Full English text translated online of

Seder Olam Rabbah

Creation: 3761 BC

The dirty little secret about the Modern Jewish Calendar

2017 AD = 5777 After Creation

Written in Zippori: 140-160 AD by Rabbi Yose ben Halafta

Chronology from creation to 135 AD

The fictional dating chronology used by all Jews today.

 

Masoretic (MT) and Seder Olam compared

Note: both incorrectly have Terah’s age 70 at birth of Abraham. Correct is 130

MT correctly uses 430 for time in Egypt but SO has incorrect 215 years

 

Actual (MT)

(Egypt 430, Terah 70)

Years in Seder Olam

(Egypt 215, Terah 70)

Difference

MT vs. SO

Age at birth of son

 

 

 

Adam

130 years

130 years

0

Seth

105 years

105 years

0

Enosh

90 years

90 years

0

Kenan

70 years

70 years

0

Mahalalel

65 years

65 years

0

Jared

162 years

162 years

0

Enoch

65 years

65 years

0

Methuselah

187 years

187 years

0

Lamech

182 years

182 years

0

Noah

500 years

500 years

0

Shem

102 years

102 years

0

Pachshad

35 years

35 years

0

Shelah

30 years

30 years

0

Eber

34 years

34 years

0

Peleg

30 years

30 years

0

Rau

32 years

32 years

0

Serug

30 years

30 years

0

Nahor

29 years

29 years

0

Terah

70 years

70 years

0

Abraham

100 years

100 years

0

 

 

 

 

TIME SPANS

 

 

 

Creation to Flood (4114-2458)

1656 years

1656 years

0

Flood to birth of Isaac (2458-2066)

392 years

392 years

0

Creation to Exodus. Note: the difference is only 3 years if you use the short sojourn of 215 years in the MT.

 4114 - 1446 BC

= 2668 years

2450 years

(49 Jubilees x 50 years)

(3761 BC - 1311 BC)

 -218

Destruction of Shiloh to beginning of Babylonian Captivity

490 years

(1094-605 BC)

449 years

(888 BC-439 BC)

 

Period of the Kings of Judah after death of Solomon

931 - 587 BC 

= 344 years

850 - 479 - 36

= 335 years

 -9

70 weeks of Daniel (490 years) redefined to be the period from 1st and 2nd temple destroyed. (587 BC 70 AD)

657 years

490 years

-167

Solomon dedicates temple to 23rd yr of Joash 18 yr. renovation of Temple

967-812 BC

155 years

155 years

0

23rd Joash renovation to Josiah 18th yr. renovation 812-623 BC

189 years

218 years

+29

Persian empire 539-333 BC

205 years

52 years

-153

Greek empire/Hasmoneans 333-31 BC

302 years

283 (180 + 103) years

-19

Romans/Herod’s 31 BC - 70 AD

100 years

103 years

1

Tabernacle at Shiloh occupation (Seder Olam says Shiloh began 14 years after conquest: 1271 BC - 14 years)

305 years

(1399-1094BC)

 

369 years

(1257 BC - 888 BC)

64

 Net errors.

Note: if you use the short sojourn in the MT the SO is 257 years shorter. 

 -472 years

Seder Olam Jubilees (50 year)

 

 

 

Jubilee counting start point

1406 BC

1257 BC. SO starts Jubilee yr. 14 after crossing Jordan in 1271 BC.

-149

Creation to Exodus 49 jubilees

Note: If you use short sojourn of 215 years the difference is 3 years.

2668 yrs/50 =53.36 Jub

(4114 -1446 = 2668)

2450 years/50 = 49 Jub

(3761-1311 = 2450)

-218

Contradiction in Seder Olam: 14 missing, unexplainable years. SO says the Exodus was a Jubilee. Moses says crossing the Jordan started the jubilee. 40 years not 54.

-

14 years. SO starts counting 14 years after crossing the Jordan.

-

Conquest to Captivity 17 Jubilees

819 years

(1406 - 587 BC)

850 years

(1271-421 BC)

31

Creation to Messiah: 85 Jubilees (85x50) 4250 years. (baby. Sanh. 11:1, I.88.A–91.F)

136 AD

(4114 BC - 4250)

489 AD

(3761 BC -4250)

353

 

 

 

 

SPECIFIC DATES (using 430 year sojourn in the MT)

Creation

4114 BC

3761 BC

353

Year 4292 (earliest messiah can come)

178 AD

531 AD

353

Year 6000 (latest messiah can come)

1886 AD

2239 AD

353

Flood

2458 BC

2103 BC

-355

Birth of Isaac

2066 BC

1711 BC

-355

Exodus

1446 BC

1311 BC

-135

Conquest

1406 BC (yr1)

1271 BC (yr1)

-135

Jubilee counting start point

1406 BC (yr1)

1257 BC (yr 14)

-149

Tabernacle tent setup at Shiloh

1399 BC

1257 BC

-142

Shiloh destroyed: death of Eli

1094 BC

888 BC

-206

Solomon dedicates temple

967 BC

831 BC

-136

Beginning of Babylonian Captivity

605 BC

439 BC

 

Solomon’s temple destroyed

587 BC

421 BC

-166

Alexander the Great conquest

333 BC

316 BC

-17

Herod’s temple destroyed

70 AD

70 AD

0

 

 

 

 

Age of Men

 

 

 

Age of Terah when Abraham was born

70

70

0

Age of Levi in Egypt

62 

44 

-18

Age of Joshua at Sinai

20

42

+22

 

Introduction:

1.            Read Seder Olam now: Full English text translated online

2.            Jewish eschatology and the book of Revelation:

a.             It is important to understand the underlying Jewish eschatological view of end times and the coming of the “days of the Messiah”

b.             Ahaziah's second year, Elijah was hidden and will not be seen again until King Messiah will come, then he will be seen, then hidden a second time until Gog and Magog come. But now he writes down the deeds of all generations. (2Kings 1:17) "He (Ahaziah) died, following the Eternal's word that Elijah had spoken."” (Seder Olam, 160 BC)

c.              It was widely believed by all Jews that the “days the messiah” would come after 85 Jubilees (85x50) from Creation (4250 AC) and more specifically within the 1708 year window of years 4292 - 6000 years after creation. 85 Jubilees (85x50) from Creation (4250 AC) (Babylonian Talmud, b. Sanh. 11:1, I.88.A–91.F)

d.             Jesus Christ was born exactly within the expected windows at 5554 years after creation according to the Septuagint.

e.             Seder Olam reduces the age of the earth so that Jesus is born too early at 3761 years after creation.

f.               Shortly after the Seder Olam was written, the Jews systematically adjusted the chronological numbers in their Hebrew Tanakh (Masoretic Text) so as to have Jesus born 4114 years after creation (AC), which was still 178 too early, since the messiah cannot come before 4292 AC.

g.             Of course the entire Jewish eschatological was as bogus as Herold Camping’s end of the world. The Jews reduced the true age of the earth of 5554 BC down to 3761 BC and Herold Camping increased it 11,013 BC.

3.            The Seder Olam Rabbah is a corrupt chronology by Rabbi Yose ben Halafta invented 140-160 AD that dates creation to 3761 BC with the primary goal of disconnecting Jesus Christ as the Jewish Messiah.

a.             Daniel’s prophecy of 70 weeks is redefined from the decree to rebuild Jerusalem to the Messiah to the period between destructions of the first and second temple. The actual period is 587 BC + 70 AD = 657 years not 490 years. Seder Olam must erase 167 of their own Jewish History to make the 70 weeks of Daniel fit their new, non-biblical interpretation. The Jews must have held a grudge against the Persians because they got their kingdom rule slashed from 205 years down to a ridiculous 52 years (actual is 539-333 BC) in order to disconnect the 70 weeks prophecy of Daniel 9:24-27 from ending the year Jesus was crucified in 33 AD. All Jews today believe Seder Olam is the truth, when it is a lie, a fabrication and a fiction that directly contradicts the Jewish Hebrew Torah in regard to Daniels prophecy in Dan 9:24.
Click graph below to see high resolution
THE 70 WEEKS OF DANIEL 9:24-27. 458 BC – 33 AD 7th year of Artaxerxes - Resurrection

b.             Although it is universally recognized as a corrupt chronology, it is the foundation of all modern Jewish Rabbinical chronology which is why any time a Jewish source quotes a date, you ignore it and ask a Christian for the correct date.

c.              With the Seder Olam the “Days of the messiah” are between 531 - 2239 AD, which rules out Jesus, Simon bar Kokhba and means the Jews who were alive when they changed the Hebrew chronological numbers of Gen 5,11 would die long before the earliest possible arrival of the messiah in 531 AD.

d.             However, the Seder Olam Rabbah is the first full replication of the modern Masoretic chronological numbers in Gen 5,11 and it is archeologically the earliest, a full 400 years later than the corresponding LXX numbers are archeologically witnessed.

e.             In fact if you correct the Persian occupation and other historic errors, in the Seder Olam, you end up with the same date as you would using the modern Masoretic numbers for creation. This is a significant observation.

f.               Written in 160 AD, the Seder Olam chapter 30 refers to Simon bar Kokhba as the “son of the lie” ("bar Koziba" -Hebrew: בר כוזיבא), after Hadrian killed the Jews in a massive holocaust in 135 AD, renamed Jerusalem Aelia Capitolina, dedicating the city to Jupiter while erected a temple of Jupiter on the Temple mount and renaming Judea after the Philistines (Palestine).

Sedar Olam: chapter 30

g.             So Seder Olam had no problem ruling out Simon bar Kokhba as a possible messiah after the fact.

4.            The dirty little secret about the modern Jewish Calendar:

Proof:

Type into Google: Jewish date 2017

The result is the YEAR 5777 = 2017 AD

This number EXACTLY follows the chronology of the Seder Olam IN CONTRADICTION to the Masoretic Hebrew Bible used in every synagogue today.

a.             What is the dirty little secret? Answer: The fact that all Jews today reject the chronology of their own Masoretic text and instead use the Seder Olam as the foundation of their modern Jewish dating system.

b.             Why is it called a secret? Answer: Christians are almost universally ignorant of the existence of this document and Jewish Rabbis today want to keep it that way. For example, while Bible dictionaries and encyclopedias often reference Olam Seder, the are ZERO (none) entries as a topic of central discussion. This contributes to the overall mystery and ignorance of the Seder Olam for non-Jews. Further, it is almost impossible to find the English text of Seder Olam Rabbah anywhere, which is why we published, for the first time in history, the entire English text of Seder Olam Rabbah on this page below for all to read first hand and witness its shocking distortions of world history.

c.              Walking into a Synagogue without knowing about the Seder Olam is like walking into a Mosque without knowing about the Koran.

d.             Jews today have abandoned the chronology of their own Tanakh (Masoretic Text) and use the even more corrupted chronology of the Seder Olam, which sets year 6000 at 2239 AD.

e.             If you find this hard to believe just type into Google Jewish date 2017 (where 2017 is the current calendar year) and you will see the result is 5778 years after creation. So Jews today expect the messiah to come before year 6000 AC (2017 AD + [6000 - 5778] = 2239 AD) which is 2039 AD. This dating system was invented in 160 AD by the Jews in their Seder Olam and is used by every Jew on earth today.

5.            Jews today reject their own Tanakh (Masoretic Text, MT) and follow the Seder Olam Rabbah chronology. Let’s take the year May 2017 AD as an example to prove the point. Remember all Jewish dates are AFTER CREATION (AC). We have adjusted the Masoretic dates to include the error of the short sojourn of 215 years (instead of the correct 430 yrs.) and Terah’s age of 70 (instead of the correct 130 yrs old) at the birth of Abraham.

a.             This proves that Jews today have rejected the chronologies in their own Hebrew (MT) Bible for the Seder Olam which has the Persian Kingdom period of 52 years instead of the correct 205 years.

b.             This also demonstrates why no Jew today accepts the long sojourn in Egypt of 430 years because it means their messiah was supposed to come by 1886 AD according to the MT. By using the short sojourn, Jews living today can find false comfort that their messiah will come BEFORE 2101 AD. (or about 85 years in the future.) When that fails, they can fall back on the Seder Olam date of 2239 AD and again find false comfort for another 138 years in false expectation their messiah will come before that date. After 2239 AD, Jews will like all other false date setters, will simply come up with an entirely brand new system!

c.              It is obvious that all the Christian cult date setters like Millerites (Seventh-day Adventists) and Russellites (Jehovah’s Witnesses) used the MT for their chronology and applied it to the man-made Jewish doctrine that the world would only exist 6000 years, which was the last year that second coming of Jesus could happen on.

