6

"And they ate"

3.

Genesis 4:8

"Let us go to the field"

4.

Genesis 7:2

"A male and female"

5.

Genesis 7:3

"The clean"

6.

Genesis 8:19

"Every bird and every creeping thing"

7.

Genesis 10:4

"And Roodaanems"

8.

Genesis 10:27

"And Izaal"

9.

Genesis 10:32

"The islands"

10.

Genesis 11:8

"And the tower"

11.

Genesis 11:12

"And 135 years"

12.

Genesis 11:13

"303 years"

13.

Genesis 11:6

"134 years"

14.

Genesis 11:18

"130 years"

15.

Genesis 11:20

"132 years"

16.

Genesis 11:22

"130 years"

17.

Genesis 11:24

"79 years"

18.

Genesis 12:20

"And Lote with him"

19.

Genesis 14:2

"And Shaanab"

20.

Genesis 14:10

"King of Saadem and King of Emirra"

21.

Genesis 14:19

"And he blessed Abraam"

22.

Genesis 15:21

"And the Ibbee"

23.

Genesis 17:1

"99 years"

24.

Genesis 17:14

"On the eighth day"

25.

Genesis 17:16

"And I will bless him"

26.

Genesis 17:19

"Behold"

27.

Genesis 18:19

"I have known"

28.

Genesis 18:29

"Destroy"

29.

Genesis 18:30

"Destroy"

30.

Genesis 19:9

"Already"

31.

Genesis 19:12

"This"

32.

Genesis 19:20

"Please"

33.

Genesis 19:30

"With him"

34.

Genesis 19:33

"That night"

35.

Genesis 20:8

"All"

36.

Genesis 20:14

"Thousand"

37.

Genesis 21:8

"His son"

38.

Genesis 21:13

"This"

39.

Genesis 21:30

"Abraahm"

40.

Genesis 21:33

"Abraahm"

41.

Genesis 22:3

"In the third day" (end of v. 3 in LXX, beginning of vs. 4 MT)

42.

Genesis 22:8

"A sheep"

43.

Genesis 22:13

"One"

44.

Genesis 22:14

"Will be envisioned"

45.

Genesis 23:2

"Where the valley"

46.

Genesis 23:6

"No"

47.

Genesis 23:15

"No"

48.

Genesis 24:14

"Abraahm"

49.

Genesis 24:15

"Into his heart"

50.

Genesis 24:33

"And they said"

51.

Genesis 24:36

"His old age"

52.

Genesis 24:38

"But if"

53.

Genesis 24:50

"Bad and good"

54.

Genesis 24:62

"In the desert"

55.

Genesis 25:5

"His son"

56.

Genesis 25:8

"Days" and "His people"

57.

Genesis 25:28

"His hunting"

58.

Genesis 26:5

"Your father"

59.

Genesis 26:7

"She is"

60.

Genesis 26:11

"His people"

61.

Genesis 26:18

"The slaves"

62.

Genesis 26:31

"To his fellow"

63.

Genesis 26:34

"The Ibbee"

64.

Genesis 27:27

"Full"

65.

Genesis 28:4

"Your father"

66.

Genesis 29:8

"All the shepherds"

67.

Genesis 29:23

"Yaaqob"

68.

Genesis 30:36

"Between them"

69.

Genesis 31:15

"As foreigners"

70.

Genesis 31:29

"Your father"

71.

Genesis 31:33

"And searched" and "female slaves"

72.

Genesis 31:53

"Will judge"

73.

Genesis 32:21

"Coming"

74.

Genesis 32:23

"That"

75.

Genesis 32:24

"All"

76.

Genesis 33:14

"The walk"

77.

Genesis 35:9

"Eloowwem"

78.

Genesis 35:29

"His people"

79.

Genesis 36:6

"Kaanan"

80.

Genesis 36:26

"Deeshone"

81.

Genesis 36:27

"Zoowwaan"

82.

Genesis 36:28

"And these are"

83.

Genesis 37:4

"His sons"

84.

Genesis 37:17

"Heard them"

85.

Genesis 37:33

"It is"

86.

Genesis 37:36

"Yoosef"

87.

Genesis 38:13

"His daughter-in-law"

88.

Genesis 38:21

"The place"

89.

Genesis 39:4

"His master"

90.

Genesis 39:11

"Yoosef"

91.

Genesis 39:12

"His garments" (twice)

92.