Chronological contradictions between

Jewish Hebrew Bible (Tanakh=Masoretic) Vs. Seder Olam

Google result for Jewish date 2017 is 5778 AC

 

Masoretic Text (MT)

Seder Olam (SO)

Creation Date in BC

(Correct is 5554 BC based upon the Greek LXX)

3899 BC

3899 BC: Short sojourn: 430 years in Egypt

4114 BC: Long sojourn: 430 years in Egypt         

3761 BC

(Short sojourn of 215 years)

Nov. 2017 AD equals Jewish “After Creation” date:

5916 AC (After Creation)

(5916 AD = 3899 + 2017, 215 yr sojourn)

(6131 AD = 3899 + 2017, 430 yr sojourn)

5778 (AC) After Creation

(Short sojourn: 3761 + 2017)

Messiah must come before 6000 After Creation

2101 AD/1886 AD

215 years in Egypt: 6000-5916= 84 years.

2017 + 84 years = 2101 AD.

430 years in Egypt: 6000-6131 = -131 years.

2017BC-131= 1886 AD

2239 AD

6000-5778 = 222 years

2017AD + 222 = 2239 AD

1.        This proves that Jews today have rejected the chronologies in their own Hebrew (MT) Bible for the Seder Olam which has the Persian Kingdom period of 52 years instead of the correct 205 years.

2.        This also demonstrates why no Jew today accepts the long sojourn in Egypt of 430 years because it means their messiah was supposed to come by 1886 AD according to the MT. By using the short sojourn, Jews living today can find false comfort that their messiah will come BEFORE 2101 AD. (or about 85 years in the future.) When that fails, they can fall back on the Seder Olam date of 2239 AD and again find false comfort for another 138 years in false expectation their messiah will come before that date. After 2239 AD, Jews will like all other false date setters, will simply come up with an entirely brand new system!

3.        It is obvious that all the Christian cult date setters like Millerites (Seventh-day Adventists) and Russellites (Jehovah’s Witnesses) used the MT for their chronology and applied it to the man-made Jewish doctrine that the world would only exist 6000 years, which was the last year that second coming of Jesus could happen on.

6.            Only the Greek Septuagint preserves the original chronology for the history of the world and creation at 5554 BC.

a.             Almost without exception, every historic chronology, both Jewish and Greek, had a date for the age of the earth that agreed with the Septuagint.

b.             The only two chronologies that agree with the modern Masoretic text are the corrupt book of Jubilees and Seder Olam.

c.              Jubilees of 49 or 50 years are never used in any symbolism in the New Testament including the book of Revelation.

7.            Seder Olam Rabbah is worthless in every way, in regard to true and factual Bible chronology.

a.             Christians who use this document or Seder Olam Rabbah as true representation of Bible chronology are gravely mistaken.

b.             Jubilees and Seder Olam have confused Christians today who wrongly assume Jews and Rabbis today are authorities in their own chronolectal history.

c.              The truth is this, when a Rabbi gives any date for world history, ignore his answer and ask a Christian for the correct date.

d.             Without Christians, Jews today would be lost in both history and archeological dating.

e.             Seder Olam must be rejected as the “Mother Goose” story of world history along its companion “Lord of the Rings” fiction novel called, the book of Jubilees.

8.            Seder Olam Rabbah, like the book of Jubilees, is a theologically driven, fictional and unrealistic chronology from the garden of Eden to the death of the false Jewish Messiah Simon bar Kokhba in 135 AD. (Second Jewish war/revolt)

a.             Creation to Conquest = 50 Jubilees = 2450 years after creation

b.             This system is absolutely fictitious and unworkable when applied with real known history of the world by modern scholars and chronologers.

c.              Several major liberties/corrections were made in the book of Jubilees to make history fit world history from the garden of Eden in nice clean chunks of 49 years.

d.             Obviously such an approach is impossible given jubilees did not exist until the conquest in 1406 BC when they started counting year 1 of the first 49 year cycle.

e.             In this way, it is clear that Jubilees is driven by theology not factual chronological numbers for the history of the world.

9.            When was the first Jubilee? Answer: 1357 BC, the year before Joshua died (49 years after Joshua crossed the Jordan in 1406 BC.)

a.             The Sabbatical year and Jubilee cycles began the year Joshua crossed the Jordan in 1406 BC.

b.             The first Sabbatical year was 1399 BC, the year the tabernacle tent was moved from Gilgal to Shiloh where it stood for 305 years until the philistines captured the Ark of the Covenant and destroyed Shiloh.

c.              The first Jubilee was 1357 BC. Joshua died the following year in 1356 BC.

d.             Whereas the Moses tells us that the first Jubilee in world history occurred 49 years after they crossed the Jordan in 1406 BC, the book of Jubilees starts the cycle at creation.

e.             A huge problem for the book of Jubilees, is that the timing of Jubilees directly contradicts the timing in the Bible because it is impossible to have the Exodus of Moses in 1446 BC as a Jubilee year AND 49 years after Joshua crossed the Jordan in 1406 BC. This is likely why the book of Jubilees stopped at the exodus.

f.               The Seder Olam (160 AD) on the other hand, uses a similar cycle of Jubilees (50 years) and through a series of historical fictions and revisions, sets a Jubilee at 14 years + 49 after Joshua crossed the Jordan. This directly contradicts the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh) in every Jewish synagogue today.  

10.        What Jubilees and Sabbatical years? Answer: 49 years and every seventh year.

a.             At Mt. Sinai, Moses defined a sabbatical year as every seventh year and a Jubilee as 49 years.

b.             a Jubilee is 49 years derived from a cycle of 7 sets of 7 sabbatical years. (7 x 7 years = 49 years).

                                                               i.      The book of Jubilees correctly uses the formula that a Jubilee = 49 years.

                                                             ii.      The Seder Olam (160 AD) and modern Jewish thinking wrongly sets a Jubilee at 50 years.

c.              A sabbatical year is every seventh year where the land was not farmed but left fallow.

d.             Sabbatical years and Jubilees were times that slaves were set free and all leased lands reverted back to the original owners or tribes.

11.        Manuscripts of Seder Olam Rabbah:

a.             Seder Olam is preserved in several manuscripts that date to after 1200 AD.

b.             Many Dead Sea scroll fragments/scrolls/copies of Jubilees have been excavated showing it was widely read and known throughout the first century BC including the time of Christ and the early church.

12.        Overview of Seder Olam Rabbah:

a.             The Seder Olam seeks to squeeze all world history into 50 year compartments called Jubilees. (This is the first time in history that a Jubilee has been defined as 50 years. In the Old Testament and all previous works, like the book of Jubilees (170 BC) a jubilee is defines correctly as 49 years.

b.             From creation to the Exodus, for example, it has 49 Jubilees of 50 years or 2450 years.

c.              The Seder Olam has 30 chapters but the sparsity of information at the ending of the book indicates it was lost.

 

I. The destructive effect the Seder Olam has upon Modern Jewish People who blindly follow it:

1.       The very foundation of their Jewish calendar system is a fiction and a delusion to reality. For example, the Jewish calendar says that the year 2017 is the Jewish calendar year 5777 AC (After Creation).

a.         The Seder Olam contradicts the Tanakh which says creation date is 6131 AC in 2017 AD

b.        Why would any Jew want to follow the personal opinion of a rabbi in 160 AD which directly contradicts Moses?

c.         The real and scientific age of the earth is 7461 AC in 2017 AD

2.       Seder Olam directly equates Shem with the person of Melchizedek to counter the Christian Doctrine that Jesus Christ alone was the type of Melchizedek’s priesthood:

a.         See full outline: Shem WAS NOT Melchizedek

b.        “About Shem it says (Gen. 9:26): "Praised be the Eternal, the God of Shem," (Ps. 110:4) "about my word to Malchisedekio [Melchizedek]."” (Seder Olam Rabbah 21:77, 160 AD)

c.         At the time of Christ, Jewish messianic expectation was of the arrival of Melchizedek as a “heavenly being” not Shem as witnessed in the Dead Sea Scrolls: 11QMelchizedek.

d.        In 160 AD, Jews started equating Shem with Melchizedek for the first time in Jewish History, to counter the Christian doctrine that Christ was the type of Melchizedek as seen in the book of Hebrews. It was important to the Jews who just suffered their second major defeat in the second Jewish war of 135 AD that Shem as Melchizedek, conferred priesthood to Abraham. But it was all a fiction created by the Jews in living in Zippori in 160 AD as an anti-Christian revision to counter the idea that Jesus was the messianic type of Melchizedek in the book of Hebrews. The earliest Jewish literary sources (100 BC) make no connection of Shem was Melchizedek as witnessed in the Dead Sea Scrolls: 1QGenesis Apocryphon. At the time of Christ, Jewish messianic expectation was of the arrival of Melchizedek as a “heavenly being” not Shem as witnessed in the Dead Sea Scrolls dating to 90 BC in 11QMelchizedek. The earliest literary source that equates Melchizedek with Shem is Seder Olam Rabbah in 160 AD, then in Targum Onqelos in 225 AD. The Bible clearly teaches in all versions, both Greek Septuagint and Hebrew Masoretic, that Shem was second born of when Noah was 502 years old. The confusion over determining who was the older brother between Shem and Japheth is caused by a minor variant in the Hebrew manuscripts in 160 AD. In Gen 10:21 the LXX indicates Shem was younger than Japheth but the Hebrew wording in the Masoretic makes it uncertain who is older. Some English translators wrongly make Shem the oldest. This minor variant in Hebrew wording is exactly what the Jews wanted to achieve in their anti-Christian revisions of their Hebrew Bible in 160 AD. The Greek LXX calls Japheth “the great” which meant he is both older than Shem or that he was more famous, powerful or richer than Shem. This was simply impossible for the Jews in 160 AD to allow if they wanted to start, for the first time in history, make Shem the GREAT Melchizedek. The Jews wanted to counter the Christian doctrine in the book of Hebrews that Jesus has the priesthood of Melchizedek as the Messianic king/priest/conqueror

e.        "The Lord has sworn and will not change His mind, “You are a priest forever According to the order of Melchizedek.” The Lord is at Your right hand; He will shatter kings in the day of His wrath. He will judge among the nations, He will fill them with corpses, He will shatter the chief men over a broad country. He will drink from the brook by the wayside; Therefore He will lift up His head." (Psalm 110:4–7)

3.       Seder Olam contradicts the Tanakh by wrongly defining a Jubilee as 50 years instead of 49 years as Moses taught.

4.       Seder Olam contradicts the Tanakh by wrongly defining the start point of year one the first Jubilee as 14 years after Joshua crossed the Jordan. Moses said you start counting Jubilees the year Joshua crossed the Jordan in 1406 BC.

5.       Seder Olam contradicts the prophet Daniel who said the prophecy of 70 weeks in Dan 9:24 began with the proclamation to rebuild Jerusalem. Seder Olam starts the 70 weeks at the destruction of Solomon’s Temple in 587 BC. The actual time period is 587 BC + 70 AD = 657 years not 490 as the Seder Olam fanaticizes. Remember, the primary goal of the Seder Olam in all its chronological fabrications was to exclude Jesus Christ as the possible Messiah.

6.       Seder Olam is an extreme compression of real Jewish history so that every descendant of Noah down to Abraham (except Peleg), was alive when Abraham was born. This means that Noah, Shem, Pachshad, Shelah, Eber, Rau, Serug and Nahor may have attended Abraham’s first birthday party and might have helped Abraham blow out his one birthday candle.

7.       Seder Olam is a hindrance to professional Jewish archeologists in Israel by setting utterly ridiculous historical dates which most Jewish archeologists follow. Chronology is critical in correctly “reading” pottery, destruction layers and site occupational history. If you get the date wrong the entire archeological report and most of its conclusions become worthless and screwed.

Seder Olam: The Mother Goose fairy-tale story of world history

Archeological event

Seder Olam Date

Correct Archeological Date

Flood

2103 BC

3298 BC

Birth of Isaac

1711 BC

2066 BC

Exodus

1311 BC

1446 BC

Conquest

1271 BC

1406 BC

Tabernacle tent setup at Shiloh

1257 BC

1399 BC

Shiloh destroyed: death of Eli

888 BC

1094 BC

Tabernacle stood at Shiloh

369 years

305 years

Solomon dedicates temple

831 BC

967 BC

Solomon’s temple destroyed

421 BC

587 BC

Duration of the Persian empire

52 years

205 years

Alexander the Great conquest

316 BC

313 BC

First and second temple destruction

490 years

 657 years

8.       Occupational history of Shiloh:

a.         Seder Olam, which incorrectly uses 50 years instead of 49 years, says the Exodus was a Jubilee year which creates a deficit of 10 year (using 50 year Jubilee). Exodus 1446 BC -50 years = 1396 BC. 1406 – 1396 = 10 year deficit in Seder Olam. The assembling at Shiloh took place in the 7th year after the conquest in 1406 BC. Before crossing the Jordan in 1406 BC, two Transjordan tribes of Gad and Reuben had already got their inheritance. Then it took 6 years to conquer the land at the end of which three additional tribes, Judah, Ephraim, Manasseh had got their land in 1400 BC.

b.        It was after this, that the tabernacle tent was set up at Shiloh in the first sabbatical year of 1399 BC.

c.         After the  tabernacle tent was set up, the 7 remaining tribes got their land. "Then the whole congregation of the sons of Israel assembled themselves at Shiloh, and set up the tent of meeting there; and the land was subdued before them. There remained among the sons of Israel seven tribes who had not divided their inheritance." (Joshua 18:1–2)

d.        Moses said the counting of Jubilees began in 1406 BC, not when the tabernacle was set up at Shiloh 14 years after crossing the Jordan. But the Seder Olam contradicts the Tanakh by waiting 14 after crossing the Jordan in1392 BC before beginning to counting year one of the first jubilee. In fact, the tabernacle tent rested at Gilgal from 1406-1400, then in 1399, the first sabbatical year, they moved the tabernacle to Shiloh. Moses explicitly said that counting for Jubilees began the day they crossed the Jordan. “When you come into the land which I shall give you, then the land shall have a sabbath to the Lord.” (Leviticus 25:2). This fact is confirmed by Ezek 40:1 which records a Jubilee in 573 BC and the Babylonian Talmud says this is the 17th jubilee cycle which sets 1406 BC as the exact start to the very year of the first cycle. [573 BC + (17*49) = 1406 BC]. The tabernacle was destroyed 305 years later at the death of Eli in 1094 BC but Seder Olam again manufactures a bogus number 369 years of occupation at Shiloh.

e.        The author is staff archeologist at Shiloh who took this photo beside the active excavation as proof that Modern Jewish archeologists use the Seder Olam as their chronological guide book:

 

II. Date and Authorship of Seder Olam Rabbah: Jose ben Halafta (R. Yosé) in 140-160 AD

1.          The evidence is overwhelming and universal that Jose/Yose ben Halafta wrote the Seder Olam Rabbah around 140-160 AD:

a.         Since the Seder Olam chronology ends after the defeat of fake Jewish Messiah Simon bar Kokhba in 135 AD, it was composed shortly after this between 140-160 AD. 

b.        Jose ben Halafta is also known at “Rabbi Yose” or “R. Yosé” and a founding central figure in Rabbinic Literature like the Mishnah (200 AD), Tosefta (250 AD), Jerusalem Talmud (400 AD) and Babylonian Talmud (500 AD).

c.         Chronological discussions in the Talmud often associate Rabbi Yose ben Halafta with the work Seder Olam (“Order of the World”) (e.g., b. Šabb. 88a; b. Nid. 46b), and it seems that the tanna R. Yose both compiled and authored sections of this major midrashic chronography which treats events from Adam to the Bar Kokhba rebellion.” (ABD, Chronology, Volume 1, Page 1003, 1992 AD)

d.        Rabbi Yose ben Halafta is also known for his commentary in the Haggadah.

2.          The Babylonian Talmud explicity states that Rabbi Yose ben Halafta is the author of Seder Olam:

a.         And said R. Yohanan, “Who is the Tannaite authority behind Seder Olam? It is R. Yosé.” (Babylonian Talmud, b. Nid. 5:6, II.2.S, 500 AD)

b.        “But is it really true that R. Yosé takes the view that separating heave offering at the present time derives from the authority of the rabbis only? And has it not been taught on Tannaite authority in Seder Olam: “… which your fathers possessed, and which you shall possess” (Dt. 30:5)— “And said R. Yohanan, “Who is the Tannaite authority behind Seder Olam? It is R. Yosé.” (Babylonian Talmud, b. Nid. 5:6, II.2.P–S, 500 AD)

c.         “T. Now to whom is this ruling assigned? It belongs to rabbis [Slotki: who hold that separating priestly rations at this time is on the basis of the authority of rabbis], [82B] but I personally maintain that the view of R. Yosé is correct. [Yosé stated in our Mishnah-paragraph that the androgyne may confer on his wife the right to eat food in the status of priestly rations; it was in reference to this that Yohanan stated that he may also confer the right to eat the breast and shoulder, which are pentateuchally ordained, since separating priestly rations at this time in Yosé’s view also rests on the authority of the Pentateuch.] For it has been taught in the document, Seder Olam, as a Tannaite statement: U. “… which your fathers possessed, and which you shall possess” (Dt. 30:5)— V. [the duplicated verb, possess, refers] to a first act of possession and a second act of possession that the Israelites will have, but they will have no need for a third act of possession [Slotki: since the second sanctification remained valid for all time; as the land remained sacred, the Pentateuchal obligation of separating heave offering also obviously remained in force]. W. And said R. Yohanan, “Who is the Tannaite authority behind Seder Olam? It is R. Yosé.”” (Babylonian Talmud, b. Yebam. 8:6, II.2.T–W, 500 AD)

3.          In the Talmud, R Yose is equated with what the Seder Olam says: In other words a statement from the Seder Olam are the words of R. Yose

a.         In R. Yosé’s opinion, seventh months were intercalated that year [88A], and in rabbis’ view, eight were defective.” [Yosé: There was a difference of three days, not four, that year, so the first of Sivan was on a Sunday; rabbis: The year had three hundred fifty-two days, the first of Sivan coming on a Monday (Freedman).] I.22 A. Come and take note: For it has been taught on Tannaite authority in the compilation, Seder Olam: The Nisan in which the Israelites left Egypt, the Nisan in which the Israelites went forth from Egypt—on the fourteenth they slaughtered their Passover-offerings, on the fifteenth they went forth, and that day was a Friday. Now, since the first of Nisan was on the Sabbath eve or Friday, the first of Iyyar was on a Sunday, the first of Sivan on a Monday—yielding a problem for R. Yosé! R. Yosé may tell you, “Well, whose view is this? It’s just rabbis’.”” (Babylonian Talmud, b. Shabb. 9:3, I.21.B–22.B, 500 AD)

b.        “Come and take note: For it has been taught on Tannaite authority in the compilation, Seder Olam: The Nisan in which the Israelites left Egypt, the Nisan in which the Israelites went forth from Egypt—on the fourteenth they slaughtered their Passover-offerings, on the fifteenth they went forth, and that day was a Friday. Now, since the first of Nisan was on the Sabbath eve or Friday, the first of Iyyar was on a Sunday, the first of Sivan on a Monday—yielding a problem for R. Yosé!” (Babylonian Talmud b. Shabb. 9:3, I.22)

4.          Scholars have concluded that Yose ben Halafta (R. Yosé) is the author of Seder Olam Rabbah:

a.          The source older than the Talmud is the Seder Olam Rabbah, a rabbinic work of the second century A.D., attributed by the Talmud (b. Nid. 46b; b. Yebam. 82b) to Rabbi Yose ben Halaphta, a disciple of the famous Rabbi Akiba. It is widely recognized that Seder Olam Rabbah forms the basis of the chronological reckonings of both the Jerusalem and Babylonian Talmuds. Many of its chronological statements were incorporated in the Mishnah, which is a body of learning that was memorized by rabbinic scholars after the destruction of the Second Temple in an attempt to preserve the nation’s traditions. Between A.D. 100 and A.D. 500 rabbinic scholars contributed comments, called Gemara, to explain the Mishnah. These two sources, the Mishnah and the Gemara, were combined to form the Talmud, of which there are two forms, the Jerusalem Talmud, completed about A.D. 400, and the Babylonian Talmud, completed about A.D. 500. The Babylonian Talmud is the more frequently quoted of these, and a reference to just “the Talmud” can be taken as referring to that source.” (The Talmud’s Two Jubilees and Their Relevance to the Date of the Exodus. Rodger Young, Westminster Theological Journal vol. 68, p 73, 2006 AD)

b.        Chronological discussions in the Talmud often associate Rabbi Yose ben Halafta with the work Seder Olam (“Order of the World”) (e.g., b. Šabb. 88a; b. Nid. 46b), and it seems that the tanna R. Yose both compiled and authored sections of this major midrashic chronography which treats events from Adam to the Bar Kokhba rebellion.” (ABD, Chronology, Volume 1, Page 1003, 1992 AD)

c.         This tendency in Jewish circles to see the seventy weeks fulfilled in Jerusalem’s destruction in a.d. 70 is even more strongly affirmed in the Jewish chronological work, Seder Olam Rabbah, which, according to tradition, was composed about a.d. 160 (though it may have been supplemented and edited at a later period).” (Is Daniel’s Seventy-Weeks Prophecy Messianic, J. P. Tanner, Bibliotheca Sacra Volume 166, 2009 AD)

d.        Even earlier, the author of Seder Olam (attributed to Yose) thought that this gap was already attested in Scripture’s flood story (Seder Olam 4).” (The Encyclopaedia of Judaism, Jacob Neusner, Volume 5, Page 2039, 2000 AD)

e.        “This commentary probably originated with R. Jose b. Ḥalafta, the reputed author of the Seder Olam, who as an historian correctly understood this ancient report.” (The Three Books Found in the Temple at Jerusalem, J. Z. Lauterbach, The Jewish Quarterly Review, New Series VIII, JQR8, 1917-1918 AD)

f.          As a final illustration of the 490-year pattern, let me take the work of rabbinic chronology dating to the second century ce and known as SederOlam Rabba chapter 30.” (Eschatological World View In The Dead Sea Scrolls And In The New Testament, G. Vermes, Scrolls, scriptures, and early Christianity Vol 56, p 70, 2005 AD).

5.          Jose/Yose ben Halafta was a third generation (130-160 AD) Tanna (repeater/teacher) living at Zippori (Sepphoris)

a.         A Tanna is an early Jewish authority: Tannaite authority = the authority of one of the Tanna’s who lived between 10 – 220 AD of which “R. Yosé” was one of them.

b.        R. Yosé was an ancient and central Tannaite authority long before 200 AD.

c.         In rabbinical literature there are many men called Rabbi Yose but Yose ben Halafta can be identified specifically as the one referenced by this: “R. Yosé”

d.        Tannaim: Third Generation (130–160).—The disciples of R. Ishmael, of whom only two are known by their names (R. Joshia and R. Jonathan), whilst the others are usually quoted as ‘the Tanna of the school’ of R. Ishmael. The younger disciples of R. ‘Aḳiba are R. Meir, who continued the systematizing labours of his master, and is thus supposed to have laid the foundation of a Mishna; R. Jehuda b. ’Ilai, who is called ‘the first of the Speakers’; R. Shim‘on b. Yoḥai, of whom R. ʽAḳiba said, ‘Be satisfied that I and thy Maker know thy powers’; R. Neḥemiah, to whom, as to the two last-mentioned Rabbis, various Tannaitic compilations are attributed; R. ’Eleazar b. Shamua, round whom the greatest number of disciples gathered, and R. Joṣe b. Ḥalaphta, to whom the book Ṣeder ‘Olam (סַדָר עוֹלָם), containing a chronology of events and personages in the Bible, is attributed. Abba Shaul, compiler of a Mishna, and the Patriarch R. Shim‘on ii. b. Gamaliel ii., are also included in the third generation.” (A Dictionary of the Bible: Dealing with Its Language, Literature, and Contents Including the Biblical Theology, Talmud- Tannaim, James Hastings, Vol 5, p 59, 1912 AD)

6.          Dating Number of references in Rabbinical literature to Jose ben Halafta: Other men called R. Yosé are identified with the longer names:

a.         Babylonian Talmud (500 AD)

                                                               i.      “R. Yosé” is referenced “Tannaite authority” 3350 times (Jose ben Halafta who wrote Seder Olam)

                                                             ii.      R. Yosé the Galilean (referenced 407 times)

                                                           iii.      R. Yosé bar Hanina (Referenced 164 times)