Genesis 39:13

"And went out"

93.

Genesis 39:15

"His garments"

94.

Genesis 39:18

"His garments"

95.

Genesis 41:16

"Will not"

96.

Genesis 41:35

"Seven"

97.

Genesis 41:48

"The abundance"

98.

Genesis 41:57

"The lands"

99.

Genesis 43:14

"The one" (see Genesis 42:32)

100.

Genesis 43:28

"And he said, Blessed be that man by Eloowwem"

101.

Genesis 44:31

"With us"

102.

Genesis 46:16

"Saafoon" and "Iddee"

103.

Genesis 46:22

"She bore"

104.

Genesis 47:3

"Yoosef s brothers"

105.

Genesis 47:16

"Bread"

106.

Genesis 47:21

"Worked for him"

107.

Genesis 48:7

"Your mother"

108.

Genesis 48:8

"To you"

109.

Genesis 48:14

"Hand"

110.

Genesis 48:16

"These"

111.

Genesis 49:4

"You were rushing"

112.

Genesis 49:6

"Angry"

113.

Genesis 49:22

"My younger son"

114.

Genesis 49:z6

"And your mother"

115.

Genesis 49:33

"His people"

116.

Genesis 50:11

"His Name"

117.

Genesis 50:25

"With you"

118.

Exodus 1:11

"To afflict them" and "And they built"

119.

Exodus 1:19

"Midwives"

120.

Exodus 1:22

"To the Hebrews"

121.

Exodus 2:3

"Clay"

122.

Exodus 2:6

"And she saw" and "The Daughter of Phaaroo"

123.

Exodus 2:21

"As wife"

124.

Exodus 3:6

"And Eloowwe"

125.

Exodus 3:8

"And the Girgeshee"

126.

Exodus 3:15

"And Eloowwe"

127.

Exodus 3:16

"Sons"

128.

Exodus 3:17

"And the Girgeshee"

129.

Exodus 4:5

"And Eloowwee"

130.

Exodus 4:6

"From his lap"

131.

Exodus 5:9

"They will be busy"

132.

Exodus 5:13

"Given to you"

133.

Exodus 5:19

"Be reduced"

134.

Exodus 5:22

"And why"

135.

Exodus 6:14

"And these are"

136.

Exodus 6:16

"Qat"

137.

Exodus 6:18

"Eebrone"

138.

Exodus 6:20

"And Maryaam their sister"

139.

Exodus 6:24

"And Aabeesaaf"

140.

Exodus 7:5

"All"

141.

Exodus 7:9

"Sign or" and "And it may"

142.

Exodus 7:10

"Before"

143.

Exodus 7:19

"And over"

144.

Exodus 7:zo

"His stick"

145.

Exodus 7:25

"Were passed"

146.

Exodus 7:28

"Houses, bedrooms, beds, and in the houses"

147.

Exodus 8:1

"And over"

148.

Exodus 8:3

"Magicians of Missrem"

149.

Exodus 8:9

"And from"

150.

Exodus 8:12

"Your hand"

151.

Exodus 8:27

"And from his slaves"

152.

Exodus 9:1

"And you will say"

153.

Exodus 9:3

"And upon the camels"

154.

Exodus 9:7

"Sons"

155.

Exodus 9:24

"The hail" and "In ...Missrem"

156.

Exodus 9:33

"And the shower"

157.

Exodus 10:12

"Trees' fruit"

158.

Exodus 10:24

"And to Aahrron"

159.

Exodus 11:1

"And after"

160.

Exodus 11:2

"And dresses"

161.

Exodus 12:3

"Sons"

162.

Exodus 12:6

"Sons"

163.

Exodus 12:11

"Sticks"

164.

Exodus 12:17

"The commandment"

165.

Exodus 12:18

"First"

166.

Exodus 12:29

"And to"

167.

Exodus 12:39

"Sent them off"

168.

Exodus 12:40

"And the time that the Sons of Yishraael and their forefathers dwelt in the land of Kaanan and in the land of Missrem was four hundred and thirty years."

169.

Exodus 12:46

"You all... bring"

170.

Exodus 13:3

"You all remember"

171.

Exodus 13:5

"Your Eloowwem" and "And the Ferizzee and the Girgeshee"

172.

Exodus 13:6

"Six"

173.

Exodus 13:7

"Nothing"

174.