                                                           iv.      R. Yosé bar Abin (Referenced 35 times)

                                                             v.      R. Yosé b. HamMeshullam (Referenced 23 times)

                                                           vi.      R. Yosé b. Zimra (Referenced 16 times)

                                                         vii.      R. Yosé bar Zabeda (Referenced 7 times)

                                                       viii.      R. Yosé the son of R. Judah (Referenced 0 times)

b.        Tosefta (250 AD)

                                                               i.      “R. Yosé” is referenced “Tannaite authority” 753 times (Jose ben Halafta who wrote Seder Olam)

                                                             ii.      R. Yosé the Galilean (referenced 50 times)

                                                           iii.      R. Yosé b. HamMeshullam (Referenced 4 times)

                                                           iv.      R. Yosé the son of R. Judah (Referenced 3 times)

                                                             v.      R. Yosé bar Hanina (Referenced 2 times)

                                                           vi.      R. Yosé bar Zabeda (Referenced 0 times)

                                                         vii.      R. Yosé b. Zimra (Referenced 0 times)

                                                       viii.      R. Yosé bar Abin (Referenced 0 times)

c.         Mishna (200 AD)

                                                               i.      “R. Yosé” is referenced “Tannaite authority” 385 times (Jose ben Halafta who wrote Seder Olam)

                                                             ii.      R. Yosé the Galilean (referenced 27 times)

                                                           iii.      R. Yosé b. HamMeshullam (Referenced 0 times)

                                                           iv.      R. Yosé bar Zabeda (Referenced 0 times)

                                                             v.      R. Yosé the son of R. Judah (Referenced 0 times)

                                                           vi.      R. Yosé b. Zimra (Referenced 0 times)

                                                         vii.      R. Yosé bar Abin (Referenced 0 times)

                                                       viii.      R. Yosé bar Hanina (Referenced 0 times)

 

Date calculation of the Seder Olam based upon the Frequency of References to Yose ben Halafta (R. Yosé)

In early Rabbinical Literature

 

Mishna

(200 AD)

Tosefta

(250 AD)

Babylonian

(500 AD)

R. Yosé (Author of Seder Olam)

385

753

3350

R. Yosé the Galilean

27

50

407

R. Yosé bar Hanina

0

2

164

R. Yosé bar Abin

0

0

35

R. Yosé b. HamMeshullam

0

4

23

R. Yosé b. Zimra

0

0

16

R. Yosé bar Zabeda

0

0

7

R. Yosé the son of R. Judah

0

3

0

Conclusion: Yose ben Halafta was active and highly respected no less than 25 years before the Mishna which confirms that date of 140-160 AD for the Seder Olam

 

 III. Jubilees vs. Seder Olam Rabbah:

1.      Overview comparison of Jubilees and Seder Olam:

 

Jubilees

Seder Olam

Date of authorship

170 BC

160 AD

Years per Jubilee

49 years per Jubilee

50 years per Jubilee

Jubilee cycle conflict with bible

No: Jubilees started when Joshua crossed the Jordan

Yes: The first jubilee cycle began 14 years after Joshua crossed the Jordan

Time span of chronology

creation to Exodus = 2450 years

creation to 135 AD = 3896 years

Creation date

3906 BC (estimated)

3761 BC

2450 years equals

Creation to Cross Jordan

(exactly 50 Jubilees)

Creation to Exodus

(exactly 49 Jubilees)

 

2.      Both the book of Jubilees (170 BC) and the Seder Olam (160 AD) feature a 2450 year period from creation down to Moses with two big differences.

a.       While both have the same start counting place at creation, the 2450 year period ends at the exodus in Seder Olam but the conquest in Jubilees.

b.      The second huge anomaly is that Jubilees uses the correct 49 year period for a Jubilee but Seder Olam uses, for the first time in history, a 50 year period for a Jubilee.

c.       This has confused Christians today who wrongly assume Jews and Rabbis today are authorities in their own chronolectal history.

 

2450 years of the Book of Jubilees vs Seder Olam

 

Start point

Number of Jubilees

Years per Jubilee

End point

Jubilees

Creation

50

49

Conquest

Seder Olam

Creation

49

50

Exodus

 

IV. Seder Olam vs. LXX, MT, SP and Book of Jubilees:

1.      Only the Greek Septuagint (LXX) preserves the original chronology for the history of the world.

a.       Almost without exception, every historic chronology, both Jewish and Greek, had a date for the age of the earth that agreed with the Septuagint.

b.      The only two chronologies that agree with the modern Masoretic text (MT) are the corrupt book of Jubilees and Seder Olam.

2.      One of the clearest evidences that today’s Masoretic Hebrew text has corrupted chronological numbers in regard to the age of the earth and the flood of Noah, is the fact that they are in perfect agreement with the corrupt Jubilees and Seder Olam Rabbah.

a.       As we know, the Seder Olam, for example has the Persian Empire lasting only 52 years when it is universally known the real period is 205 years.

b.      The concept of squeezing world history from creation to Moses in 50 Jubilees and 2450 years creates serious problems with reality in the world of archeology and the general story of the Bible.

 

 

Septuagint LXX

350 AD

Jubilees

170 BC

Seder Olam

160 AD

Masoretic MT

1008 AD

Samaritan SP

1065 AD

 

Adam to Seth

230

130

130

130

130

 

Seth to Enosh

205

98

105

105

105

 

Enosh to Kenan

190

97

90

90

90

 

Kenan to Malalael

170

70

70

70

70

 

Malalael to Jared

165

66

65

65

65

 

Jared to Enoch

162

61

162

162

62

 

Enoch to Methuselah

165

65

65

65

65

 

Methuselah to Lamech

167

65

187

187

67

 

Lamech to Noah

188

55

182

182

53

 

Noah to Shem

500

500

500

500

500

 

Shem to Arphaxad

102

102

102

102

102

 

Arphaxad to Kainam

135

64

-

-

-

 

Kainam to Shelah

130

57

-

-

-

 

Arphaxad to Shelah

-

-

35

35

135

 

Shelah to Eber

130

71

30

30

130

 

Eber to Peleg

134

64

34

34

134

 

Peleg to Reu

130

12

30

30

130

 

Reu to Serug

132

108

32

32

132

 

Serug to Nahor

130

57

30

30

130

 

Nahor to Terah

79

62

29

29

79

 

Terah to Abraham

70 (130)

70

70

70 (130)

70

 

Total years AC

3314

1874

1948

1948

2249

 

Creation Date

5554 BC

3906 BC1

3761 BC

4174 BC

4475 BC

 1 Jubilees chronology is creation to Exodus so this is an estimation based upon Jewish thinking in 160 BC.

 

 

V. How Seder Olam tried to exclude Jesus Christ as Messiah by reducing the age of the earth:

1.      We have already seen in the introduction how Seder Olam redefines the 70 weeks of the Daniel 9:24 prophecy to exclude Jesus as the Messiah:

a.       Seder Olam contradicts the Tanakh by changing both the start and stop dates of the prophecy.

b.      Seder Olam changes the start date from the decree to rebuild Jerusalem to the destruction of Solomon’s Temple

c.       Seder Olam changes the end date from the resurrection of Christ in 33 AD to the destruction of Herod’s temple in 70AD

d.      Seder Olam changes the Messianic prophecy of Daniel 9:24 into A NON-MESSIANIC PROPHECY OF NOTHING GOOD TO LOOK FORWARD TO.

2.      Seder Olam reduces the age of the earth in order the push Jesus Christ outside the “messianic time window” according to current Jewish eschatological thought.

a.       We begin by saying the Jewish eschatological thought current in the first and second century AD was as wrong as it was unbiblical.

b.      Like many of the other silly Pharisaic laws that Jesus condemned, the idea that the messiah must come before the world is 6000 years old is pure fantasy. There is nothing in the Bible about it.

3.      Jewish eschatology about the coming of the Messiah:

a.       The Messiah must come WITHIN the 1708 year WINDOW between 4292 to 6000 years after creation.

b.      The true Messiah cannot come after the earth is 6000 years old or before the earth reaches an age of 4292 years.

c.       Any messiah that “comes” before the earth reaches an age of 4292 years IS A FALSE MESSIAH.

d.      Jesus Christ was born in 5554 BC which is a perfect fit for current Jewish eschatology.

e.      5554 BC is the correct age of the earth according to both the Septuagint (LXX) and the pre-corrupted Masoretic Text (MT).

f.        Seder Olam reduced the age of the earth to 3761 BC which meant that Christ was born 531 year TOO YEARLY proving Jesus was a FAKE MESSIAH (Based upon the new fake Jewish numbers).

g.       Seder Olam reduced the age of the earth by a whopping 1683 years.

4.      The new age of the earth of 3761 BC in Seder Olam means the earliest the Messiah can come is 531 AD.

a.       Having just had their messianic hopes dashed when self proclaimed Jewish Messiah Simon Bar Kokhba was defeated by Hadrian in 135 AD, the author of the Seder Olam in 160 AD gave themselves “breathing room window” of 371 years into the future before any true messiah could come again.

b.      The Jews felt much like the followers of Harold Camping after his end of the world date failed and they wanted to put a stop to the era of messianic fever and expectation.

5.      Reduced age of the earth in the Seder Olam accomplished five important things:

a.       It made Jesus Christ into a false messiah because he was born 531 years too early.

b.      It redefined the orthodox interpretation of the 490 years of Daniel’s 70 weeks prophecy (Dan 9:24) from a Messianic prophecy to a non-messianic prophecy. Jews were tired of having their butts kicked by Christians with by the 70 weeks of Daniel ending at exactly 33 AD, they year Christ rose from the Dead.

c.       It labelled Simon Ben Kokhba (who was almost universally believed by the Jews to be the true messiah) as a false messiah. Before Jewish messiah Simon was killed every called him the “son of the Star” after the Num 24:17 prophecy. After Jewish messiah Simon was killed everyone suddenly realized he was a false messiah and started calling him the Simon ben Koziba “son of the lie”. Seder Olam actually calls Simon Ben Kokba the SON OF THE LIE: “The war of ben Koziba [literally: Hebrew: בר כוזיבא‎‎ = Koziba = “son of the Lie”] two and one half years” (Seder Olam, 30, 160 AD)

d.      It extinguished the messianic fire of expectation that had raged out of control since 100 BC and peaked when Jesus began his ministry in 30 AD. Reducing the age of the earth pushed the “earliest date the messiah can come” forward 371 years to 531 AD. This effectively silenced any sermon topics in the Jewish synagogues on Messianic prophecy. Any Jew who suggested he was the messiah would be stoned at once.

6.      Muhammad the New Jewish Messiah: 610 AD

a.       Seder Olam caused Jews to believe that Muhammed, the founder of Islam was their messiah.

b.      Seder Olam “opened the messianic arrival” window in 531 AD and when Muhammed arose in 610 AD as a “warrior king” it is easy to see how the Jews were once again deceived by their blind rejection of Jesus Christ and their new “fairy-tale chronology book” called Seder Olam Rabbah.

c.       Three ancient authentic sources (7th century, one 8th) that show that the significant portion of the Jewish community initially viewed Muhammad as the messiah, just as they did Bar Kokhba in 135 AD.

d.      With the rise of “Muhammad the Ishmaelite” in 610 AD, as Christians first called him, those Jews in the local vicinity Mecca/Medina believed Muhammad to be their Messiah. Both the corrupted Masoretic Chronology and the Seder Olam qualified Muhammad to be the Messiah. While the chronicle says only 10 men followed Muhammad as the Messiah, it is important to realize that if other Jews had witnessed the same events, they might have jointed them in believing as well. The Septuagint Chronology, however had the end of the world in 440 AD which would have proven that Muhammad could not be the Messiah.

e.      In 629 AD: "Muhammad, leader of the Arabs. In this year died Muhammad, the leader and false prophet of the Saracens, after appointing his kinsman Abu Bakr to his chieftain­ship. At the same time, his repute spread abroad and everyone was frightened. At the beginning of his advent the misguided Jews thought he was the Messiah who is awaited by them, so that some of their leaders joined him and accepted his religion while forsaking that of Moses, who saw God. Those who did so were ten in number, and they remained with him until his murder. But when they saw him eat­ing camel meat, they realized that he was not the one they thought him to be, and were at a loss what to do; being afraid to abjure his religion, those wretched men taught him illicit things directed against us, Christians, and remained with him. … Whenever he came to Palestine he consorted with Jews and Christians and sought from them certain scriptural matters. He was also afflicted with epilepsy. (The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor 813 AD, Byzantine history 284-813 AD, Cyril Mango, Roger Scott, Michael Maas, Chronicle year 629 AD, 1997 AD)

7.      This chart maps the 1708 year window into the Septuagint, modern Masoretic and Seder Olam and applies it to Jesus Christ, Simon Bar Kokhba and Muhammad:

 

Jewish date setters for the “days the messiah” would come after 85 Jubilees (85x50) from Creation (4250 AC) and more specifically within the 1708 year window of years 4292 - 6000 years after creation.

(Babylonian Talmud, b. Sanh. 11:1, I.88.A–91.F)

 

Creation date/6000 years end of world

Messiah comes between year

4292 - 6000 AC

Jesus Christ: 1 BC

Simon Christ

Simon bar Kokhba 132-5 AD

Lifetime of the Jews who altered the MT chronological numbers:

250 AD

Muhammad Christ

610 AD

Today: 2017

(Jewish 5777AC based upon Seder Olam)

Septuagint

LXX

5554 BC

434 AD

1262 BC - 434 AD

Year 5554 AC Perfect fit. Messiah born with 434 years to spare!

Year 5686 AC

Perfect fit

Year 5806 AC

Perfect fit

Year 6164 AD

Muhammad cannot be messiah born 170 years too late.

FAIL

Messiah never came. Must be Jesus Christ

Masoretic

MT1

(correct, Christian)

4174 BC

1826 AD

118 AD - 1826 AD

Year 4174 AC. Jesus cannot be messiah because He was born 118 years too early.

Year 4306 AC

Perfect fit within 14 years. (2 periods of 7)

Year 4424 AC

Perfect fit

Year 4784 AC

Perfect fit

FAIL

Messiah never came. Must be Jesus Christ.

Masoretic

MT2

(incorrect, Jewish)

4114 BC

1886 AD

178 AD - 1886 AD 

Year 4114 AC. Jesus cannot be messiah because He was born 178 years too early.

Year 4246 AC

Perfect fit within 74 years.

Year 4364 AC

Perfect fit

Year 4724 AC

Perfect fit

FAIL

Messiah never came.

Must be Jesus Christ

Seder Olam3

(Used by Jews today)

3761 BC

2239 AD

531 - 2239 AD

Year 3761 AC. Jesus born 531 years early

Year 3893 AC. Simon Christ 400 years too early.

Year 4011 AC.

Jews living in 250 AD will die before Messiah comes

Year 4371 AC.

Perfect fit

Messiah must come by 2239 AD = 6000AC

Although Christians and todays Jews use the same Masoretic text to determine the age of the earth, the Jews have always had a 60 year error in their chronology in dating how old Terah was when Abraham was born. The old Testament is ambiguous as to how old Terah was at the birth of Abraham, but the inspired Stephen cleared it up in Acts 7:4. It is obvious then, that the first century Jews agreed with Stephen that Terah was 130 years old when Abraham was born, but Jews after 70 AD began revising and corrupting their own chronologies.

1. Correct Christian chronology: Acts 7:4: Terah was 130 years old when Abraham was born. Abraham left Haram when he was 75 after Terah died age 205.

2. False modern Jewish Chronology is 60 years shorter than the correct chronology: Terah was 70 years old when Abraham was born. Abraham left Haram when he was 75 Terah lived another 60 years in Haram until he died at age 205.

3. The Seder Olam chronology incorrectly dates the birth of Abraham to when Terah was 70.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

VI. The Seder Olam uses the short sojourn of 209 years in Egypt

1.      Seder Olam dates:

a.       “This implies that Joseph was 39 years old when our forefathers descended into Egypt, and Levi was then 44 years old. It follows that Joseph was separated from his father, that he was unable to serve him, for 22 years.” SO

b.      “It turn out that from the death of Levi to the Exodus were 116 years. The slavery extended not more than that time and not less that 86 years, the age of Miriam at the Exodus, since she was named for the bitterness.” SO

2.      Sojourn calculation in Seder Olam:

a.       "the length of Levi’s life was one hundred and thirty-seven years." (Exodus 6:16)

b.      So according to SO, Levi entered Egypt at 44 years old, lived 72 years in Egypt and died in Egypt at age 116.

c.       72 years + 137 = 209 year sojourn

3.      I calculate these dates:

a.       Levi born around 1938 BC being the third son of Jacob and Leah, born before Jacob fled from Laban and returned to Canaan in 1929 BC. Leah bore four sons then the Lord closed her womb for a time. So Levi would have been born around year 5 of the marriage when Jacob was 69 years old. Levi was 62 years old when he entered Egypt and died at age 137 in 1798 BC. Seder Olam says 44, actual is 69 years old, a difference of 18 years

4.      Joshua’s age at Sinai: 29 years old

a.       Actual: “a youth” 20 years old died in 1356 BC.

b.      Seder Olam says, “Joshua provided for Israel for 28 years. (after Moses died)” and lived 110 years (Joshua 24:29). 110 – 28- 40 = 42 years old at Sinai.

c.       The difference is 22 years.

 

VII. Premillennial Christians, Seder Olam and the 70 weeks of Daniel 9:24:

Click on chart below for high resolution:

1.      Seder Olam sought to disconnect Jesus Christ from the fulfillment of the 70 weeks of Daniel 9:24:

    1. Daniel’s prophecy of 70 weeks is redefined from the decree to rebuild Jerusalem to the Messiah to the period between destructions of the first and second temple. The actual period is 587 BC + 70 AD = 657 years not 490 years. Seder Olam must erase 167 of their own Jewish History to make the 70 weeks of Daniel fit their new, non-biblical interpretation. The Jews must have held a grudge against the Persians because they got their kingdom rule slashed from 205 years down to a ridiculous 52 years (actual is 539-333 BC) in order to disconnect the 70 weeks prophecy of Daniel 9:24-27 from ending the year Jesus was crucified in 33 AD. All Jews today believe Seder Olam is the truth, when it is a lie, a fabrication and a fiction that directly contradicts the Jewish Hebrew Torah in regard to Daniels prophecy in Dan 9:24.
    2. "Seder Olam Rabbah says that the seventy weeks were seventy years of exile in Babylon followed by another 420 years until the destruction of the second temple in a.d. 70. The latter figure of 420 is achieved by assigning 34 years for the domination of the Persians, 180 years to the Greeks, 103 years for the Maccabees, and 103 years for the Herods. The problem, of course, is that these figures are simply unacceptable to modern historians, especially the significantly low figure of 34 years for the Persians. Nevertheless this became the basis for Jewish calculations of the prophecy, though Jewish commentators differed on the details." (Is Daniel’s Seventy-Weeks Prophecy Messianic? J. P. Tanner Bibliotheca Sacra, Part 1, 166, p184, 2009 AD)

c.       “Now, the Pharisaic chronology embodied in the rabbinical chronicle Seder Olam Rabbah dates Moses death in A.M. 2488, which is only 12 years from A.M. 2500 and is much nearer to it than the figures of Hellenistic or Essene chronology. Moreover, there are ancient baraitas quoted from other Pharisaic literature in the Babylonian Talmud (Sanhedrin 97a-97b; Abodah Zarah 9a-9b) which state that the Messiah will come either in A.M. 4000 or shortly after A.M. 4231; and, since Seder Olam Rabbah equates A.M. 3828 with 70 A.D., these dates for the Messiah are equivalent to 242 and 473 A.D. But 250 year-weeks (or 1750 years) after Moses's death in A.M. 2488 bring one to A.M. 4238, which is indeed shortly after A.M. 4231 - a mere 7 years later. It is clear, therefore, that the Pharisaic chronology was already in existence when the Assumption of Moses was written, and was partially known to its author.” (Daniel 9 and the Date of Messiah's Coming in Essene, Hellenistic, Pharisaic, Zealot And Early Christian Computation, Roger T. Beckwith, Revue de Qumrân, Vol. 10, No. 4, pp. 521-542, 1981 AD)

d.      “Up to A.D. 70, the different Pharisaic dates for the coming of the Messiah, and the different reckonings of the 70 weeks which they implied, must have existed among the rabbis as three rival interpretations. After A.D. 70, however, when the Messiah had not come as expected, but the desolation also foretold in Daniel 9 (verse 26-27) had, it was natural both to tie the end of the 70 weeks to A.D. 70 and also to adopt a non-Messianic interpretation of the prophecy. This is precisely what we find in Seder Olam Rabbah. In consequence, the dates of A.M. 4000 (242 A.D.) and A.M. 4231 (473 A.D.) for the coming of the Messiah became the only ones still current, but, as the 70 weeks were now tied to 70 A.D., the rival interpretations of the 70 weeks associated with these other dates were dropped, and the dates were simply retained by themselves, as unexplained traditions.” (Daniel 9 and the date of messiah's coming in Essene, Hellenistic, Pharisaic, Zealot and early Christian computation; Roger T. Beckwith, Revue de Qumrân, Vol. 10, No. 4, p 536, 1981 AD)

2.      Premillennial Christians today ignore obvious fulfillment of Messianic prophecy in the first century and still look to the future for their fulfillment. The 70 weeks of Dan 9:24 is a classic example. The 490 years start in 7th year of Artaxerxes in 3 April 458 BC and end at the crucifixion of Christ in 3 April 33 AD but Premillennialists refuse to accept this.

3.      What is so incredibly, unspeakably ironic about this, is that the Jews in 160 AD fabricated a fictitious and corrupt chronology of world history for the express purpose of disconnecting Daniel 9 from the crucifixion in a document called “Seder Olam”.

4.      First century Jews clearly saw the obvious termination of the 70 weeks in 33 AD which today’s premillennialists are shockingly blind to see by inserting a 2000 year and counting GAP before the final week of 7 years begins.

a.       You know, the false doctrine of the rapture invented by John Darby in 1830 AD with its 3 ½ years of peace followed by the 3 ½ years of tribulation.

5.      The whole idea of inserting a gap of 2000 years into a 490 year time prophecy defies all logic and common sense but all premillennialists do it! The false doctrine of Premillennialism therefore, contributes to the Jewish rejection of Jesus as the messiah because both currently see no first century fulfillment in the 70 weeks of Daniel, but both still look to the future.

6.      The 70 weeks of Daniel 9:24:

a.       Start: 7th year of Artaxerxes in 3 April 458 BC

b.      End: 3 April 33 AD (crucifixion)

7.      Jehovah’s Witnesses predicted the world would end in 1975 AD using Jewish “days of Messiah” false theology:

a.       It is comical that this ancient Jewish “world must end 6000 years after creation” theology was directly adopted by the Jehovah’s Witnesses who predicted the end of the world in year 6000 AC in 1975 AD but used the flawed and corrupted Masoretic Genesis chronology. After making multiple crystal clear public statements in the Watchtower that Jesus would return in 1975, they blamed the failed prediction on their followers in 1976: "It may be that some who have been serving God have planned their lives according to a mistaken view of just what was to happen on a certain date or in a certain year [ie 1975]. They may have, for this reason, put off or neglected things that they otherwise would have cared for. But they have missed the point of the Bibles warnings concerning the end of this system of things, thinking that Bible chronology reveals the specific date." (Watchtower, July 15, 1976, p. 440) And the bulk of JW’s accepted this beating from their masters and continued in blind obedience to the Watchtower. Those that left “THE TRUTH” became atheists so the Devil kept them in his clutches.

b.      Modern “end of the world cults” William Miller (Seventh-day Adventists) and Charles Taze Russell (Jehovah’s Witnesses) all follow the non-Biblical Jewish eschatology. The Babylonian Talmud (500 AD) discusses the “days of the Messiah” in detail. This ancient Jewish “end of the world” theology is as non-biblical as the Jehovah’s Witnesses who predicted the end of the world in 1975 AD based upon the same flawed Masoretic text chronology and the Babylonian Talmud.

c.       JW’s have predicted the end of the world countless times but a huge and widely documented failed prediction was that the world would end in 1975 AD.