Exodus 13:11

"Your Eloowwem"

175.

Exodus 13:16

"Brought you"

176.

Exodus 14:10

"Were driving"

177.

Exodus 14:13

"That when"

178.

Exodus 14:25

"And all Missrems said"

179.

Exodus 15:8

"Your nose"

180.

Exodus 15:14

"And they became angry"

181.

Exodus 15:22

"And he brought him out"

182.

Exodus 15:25

"And Mooshe cried"

183.

Exodus 16:4

"Whether or not they will walk"

184.

Exodus 17:10

"And Aahrron"

185.

Exodus 17:11

"His hands"

186.

Exodus 18:6

"Behold"

187.

Exodus 18:21

"For yourself"

188.

Exodus 18:25

"Over them" and "And commanders"

189.

Exodus 18:26

"Big"

190.

Exodus 20:10

"In it"

191.

Exodus 20:15

"All the people"

192.

Exodus 20:16

"The Eloowwem"

193.

Exodus 20:21

"There"

194.

Exodus 21:2

"Serve you"

195.

Exodus 21:4

"To his master"

196.

Exodus 21:5

"And"

197.

Exodus 21:22

"Her child"

198.

Exodus 22:4

"From his field"

199.

Exodus 22:9

"Or any beast"

200.

Exodus 22:16

"And if absolutely"

201.

Exodus 22:20

"And you all"

202.

Exodus 22:22

"Because you all"

203.

Exodus 23:8

"Eyes"

204.

Exodus 23:9

"You all"

205.

Exodus 23:11

"To your vineyards and to your olive groves"

206.

Exodus 23:13

"And all"

207.

Exodus 23:20

"My angel"

208.

Exodus 23:22

"You all"

209.

Exodus 23:28

"And the Ehmarree"

210.

Exodus 23:33

"They will"

211.

Exodus 25:8

"Among you"

212.

Exodus 25:9

"In the mountain"

213.

Exodus 25:10

"And you will make"

214.

Exodus 25:31

"You shall make"

215.

Exodus 25:37

"And you shall mount" and "And they will shed light towards"

216.

Exodus 25:39

"And you will make"

217.

Exodus 26:3

"Shall be"

218.

Exodus 26:13

"And a cubit"

219.

Exodus 26:16

"Of each"

220.

Exodus 26:25

"For one board"

221.

Exodus 27:7

"And you shall bring"

222.

Exodus 27:11

"Cubits"

223.

Exodus 27:15

"Cubits"

224.

Exodus 27:21

"Throughout your generations"

225.

Exodus 28:1

"To priest"

226.

Exodus 28:3

"To priest"

227.

Exodus 28:4

"To priest"

228.

Exodus 28:12

"They are"

229.

Exodus 28:17

"Four rows"

230.

Exodus 29:9

"Sashes"

231.

Exodus 29:10

"Gate"

232.

Exodus 29:13

"Lobe"

233.

Exodus 29:38

"Continuous offering"

234.

Exodus 29:42

"With you"

235.

Exodus 30:14

"They will give"

236.

Exodus 30:27

"All"

237.

Exodus 31:8

"All"

238.

Exodus 31:12

"Spoke"

239.

Exodus 32:7

"Saying"

240.

Exodus 32:11

"Mighty"

241.

Exodus 32:2o

"And he burnt it"

242.

Exodus 32:29

"Your hands"

243.

Exodus 32:32

"Forgive" (there is no "Please")

244.

Exodus 33:2

"Girgeshee"

245.

Exodus 34:28

"Before"

246.

Exodus 34:32

"Near him"

247.

Exodus 3510

"He will come and he will do"

248.

Exodus 35:14

"All"

249.

Exodus 36:7

"And they overworked"

250.

Exodus 36:21

"The single"

251.

Exodus 37:5

"With them"

252.

Exodus 38:1

"Length" and "Width"

253.

Exodus 38:25

(There is no "In shekels of the sanctuary)

254.

Exodus 39:3

"And they cut"

255.

Exodus 39:8

"And they made"

256.

Exodus 39:24

"Linen"

257.

Exodus 39:25

(There is no "Inside the pomegranates")

258.

Exodus 39:26

"of gold"

259.

Exodus 40:17

"Since their exodus from Missrem"

260.

Exodus 40:33

"All"

261.

Leviticus 1:2

"Your sacrifices"

262.