d.      Jehovah’s Witnesses source of their false doctrine: the Babylonian Talmud: “In the scroll it is written that after four thousand two hundred ninety-two {ie. 4292} years from the creation of the world, the world will be an orphan. E. “[As to the years to follow] in some there will be wars of the great dragons, and in some, wars of Gog and Magog, and the rest will be the days of the Messiah {ie. 4292 – 6000 years from creation}. F. “And the Holy One, blessed be he, will renew his world only after seven thousand years.” (Babylonian Talmud, b. Sanh. 11:1, I.91)

e.      1968 AD: "Just think, brothers, there are only about ninety months left before 6,000 years of mans existence on earth is completed... The majority of people living today will probably be alive when Armageddon breaks out, and there are no resurrection hopes for those who are destroyed then. So, now more than ever, it is vital not to ignore that spirit of wanting to do more." (Kingdom Ministry, March 1968, p. 4 [note: 1968 + 90 months = 1975])

f.        1969 AD: More recently earnest researchers of the Holy Bible have made a recheck of its chronology. According to their calculations the six millenniums of mankind's life on earth would end in the mid-seventies. Thus the seventh millennium from mans creation by Jehovah god would begin within less than ten years. Apart from the global change that present-day world condition indicate is fast getting near, the arrival of the seventh millennium of mans existence on earth suggests a gladsome change for war-stricken humankind. ...In order for the Lord Jesus Christ to be Lord even of the Sabbath day, his thousand-year reign would have to be the seventh in a series of thousand-year periods or millenniums. (Matt 12:8, AV) Thus it would be a sabbatic reign. Since early in the existence of mankind Satan the Devil has been on the loose, making the human family to toil in hard bondage, causing the earth to be filled with violence before the global flood of Noahs day and inducing the same old earth to be filled with even greater violence today. Soon now six millenniums of his wicked exploiting of mankind as his slaves will end, within the lifetime of the generation that has witnessed world events since the close of the gentile times in 1914 till now, according to the prophetic words of Jesus in Matthew 24:34. Would not, then, the end of six millenniums of mankind's laborious enslavement under Satan the Devil be the fitting time for Jehovah God to usher in a Sabbath millennium for all his human creatures? Yes, indeed! And his King Jesus Christ will be Lord of that Sabbath." (Watchtower, Nov. 15, 1969, p. 622, 623)

g.       1976 AD: "It may be that some who have been serving God have planned their lives according to a mistaken view of just what was to happen on a certain date or in a certain year. They may have, for this reason, put off or neglected things that they otherwise would have cared for. But they have missed the point of the Bibles warnings concerning the end of this system of things, thinking that Bible chronology reveals the specific date." (Watchtower, July 15, 1976, p. 440)

 

VIII. Corruption of the Masoretic Text (MT) Hebrew Bible based upon the Seder Olam: 160-180 AD

1.      160-180 AD: Hebrew Masoretic Text (MT): Reducing the age of the earth from 5554 BC to 4174 BC in order to push Jesus outside their 1708 year window of expectation between 4292 – 6000 years after creation. This man-made, non-Biblical Jewish eschatological idea is witnessed in the Babylonian Talmud, b. Sanh. 11:1, I.88.A–91.F and is believed by Jews down to the present time. Pushing Jesus Christ outside this window was done by the Jews in 150 AD by corrupting the chronological numbers in Gen 5,11. The autograph originals are preserved in the Septuagint. The original age of the earth was a perfect fit for Jesus as the expected messiah who started his ministry (30 AD) in year 5474 After creation (AC). The new corrupted numbers as reflected in the Masoretic text that underlies most Bibles today, have Jesus coming in year 4207 which is 88 years to early. However, since the Jews in 150 AD down to the present wrongly believe Terah was 70 instead of 130 when Abraham was born, creation to them was 60 years shorter at 4114 BC. In the Jewish mind in 150 AD, therefore, their new fudged numbers had Jesus come ([4114 + 30] - 4292 = 148) 148 years too early. In their mind, the beginning of the 1708 year windows for the coming of the Messiah started in 178 AD. This worked fine for the Jews in 150 AD because it ruled out Simon Bar Kokhba who was universally believed to be the Messiah until Hadrian killed him in 135 AD AND it meant that the very Jews who corrupted the numbers were themselves on the brink of the windows for the coming messiah which would lasts 1708 years. Little did they know in 150 AD that the Jewish messiah according to the Masoretic Text has failed to come because the close of the messianic window is year 6000 after creation or 1886 AD. This is why Jews today have actually abandoned the chronology of their own Tanakh (Masoretic Text) and use the even more corrupted chronology of the Seder Olam, which sets year 6000 at 2239 AD. If you find this hard to believe just type into Google “Jewish date 2017” (where 2017 is the current calendar year) and you will see the result is 5778 years after creation. So Jews today expect the messiah to come before year 6000 AC (2017 AD + [6000 - 5778] = 2239 AD) which is 2039 AD. This dating system was invented in 150 AD by the Jews in their Seder Olam.

2.      Henry Smith astutely comments: "The Seder Olam Rabbah, known for its severe reduction of the timeline between the exile and Christ, is the earliest witness to the chronology in MT Genesis 5 and 11. That is, the earliest witness to the MT's begetting ages is a corrupted second-century Jewish history that reduces postexilic chronology to avoid the Christian interpretation of the Messianic prophecy in Daniel 9:26. Even aside from considerations of the Seder Olam's compromised nature, the earliest witness to the longer chronology (LXX) predates the earliest witness to the MT's shorter chronology by about 400 years. If the MT's chronology is original, why did it disappear until the second century AD, and why did the longer chronology prevail in both Hebrew and Greek sources until then? Any defender of the MT's numbers must address this question first. What could have motivated the second-century Jews to deflate their sacred chronology so significantly? Prevalent among Jews and early Christians was the belief that the Messiah would arrive during the sixth millennium after creation, between AM 5000 and AM 6000 (AM = Anno Mundi, "in the year of the world"). The Babylonian Talmud further suggests that according to some Jews, "the period of the Messiah" spanned from AM 4000 to AM 6000. The LXX's chronology puts the birth of Jesus at ca. AM 5500, clearly "qualifying" him (with respect to the age of the world) to be the Messiah. Many scholars have argued that the Palestinian Jews living in the second century AD shortened the chronology to remove Jesus from the sixth millennium of the world, thereby disqualifying Him as the Messiah (215-16, n. 129). This reduction is likely reflected in the Seder Olam, which (dating creation to 3761 BC) even manages to put Jesus outside "the period of the Messiah," while situating the second-century Jews right on the verge of it. After all, the authors of the Seder Olam were not opposed to manipulating Jewish chronology for Messianic (anti-Christian) reasons, for they indisputably reduced the interval between the Babylonian captivity and the Second Temple's destruction by about 185 years, supporting the Jewish attempt to correlate the Messianic prophecy in Daniel 9:26 with the events of AD 70 instead of with Jesus Christ. We propose, then, an adequate motive for Palestinian Jewish scribes to alter the sacred text, a motive that is supported by historical and theological evidence: discrediting the Lord Jesus as Messiah. Judaism was facing a crisis of biblical proportions (literally) during the second century of the Christian era. The gospel of Messiah Jesus was spreading like wildfire across the Roman world, the Temple had been razed to the ground, and the holy city of God had been burned. The rest of Israel had been ravaged by Roman aggression in the events of AD 66-73 and AD 132 -136. The small core of Judaism that rose from the ashes had complete and autonomous control over the Hebrew manuscripts that survived the Roman devastations,' providing ample opportunity for wholesale chronological changes that would go undetectable in later copies. Most of the world around them would have been unable to read the Hebrew texts, greatly minimizing their usefulness and dissemination outside Palestinian Judaism. These remaining manuscripts were the precursors to the Masoretic Text, which solidified during the last part of the first millennium AD. The circumstances in Palestine during the middle of the second century AD provided an ideal opportunity for the keepers of the remaining Jewish Scriptures to corrupt their texts without leaving behind a trail of evidence in the Hebrew manuscripts. Numerous church fathers testify to the lengths to which orthodox Judaism went to discredit Jesus' Messianic office, a phenomenon also recorded throughout the book of Acts. Justin Martyr says that the Rabbis deliberately expunged or altered Messianic verses from their Scriptures in their project of discrediting Lord Jesus as Messiah (e.g., see Dial. 71). According to Justin, the second-century Jews were still promulgating the lie that the disciples had stolen Christ's body from the tomb (cf. Mt 28:13-15). Augustine writes that "the Jews, envying us for our translation of their Law and Prophets, have made alterations in their texts to undermine the authority of ours" (Civ. 15.11). In a spiritual context that included the crucifixion of Jesus, the murder of Stephen, the attempted murder of Paul, virulent second-century opposition to the gospel, and a willingness to alter and even take away from the words of Scripture, the deliberate corruption of the primeval chronology easily falls within the realm of possibility. The theory that the second-century Palestinian Jews deflated the primeval chronology for anti-Christian reasons supplies the motive, means, and opportunity that no other theory can." (Primeval Chronology Restored: Revisiting the Genealogies of Genesis 5 and 11, Jeremy Sexton, Henry B. Smith Jr. Bible and Spade, 29, no. 2, p 47, 2016 AD)

 

IX. The corruption of the MT, Seder Olam, Yose ben Halafta, and Zippori (Sepphoris), Tiberias and the Masoretes:

1.         See also: Jews corrupt their Tanakh in 160 AD

2.         What becomes clear is that Zippori, the very home town of Yose ben Halafta (author of Seder Olam) was in fact likely the very place were the corruption of the chronological numbers in the Hebrew text took place.

a.         After the Temple of Jerusalem was destroyed, the Jewish community was devastated and survived by using the Greek LXX that had been in wide distribution throughout the world since 282 BC.

b.        However when Hadrian crushed the second Jewish war of Simon Bar Kokhba in 135 AD it was a massive holocaust that brought dead destruction and disorganization to the Jewish community.

c.         Zippori was the intellectual capital of the surviving Jews after Simon bar Kokhba was killed as seen in the production of Seder Olam by Yose ben Halafta in Zippori.

d.        Zippori was also the place where the Mishnah was completed before 200 AD.

e.        So it is clear that the Jews corrupted their Hebrew “proto-Masoretic” text in Zippori between 160-200 AD.

3.         “The traditional Hebrew text, called the Masoretic Text, achieved its standard form early in the second century ad.” (Tyndale Bible Dictionary, Masoretes, 2000 AD)

4.         The importance of Zippori 140-200 AD:

a.         “The 2d century saw the rise of the rabbis at Sepphoris/Diocaesarea. These sages perpetuated and participated in the reconstruction of Pharisaic attitudes and ideals. R. Jose bar Halaphta was a leather-worker and leading Tannaʾ of the third generation, active from around [after] 120 c.e., and teacher of Judah I. He is the chief authority for the accepted Jewish chronology as fixed in Seder Olam Rabba. R. Jose reported that the priestly courses mourned during the week in which they were supposed to serve in the temple (t. Taʿan. 2.3). The names of nineteen other rabbis in Sepphoris/Diocaesarea are known in the 2d century as the city came into its own as a great Jewish intellectual center.” (ABD, Sepphoris, Volume 5, Page 1092, 1992 AD)