Leviticus 1:6

"And they shall cut it"

263.

Leviticus 1:7

"The priests"

264.

Leviticus 2:11

"You shall not offer"

265.

Leviticus 3:13

"The priests"

266.

Leviticus 4:5

"That was authorized"

267.

Leviticus 4:14

"Without defect"

268.

Leviticus 4:18

"The fragrant incense"

269.

Leviticus 4:27

"From all"

270.

Leviticus 4:29

"That they will slaughter"

271.

Leviticus 4:31

"He shall remove"

272.

Leviticus 4:34

"Burnt offering"

273.

Leviticus 5:6

"For his sin he sinned and will be forgiven"

274.

Leviticus 5:11

"Pour"

275.

Leviticus 6:10

"Shehmaa"

276.

Leviticus 7:29

"You shall speak"

277.

Leviticus 8:31

"In the place of holy"

278.

Leviticus 9:3

"And to the elders"

279.

Leviticus 9:21

"As Shehmaa had ordered"

280.

Leviticus 10:4

"Eleesaafaan"

281.

Leviticus 10:15

"And to your daughters"

282.

Leviticus 11:3

"Two"

283.

Leviticus 11:10

"In the water"

284.

Leviticus 11:36

"Water"

285.

Leviticus 12:7

"The priest"

286.

Leviticus 13:21

"Will see"

287.

Leviticus 13:42

"His bald head or his bald forehead"

288.

Leviticus 14:10

"One year old"

289.

Leviticus 14:20

"Before Shehmaa"

290.

Leviticus 14:51

"The two scarlets and the savory"

291.

Leviticus 16:4

"All his flesh"

292.

Leviticus 17:4

"To make it a burnt offering or peace offering for you to be willful before Shehmaa as a sweet savor. And he slaughters it outside, and he does not present it to the gate of the tent of meeting to offer it"

293.

Leviticus 17:8

"Make"

294.

Leviticus 17:14

"Among you"

295.

Leviticus 18:21

"To be worked"

296.

Leviticus 18:30

"For"

297.

Leviticus 20:6

"Her"

298.

Leviticus 20:7

". ." and "For I am holy"

299.

Leviticus 20:19

"Your father's sister and of your mother's sister"

300.

Leviticus 20:23

"The nations"

301.

Leviticus 21:2

"To his father and to his mother"

302.

Leviticus 21:8

"Consecrate them"

303.

Leviticus 21:14

"From his own people"

304.

Leviticus 21:15

"Among his people"

305.

Leviticus 21:18

"Will be"

306.

Leviticus 22:5

"Unclean"

307.

Leviticus 22:18

"That is living among"

308.

Leviticus 22:31

(Text appearing in the MT is missing from both the LXX and the SP)

309.

Leviticus 23:5

"Day"

310.

Leviticus 23:17

"Loaves"

311.

Leviticus 23:18

"Complete"

312.

Leviticus 23:40

"And branches"

313.

Leviticus 24:3

"And his sons"

314.

Leviticus 24:4

"Till morning"

315.

Leviticus 25:35

"Your brother"

316.

Leviticus 26:20

"The field"

317.

Numbers 1:42

"Of the sons"

318.

Numbers 1:44

"For each tribe"

319.

Numbers 1:45

"By their armies"

320.

Numbers 4:6

"Over it"

321.

Numbers 4:14

"And they shall take a purple cloth, and they shall cover the laver and its base. And they shall insert them into the covering of yellow-dyed skin. And they shall put it on the pole." (Note that the Septuagint differs at the end with the plural form "poles.")

322.

Numbers 4:32

"All"

323.

Numbers 5:6

"Saying"

324.

Numbers 6:20

"Will be"

325.

Numbers 7:16

"And"

326.

Numbers 7:22

"And"

327.

Numbers 7:28

"And"

328.

Numbers 7:34

"And"

329.

Numbers 7:40

"And"

330.

Numbers 7:46

"And"

331.

Numbers 7:52

"And"

332.

Numbers 7:58

"And"

333.

Numbers 7:64

"And"

334.

Numbers 7:70

"And"

335.

Numbers 7:76

"And"

336.

Numbers 7:82

"And"

337.

Numbers 8:15

"The work of"

338.

Numbers 9:21

"Or night"

339.

Numbers 10:6

"To the north"

340.

Numbers 12:8

"In the vision"

341.

Numbers 13:29

"And the Ibbee"

342.

Numbers 14:12

"And the house of your father"

343.

Numbers 14:18

"And truth" and "And sin"

344.

Numbers 14:45

"And they came back to the camp"

345.

Numbers 16:15

"Luxury"

346.

Numbers 17:4

"Son of Aahrron"

347.

Numbers 20:24

"His people"

348.

Numbers 21:3

"In his hand"

349.

Numbers 21:21

"Words of peace"

350.

Numbers 21:22

"I shall go"

351.

Numbers 22:4

"This"

352.

Numbers 22:9

"What"

353.

Numbers 22:35

"Keep"

354.

Numbers 23:3

"Eloowwem"

355.

Numbers 23:26

"The Eloowwem"

356.

Numbers 24:13

"To me"

357.

Numbers 24:18

"Ishaab"

358.

Numbers 24:24

"Il will send them out"

359.

Numbers 26:1

"And Shehmaa spoke"

360.

Numbers 26:12

"The Shehmoowwinnee"

361.

Numbers 26:16

"Ehddee" and "The Ehddee"

362.

Numbers 26:17

"Aarbaddee"

363.

Numbers 26:23

"Foowwa" and "Foowwa'ee"

364.

Numbers 26:27

"Zehboolaan"

365.

Numbers 26:30

"Ahyyaazaar" and"Ahyyaazaaree"

366.

Numbers 26:36

"Ehden" and "Ehdenee"

367.

Numbers 26:58

"Sons of"

368.

Numbers 28:5

(Text appearing in the MT is missing from both the LXX and the SP)

369.

Numbers 28:14

"The one bull" and "The one sheep"

370.

Numbers 28:17

"You shall eat"

371.

Numbers 28:30

"For a sin offering"

372.

Numbers 29:12

"This"

373.

Numbers 29:16

"For a sin offering"

374.

Numbers 29:19

"For a sin offering"

375.

Numbers 29:22

"For a sin offering"

376.

Numbers 29:25

"For a sin offering"

377.

Numbers 29:28

"For a sin offering"

378.

Numbers 29:31

"For a sin offering"

379.

Numbers 29:38

"For a sin offering"

380.

Numbers 30:5

"Her vows and her obligations"

381.

Numbers 30:6

"Forbid indeed"

382.

Numbers 30:8

"All"

383.

Numbers 31:2

"Your people"

384.

Numbers 31:12

"All"

385.

Numbers 31:15

"Why"

386.

Numbers 32:3

"And Shabbema"

387.

Numbers 32:25

"Sons of Reh'ooben and Sons of Gaad"

388.

Numbers 32:29

"Sons of Reh'ooben and Sons of Gaad"

389.

Numbers 32:31

"Sons of Reh'ooben and Sons of Gaad"

390.

Numbers 33:32

"Aar Aggidgeda"

391.

Numbers 33:42

"Feenaan"

392.

Numbers 34:5

"From 'Aasaamoona"

393.

Numbers 34:11

"From Ashfehma"

394.

Numbers 35:5

"For you"

395.

Numbers 35:32

"The high"

396.

Numbers 35:33

"Dwelling"

397.

Deuteronomy 1:28

"And greater"

398.

Deuteronomy 1:35

"... to your forefathers"

399.

Deuteronomy 1:41

"Our Eloowwem"

400.

Deuteronomy 2:13

"Set out"

401.

Deuteronomy 2:31

"The Ehmarree King of Ihshbone"

402.

Deuteronomy 2:36

"In our hand"

403.

Deuteronomy 3:12

"Bank"

404.

Deuteronomy 4:2

"Today"

405.

Deuteronomy 4:29

"And you will find Him"

406.

Deuteronomy 4:33

"Living"

407.

Deuteronomy 4:37

"After them"

408.

Deuteronomy 5:14

"In it" and "Your male slave "and "Your bull"

409.

Deuteronomy 5:19

"Darkness"

410.

Deuteronomy 6:2

"Today"

411.

Deuteronomy 6:7

"In the house"

412.

Deuteronomy 6:9

"Your houses"

413.

Deuteronomy 6:12

"Your Eloowwem"

414.

Deuteronomy 6:18

"Your Eloowwem"

415.

Deuteronomy 6:20

"And it shall come about"

416.

Deuteronomy 7:13

"Shehmaa"

417.

Deuteronomy 8:4

"And your feet"

418.