b.        “By the first century C.E., Sepphoris had long been recognized as the capital of Lower Galilee. Josephus (Jewish Antiquities, book 14, section 91; Marcus 1943; and War, book 1, section 170; Thackeray 1927) wrote that it had been assigned a synedria in the time of Gabinius (57 B.C.E.). Herod the Great, like the Hasmoneans before him, recognized the strategic value of Sepphoris, which he apparently fortified and provided with a royal palace (basileios). Varus, the legate of Syria, destroyed the city following the attack on the palace by Judas, son of Ezekias, after Herod’s death in 4 B.C.E. (Antiquities, book 17, section 271; Marcus and Wikgren 1963; and War, book 2, section 56; Thackeray 1927). Herod Antipas soon rebuilt Sepphoris, however, and, according to Josephus (Antiquities, book 18, section 27; Feldman 1965) made it into the “ornament of all Galilee.” The use of the Greek proschema (ornament), a term applied in classical literature to other impregnable fortress cities, suggests that Antipas fortified the city in the process (Miller 1984:57). Little is known about Nazareth during the same period; the paltry evidence that exists, however, confirms the impression that it was a village of from 1,000–2,000 residents, not unlike others in Lower Galilee (Meyers and Strange 1981:56). Sepphoris and Nazareth left their marks on history for completely different reasons. Not long after the destruction of the Temple in 70 C.E., Sepphoris began to attract a significant number of rabbis. In the mid-second century, Rabbi Yose ben Ḥalafta, a second generation resident of Sepphoris, became one of the leading authorities of his day. Indeed, this tanna, who is credited with the authorship of the rabbinic chronology Seder ˓Olam Rabbah (Babylonian Talmud Yevamot 82b and Babylonian Talmud Niddah 46b), was responsible for a sizable amount of material that was eventually included in the Mishnah (Epstein 1957:126–47). Thus, by the end of the century [200 AD], when Rabbi Judah Ha-Nasi (Rabbi), the editor of the Mishnah, resettled at Sepphoris, the city had already become a well-established center of learning. Little is known of Rabbiis activities during the 17 years he reportedly lived in Sepphoris (Palestinian Talmud Kil˒ayim 9, 32b; Palestinian Talmud Ketubot 12., 35a), but it is reasonable to assume that the Mishnah reached its final form during that period. After-Rabbi’s death, the importance of Sepphoris as a rabbinic site did not recede. Not only did the patriarchal house and court remain in Sepphoris for a period of time, but the city also became a virtual hub of rabbinic scholarship, as its lecture halls and academies continued to attract the greatest sages of the era. Indeed, one of Rabbi’s distinguished disciples at Sepphoris, Rabbi Ḥanina bar Ḥama, emerged as one of the most influential sages of the third century. Two of his students, Rabbis Yoḥanan and Simeon ben Laqish, would eventually dominate rabbinic life at Tiberias. Other disciples of Ḥanina, simply referred to as Ẓippora˒ei (Sepphorians), frequently quote their mentor’s views in the Palestinian Talmud (Miller 1990, 1992). Sepphoris would continue to be home to the sages until the end of the fourth century, when Rabbi Mana and Rabbi Ḥanina De-Ẓippori (of Sepphoris) were associated with the city. Throughout the tannaitic and amoraic periods, the rabbinic center attracted scholars from throughout the country (Miller 1987:12). Indeed, most of the prominent authorities, particularly, but not exclusively, of Galilee, set foot in Sepphoris at one time or another, either to teach, study or visit. No wonder, then, that the city’s legacy would include not only the Mishnah, but also significant contributions to the Palestinian Talmud, which was edited in Tiberias but abounds in opinions that emanate from authorities associated with Sepphoris. Views assigned to Sepphorian rabbis are also frequently quoted in the Babylonian Talmud and Midrashic literature. In sum, Sepphoris is a pivotal city in terms of the history of Judaism.” (Sepphoris, the Well Remembered City, S. S. Miller, Biblical Archaeologist: Volume 55, 1992 AD)

5.         The Masoretic movement grew directly out of the world class intellectual center at Zippori, which moved northeast to Tiberias:

a.         Tiberias was paganized by the emperor Hadrian, who put down the Second Jewish Revolt in a.d. 135, but in the second and third centuries the city became an important center of Jewish rabbinical study. Evidence of their presence can be found in the Talmud. A famous rabbinical academy was founded, and tombs of the rabbis here are still venerated. The Mishnah, though codified in Sepphoris in 200, took its final form in Tiberias. In the fifth century a.d. the Palestinian Talmud was largely compiled in Tiberias, and in the seventh century it was the center of Masoretic work on the text of the Hebrew Bible. In the opinion of many, Tiberias became in this period “perhaps the greatest intellectual center of ancient Judaism (Strange, 548).” (Dictionary of New Testament Background, Tiberias, p 1237, 2000 AD)

b.        “There were three main centres of Massoretic activity, Palestinian, Babylonian, and Tiberian, of which the last (based in Tiberias in N. Palestine) eventually gained the supremacy; the text of the Tiberian Massoretes thus finally became the recognized text form (although the Babylonian system continued to be used by Yemenite communities).” (The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, Masoretes, 2005 AD)

6.         We have a direct line from Yose ben Halafta who authored Seder Olam Rabbah, the corrupting of the Hebrew Bible, the Mishnah at Zippori 140-250 AD to the Tiberian Masoretes 250-900 AD who preserved the corruption down to the present day with their Masoretic Text manuscript that dates to 1008 AD.

 

 

Conclusion: 

1.         Seder Olam achieved 5 anti-Christian goals for the Jews in 160 AD by reducing the age of the earth: The primary Jewish goal of the new Seder Olam Rabbah chronology was to counter Christianity.

a.         Seder Olam made Jesus Christ into a false messiah because he was born 531 years too early.

b.        Seder Olam redefined the orthodox interpretation of the 490 years of Daniel’s 70 weeks prophecy (Dan 9:24) from a Messianic prophecy to a non-messianic prophecy. Jews were tired of having their butts kicked by Christians with by the 70 weeks of Daniel ending at exactly 33 AD, they year Christ rose from the Dead.

c.         Seder Olam labelled Simon Ben Kokhba (who was almost universally believed by the Jews to be the true messiah) as a false messiah. Before Jewish messiah Simon was killed every called him the “son of the Star” after the Num 24:17 prophecy. After Jewish messiah Simon was killed everyone suddenly realized he was a false messiah and started calling him the Simon ben Koziba “son of the lie”. Seder Olam actually calls Simon Ben Kokba the SON OF THE LIE: “The war of ben Koziba [literally: Hebrew: בר כוזיבא‎‎ = Koziba = “son of the Lie”] two and one half years” (Seder Olam, 30, 160 AD)

d.        Seder Olam extinguished the messianic fire of expectation that had raged out of control since 100 BC and peaked when Jesus began his ministry in 30 AD. Reducing the age of the earth pushed the “earliest date the messiah can come” forward 371 years to 531 AD. This effectively silenced any sermon topics in the Jewish synagogues on Messianic prophecy. Any Jew who suggested he was the messiah would be stoned at once.

e.        Seder Olam became the blueprint template to change the chronological numbers (Genesis chapters 5 & 11) in the Hebrew Torah. The majority of the Hebrew manuscripts (proto-Masoretic) of the Tanakh had been destroyed in 70 AD and 135 AD. The tiny remnant of Jews adopted Zippori as their new intellectual center and were in sole possession of the few remaining Hebrew manuscripts whose chronological numbers matched the Septuagint. This tiny remnant of Jewish scholars could easily change the chronological numbers and produce a new unified Hebrew text. The change would go entirely undetected among the general Aramaic and Greek speaking Jewish population who could not read or speak Hebrew. Indeed, Hebrew had been extinct for close to 500 years among the general Jewish population. The changes in the Genesis chronology from the flood to Abraham was made quietly at Zippori between 160-200 AD. The Mishnah was then produced at Zippori in 200 AD. The nucleus of Jewish scholars at Zippori would morph into what we know today as the Masoretes centered at Tiberias. The Masoretic Text, which underlies all modern translations of the Old Testament dates to 1008 AD and contains the lower chronological numbers that directly contradict the original autograph chronology found in the Septuagint of 282 BC.

2.         The Seder Olam Rabbah was written by Jose ben Halafta who lived in the third generation of Tanna.

a.           Seder Olam dates to 160 AD and provides solid evidence that the Jews reduced the age of the earth to disqualify Jesus as the Messiah according to the Jewish date setters of the day.

3.         Jews and Rabbis in the Present day continue to believe the messiah will come before the earth is 6000 years old: 2017 AD

c.       Jews today continue with the same 6000 + 1000 year system of the first century: “Jacob in Gen 49:1 desired to reveal to them the "end of days" which are “the time of the Messiah””. (Rashi chumash by Rabbi Shraga Silverstein, 2014 AD)

d.      Jews today are in huge trouble because even according to their own Hebrew Masoretic Tanakh, the messiah is 191 years over due. This is why today, Jews use the corrupt Seder Olam chronology because it gives them 222 extra years (as of 2017 AD) before the Messiah MUST come.   The same date from the Masoretic text of their own Bible dates Saturday, 23 September 2017 AD = 6191 AC (After Creation) Jews today follow the corrupt Seder Olam chronology in opposition to their own Jewish Tanakh (Masoretic text). For example, Saturday, 23 September 2017 AD = 3rd of Tishri, 5778 AC (After creation). This date comes from the Seder Olam.

 Years after creation = September 2017 AD

Septuagint

Masoretic

Seder Olam

7461 AC

6191 AC

5778 AC

e.      The Jewish eschatological false doctrine believed in the first century, continues today among many modern Jews that the earth will last 6000 years, followed by the “time of the messiah”.

4.         The scripture corruption of the Hebrew Genesis genealogies by Jewish Rabbis for theological reasons did not begin before the death of "Simon bar Kosiba/Koseba" in 135 AD but was in full gear by 180 AD as witnessed by Justin Martyr.

5.         The majority of the Jewish population from 120-135 AD pinned their hopes on Simon bar Kokhba being the messiah and therefore had no need or motivation to change the age of the earth because false messiah Simon bar Kokhba fit perfectly at year 5692 AC in the LXX and 4306 AC in the MT, as the MT reads today after the corruption that took place in 160 AD.

a.       Simon bar Kokhba was their last messianic hope.

b.      When Simon was killed Seder Olam was drafted as a blueprint for corrupting the chronologies in the Hebrew Tanakh, which in 135 AD read the same as the Septuagint.

6.         At first the Jews tried to corrupt the Septuagint to disconnect Jesus Christ from prophecy, but with 1000 copies in each of the synagogues around the world, such a task proved impossible.

a.       Evidence of this corruption attempt however, can be seen in the three Jewish recensions of the Septuagint which have the shorter chronological numbers. Aquila, for example probably translated around 140-150 AD. (Henry Smith, 2017 AD)

b.      The three Jewish Recessions of the LXX, Aquila (128 CE), Theodotion (150 AD) and Symmachus (170 AD), are not only proof that the Jews were still using the Septuagint in the 2nd century AD as they had for over 400 years, but also proved that they were in fact corrupting the Greek with the revised and lower age of the earth.

7.         Justin Martyr documents this corruption of the Greek LXX bible the Jews had been using for over 400 years in 180 AD:

c.       “But here, too, you dare to distort the translation of this passage made by your elders at the court of Ptolemy, the Egyptian king, asserting that the real meaning of the Scriptures is not as they translated it, but should read, “Behold a young woman shall conceive,” … And, especially when it was prophesied that this would happen, you should not venture to mutilate or misinterpret the prophecies, for in doing so you do no harm to God, but only to yourselves.” (Justin, Dialogue with Trypho the Rabbinical Jew 84, 180 AD)

d.      They have also deleted these words from Jeremiah: “I was as a meek lamb that is carried to be a sacrificial victim; they devised counsels against Me, saying: Come, let us put wood on His bread, and cut Him off from the land of the living, and let His name be remembered no more.” Since this passage from the words of Jeremias is still found in some copies of Scripture in the Jewish synagogues (for it was deleted only a short time ago), and since it is also proved from these words that the Jews planned to crucify Christ Himself and to slay Him, and since He is shown, as was likewise prophesied by Isaias, as led like a lamb to slaughter, and in accordance with this passage He is marked as “an innocent lamb,” they are so confused by such words that they resort to blasphemy.” (Justin, Dialogue with Trypho the Rabbinical Jew 72, 180 AD)

e.      “‘I certainly do not trust your teachers when they refuse to admit that the translation of the Scriptures made by the seventy elders at the court of King Ptolemy of Egypt is a correct one, and attempt to make their own translation. You should also know that they have deleted entire passages from the version composed by those elders at the court of Ptolemy, in which it is clearly indicated that the Crucified One was foretold as God and man, and as about to suffer death on the cross.” (Justin, Dialogue with Trypho the Rabbinical Jew 71, 180 AD)

8.         Soon the Jews discarded the Greek Septuagint altogether and adopted the Hebrew “proto-masoretic” Tanakh in spite of the fact that Hebrew had been functionally extinct among the entire Jewish population for 500 years.

9.         We have a direct line from Yose ben Halafta who authored Seder Olam Rabbah, the corrupting of the Hebrew Bible, the Mishnah at Zippori 140-250 AD to the Tiberian Masoretes 250-900 AD who preserved the corruption down to the present day with their Masoretic Text manuscript that dates to 1008 AD.

10.    See also: Jews corrupt their Tanakh in 160 AD

 

  

Full English translated text of Seder Olam Rabbah online:

 

Seder Olam Rabbah: A fictional Jewish chronology of real world history

 

 

English translation of the Seder Olam Rabbah

 

How to quote the Seder Olam:

A new number system was designed by Steve Rudd for the Seder Olam.