Deuteronomy 8:7

"And wide"

419.

Deuteronomy 9:5

(Text appearing in the MT is missing from both the LXX and the SP)

420.

Deuteronomy 9:10

"Unto you"

421.

Deuteronomy 9:26

"With your strong hand"

422.

Deuteronomy 9:29

"From Missrem"

423.

Deuteronomy 10:8

"To serve and to bless"

424.

Deuteronomy 10:11

"This people"

425.

Deuteronomy 10:13

"Your Eloowwem"

426.

Deuteronomy 11:1

"His statutes, His commandments and His judgments"

427.

Deuteronomy 11:19

"In the house"

428.

Deuteronomy 11:20

"Your houses"

429.

Deuteronomy 11:22

"Today"

430.

Deuteronomy 11:30

"Aalone"

431.

Deuteronomy 12:21

"For dwelling"

432.

Deuteronomy 12:22

"Among you"

433.

Deuteronomy 12:28

"And you will do" and "Today"

434.

Deuteronomy 13:7

"Son of your father"

435.

Deuteronomy 14:2

"Your Eloowwem"

436.

Deuteronomy 14:8

"And his hoof surely is divided and he does not chew"

437.

Deuteronomy 14:19

"From them"

438.

Deuteronomy 14:23

"And you shall eat it" and "your Eloowwem"

439.

Deuteronomy 14:24

"To dwell"

440.

Deuteronomy 15:4

"Your Eloowwem"

441.

Deuteronomy 15:7

"In the land"

442.

Deuteronomy 16:2

"Your Eloowwem"

443.

Deuteronomy 16:8

"Feast"

444.

Deuteronomy 16:12

"In the land"

445.

Deuteronomy 16:15

"Your Eloowwem"

446.

Deuteronomy 17:9

"And they shall inquire"

447.

Deuteronomy 17:10

"Your Eloowwem"

448.

Deuteronomy 18:5

"Your Eloowwem"

449.

Deuteronomy 18:12

"Detestable unto Shehmaa ..."

450.

Deuteronomy 20:3

"Don't you tremble and don't you panic"

451.

Deuteronomy 20:17

"And the Girgeshee"

452.

Deuteronomy 21:20

"Men"

453.

Deuteronomy 22:17

"To her"

454.

Deuteronomy 22:18

"That"

455.

Deuteronomy 24:8

"The law"

456.

Deuteronomy 27:16-26

"All" and "They"

457.

Deuteronomy 28:20

"Until He destroy you" and "He will perish you"

458.

Deuteronomy 28:24

"It will destroy you"

459.

Deuteronomy 28:26

"To the bird"

460.

Deuteronomy 28:55

"Your Enemies"

461.

Deuteronomy 30:1

"Will banish you"

462.

Deuteronomy 30:8

"Your Eloowwem"

463.

Deuteronomy 31:18

"From them"

464.

Deuteronomy 31:21

"To his forefathers"

465.

Deuteronomy 32:9

"Yishraael"

466.

Deuteronomy 32:15

"Yaaqob shall eat and be sated"

467.

Deuteronomy 32:29

"Not"

468.

Deuteronomy 32:35

"To the day"

469.

Deuteronomy 32:43

"The land of"

470.

Deuteronomy 32:50

"Your people"

471.

Deuteronomy 33:11

"Loins of"

Source: The Israelite Samaritan version of the Torah: First English translation compared with the Masoretic version, Benyamim Tsedaka, Sharon Sullivan, Emanuel Tov, 2013 AD


 

The Septuagint LXX

“Scripture Cannot Be Broken”

Start Here: Master Introduction and Index

Six Bible Manuscripts

1446 BC

Sinai Text (ST)

1050 BC

Samuel’s Text (SNT)

623 BC

Samaritan (SP)

458 BC

Ezra’s Text (XIV)

282 BC

Septuagint (LXX)

160 AD

Masoretic (MT)

Research Tools

OT Textual Variants

Messianic expectation

300 OT quotes in NT

Canon of the Bible

Chronology Charts

Seder Olam Rabbah

Steve Rudd, November 2017 AD: Contact the author for comments, input or corrections

 

By Steve Rudd: November 2017: Contact the author for comments, input or corrections.

 

 Click to View

Go to: Main Bible Manuscripts Page

Go to: Main Ancient Synagogue Start Page

Go To Start: WWW.BIBLE.CA