There are 30 Chapters and 117 verses:

Typical quoting syntax: “Text quoted” (Seder Olam Rabbah [chapter:verse]

Example #1: “Our father Abraham was 70 years old when God spoke to him.” (Seder Olam Rabbah 1:2)

Example #2: “Israel worshipped at Shiloh for 369 years” (Seder Olam Rabbah 11:48)

 

Chapter 1: Creation to Jacob

1.       'From Adam to the Deluge 1656 years and the following are the details: Adam 130 years. Seth 108 years. Enosh 90 years. Keinan 70 years. Mehalalel 68 years. Jered 162 years. Hanoch 65 years. Methuselah 187 years. Lemekh 182 years. (Gen. 7:6): "And Noah was 600 years old" etc. Hanoch buried Adam and lived after him 57 years. Methuselah ended his life just before the Deluge. From the Deluge to the Language Split 340 years. It follows that Noah survived the Language Split by 10 years. Our father Abraham was 48 years old at the Language Split. Rebbi Yose said: Eber was a great prophet that he called his son Peleg ("split") "because in his days the earth was split" (Gen. 10:25). You cannot say this happened when Peleg was born since his younger brother Yoqtan had 13 families as his descendants at the Language Split. You cannot say that this happened during Peleg's middle life since Scripture does not come to hide but to explain. Therefore, the verse must mean that the Split occurred during Peleg's last year.

2.       Our father Abraham was 70 years old when he was spoken to (by God's presence) at the Covenant Between the Pieces as it is said (Ex. 12:41): "And it was after 430 years," etc. After that he was spoken to he returned to Haran, stayed there five years as it is said (Gen. 12:4): "And Abram was 75 years old when he left Haran." It follows that from the Dispersion until Abraham left Haran there were 26 years. These are exactly (Gen. 14:4-5) "12 years they served Kedorla`omer and 13 years they rebelled. And in the fourteenth year Kedorleomer came."

3.       That same year in which Abraham left Haran was the year of famine; he descended into Egypt and was there for three months, returned and settled at the grove of Mamre in Hebron; the same year he conquered the kings. He spent there 10 years before he married Hagar as it is said (Gen. 16:3): "Sarai, Abram's wife, took Hagar the Egyptian her bondmaid, at the end of 10 years of Abram's stay in Canaan, etc." And it is written (Gen. 16:16): "Abram was 86 years old when Hagar bore Ismael." It turns out that Ismael was Isaac's elder by 14 years. It turns out that from the Dispersion until the birth of Isaac were 52 years. All the time Sodom was settled was 52 years, of which time it and its sister cities were in rest and quiet for 26 years.

4.       From the Flood to the birth of Isaac 392 years. These are the details: (Gen. 11:10) "These are the descendants of Shem. Shem was 100 years old when he had Arpakhshad, 2 years after the Flood." Arpakhshad 35 (Gen. 11:12), Shelah 30 (Gen. 11:14), Eber 34 (Gen. 11:16), Peleg 30 (Gen. 11:18), Re`u 32 (Gen. 11:20), Serug 30 (Gen. 11:22), Nahor 29 (Gen. 11:24), Terah 70 (Gen. 11:26). (Gen. 21:5) "Abraham was 100 years old when his son Isaac was born to him." (1 Footnote: Terah was actually 130 years old when Abraham died: Acts 7:5)

5.       Our forefather Isaac was 37 years old when he was bound to the altar. (Gen. 21:34) "And Abraham dwelt in the land of the Philistines many days". These days were more than those he dwelt at Hebron, the latter were 25 years and the former 26 years. At that time, Rebecca was born. It follows that Isaac married Rebecca when she was 14 years old.

6.       'Our forefather Abraham buried his father Terah two years before the death of Sarah. Jacob served Abraham 16 years. It follows that Jacob served Shem for 50 years. Shem served Methuselah 98 years. Methuselah served Adam for 243 years. It follows that four men lived in the span of 22 generations and seven men folded the entire world together and saw one another, viz., Adam, Methuselah, Shem, Jacob, Amram, Ahiya of Siloh, Elijah, and the latter is still living.

 

Chapter 2: Jacob

 

7.       Our forefather Jacob was 63 years old when he was blessed'. At that time, Ismael died as it says (Gen. 28:6-9): "Esaw saw that Isaac blessed Jacob and sent him to on the road to Aram to take there a wife for himself, when he blessed him and told him not to take a wife of the daughters of Canaan. So Jacob listened to his father and mother and he went on the road to Aram. Then Esaw understood that the daughters of Canaan were evil in the eyes of his father Isaac. Then Esaw went to Ismael and took Mahalat, the daughter of Ismael, Abraham's son, the sister of Nebaiot as an additional wife." The verse had no need to mention that she was the sister of Nebaiot. So why does the verse mention that she was the sister of Nebaiot? This teaches you that Ismael betrothed her but then he died and her brother Nebaiot gave her away.

8.       Our father Jacob then spent 14 years in the Land of Israel hidden, serving Eber. Eber died two years after Jacob's departure for Aram Naharaim. He left and came to Aram Naharaim; hence, he was 77 years of age when he was standing by the well. 20 years he spent in the house of Laban: Seven years before he married the Mothers, seven years after he married the Mothers, and six years after the birth of 11 tribes and Dinah. It turns out that all tribes were born within 7 years (except Benjamin), each one after seven month pregancy. He left Aram Naharaim, came to Sukkoth and spent there 18 months as it is said (Gen. 33:17) "Jacob traveled to Sukkoth and built himself a house; for his animals he made huts". He left Sukkoth, came to Beth El and spent there six months sacrificing to the Omnipresent one.

9.       He <Jacob> left , Benjamin was born and Rachel died, and at that time Rebecca and <Rebecca's wet-nurse> Deborah died. This implies? that Rachel died at age 37 and Leah did not live beyond 44 years. This implies that Rachel and Leah both married at age 22 since they were twin sisters. He <Jacob> came to his father Isaac in the Land of Canaan and served him for 22 years and Joseph served him <his grandfather> for 9 years. (Gen. 37:2) "This is what happened to Jacob, Joseph was 17 years old" etc.; at that time Leah died.

10.   Joseph descended into Egypt and spent 12 months in the house of Potiphar as it is said (Gen. 39:5): "It happened, from the time that he (Potiphar) appointed him (Joseph) over his house and all his possessions that the Lord blessed the house of the Egyptian for Joseph's sake; the blessing of the Lord was over all his possessions, in the house and on the field." He spent 12 years in jail (Ps. 105:18-19) "They tortured his feet with a rope, his person came in irons. Until the time that his word was fulfilled, the command of the Lord refined him." At age 30 he left jail as it is said (Gen. 41:46): "Joseph was 30 years of age when he stood before Pharao." At that time, Isaac died and there were seven years of plenty and two of famine. This implies that Joseph was 39 years old when our forefathers descended into Egypt, and Levi was then 44 years old. It follows that Joseph was separated from his father, that he was unable to serve him, for 22 years.

11.   During that time Judah married Bat Shua as it is said (Gen. 38:1-2): "It was at that time that Judah separated from his brothers and he turned to an Adullamite man by the name of Hirah. There Judah saw the daughter of a trader by the name of Shua, he married her and went into her." One year for the pregnancy of Er. Er grew up to be seven years old when he married; this makes eight years [from the sale of Joseph]. One year for Errs marriage], one year for Onan who married his brother's widow, one year for (Gen. 38:11) "remain as a widow in your father's house", one year for (loc. cit. 12) "after some time, Bat Shua, the wife of Judah, died." One year for the pregnancy of Perez. Perez grew up to be seven years old when he married, this makes 18 years [from the sale of Joseph]. One year for Hezron, one year for Hamul; Hezron and Hamul descended into Egypt.

12.   Our father Abraham was 99 years old when he circumcized himself as it is said (Gen. 17:24): "Abraham was 99 years old when he had circumcized the flesh of his foreskin." He died at age 175 and Sarah died at age 127 as it is said (Gen. 23:1): "The life span of Sarah was 100 years and 20 years and 7 years, the years of the life of Sarah." Isaac died at age 180, Jacob died at age 147 at it is said (Gen. 47:28): "The days of Jacob, the years of his life, were 147 years."

 

Chapter 3: Abrahamic Covenant to Slavery in Egypt

 

13.   It was said to our forefather Abraham at the Covenant Between the Pieces (Gen. 15:13): "You shall certainly know that your seed will be strangers in a foreign land for 400 years." Who is the seed? That is Isaac, of whom it is said (Gen. 21:12): "Because Isaac will be called seed for you." About Isaac it says (Gen. 25:26): "Isaac was 60 years of age when they were born." Our forefather Jacob said to Pharao (Gen. 47:9): "The days of the years of my wandering are 130 years." This makes together 190 years, this leaves 210 years, a sign for the lifetime of Job who was born at that time as it is said (Job 42:16): "Job lived thereafter 140 years" and it is said (Job 42:10): "The Eternal added double to all that Job had." It turns out that Job was born when Israel descended into Egypt and he died when they left.

14.   Or maybe that Israel was in Egypt the full 400 years. But Kehat was among those who entered Egypt (Gen. 46:11) and it is written (Ex. 6:18): "the years of the life of Kehat were 133 years," (Ex. 6:20) "the years of the life of Amram 137 years." Together with 80 years of Moses this makes 350 years. What does Scripture teach us in the verse (Gen. 15:13) "they will enslave them and mistreat them for 400 years" that all the time they spent in a land that was not theirs adds up to 400 years; "they will enslave them" (these are the years of slavery) "and mistreat them" (these are the years of deprivation) and all of them together add up to 400 years.

15.   And Joseph and all his brothers died. You do not find among all the tribes one whose life was shorter than that of Joseph, and you do not find among all the tribes one who lived longer than Levi'. All the time that Levi was alive, Israel was not enslaved in Egypt as it says (Ex. 1:6): "And Joseph and all his brothers died, all that generation." (Ex. 1:8): "There arose a new king in Egypt who knew nothing of Joseph." [After that Levi died, the Egyptians started to enslave them. From here they said (Sabbat 105b): "If one of brothers dies, all brothers should worry. If one of a company dies, all members of the company should worry." (Ex. 1:7): "The children of Israel were fruitful like vermin etc." (Ex. 1:8): "There arose a new king in Egypt etc."] It turn out that from the death of Levi to the Exodus were 116 years. The slavery extended not more than that time and not less that 86 years, the age of Miriam at the Exodus, since she was named for the bitterness.

16.   The Egyptian plagues were for 12 months, as it is said (Ex. 5:12): "The people dispersed all over Egypt to collect straw as building material." When does one find straw? In the month of Iyar! And they left [in Nisan]. Therefore, the Egyptians were smitten with 10 plagues during 12 months. The plagues came over Jobs during 12 months, as it is said (Job 7:3): "So months of nothingness I was made to inherit and nights of worry they counted for me." Just as nights were for their count, so months were for their count.

17.    The judgment of Gog in the future will be 12 months as it is said (Is. 18:6): "They will be abandoned together for the mountain birds of prey and the animals of the land; in summer the birds of prey will flock to them and all the animals of the earth will winter on them." The judgment of the evildoers in hell? is 12 months as it is said (Is. 66:23): "And it will be from month to month etc." Rebbi Yohanan ben Nuri said: from Passover to Pentecost, as it is said (loc. cit.) "and from holiday to holiday," After 12 months, the souls of Jewish sinners who transgressed Torah and commandments disappears and their bodies decompose, they become ashes, hell expels them, the wind disperses them under the feet of the Just as it is said (Mal. 3:21): "You will suppress the evildoers, for they will be ashes under the feet of the Just, on the day that I shall create, says the Eternal of Hosts." But those who separate themselves from the Jewish community, for example, (Sadducees,) informers, hypocrites and epicureans, as well as those who cause terror in the Land of the Living, those who deny the resurrection of the dead, those who say that Torah is not of divine origin and Jews who scoff at the words of the sages, will be locked in hell and they will be judged in it forever as it is said (Is. 66:24): "They shall go out and look at the corpses of the men who sin against me, for their worm shall not die and their fire not burn out; they shall be an object of repulsion for all flesh." Not only that, but hell may wear out but they will not wear out as it is said (Ps. 49:15): "And their shapes will wear out hell, not to be his dwelling," from His dwelling (zebu/) He will wear out their forms but their forms will wear out hell. What caused this for them? That they lifted their hands against zebu/ (dwelling), as it is said: "His dwelling" and zebu/ always means the Temple as it is said (1Kings 8:13): "I certainly built a zebal house for You."

 

Chapter 4: Noah’s Flood

 

18.   The Deluge was all of twelve months since it is said' (Gen. 7:11): "In the year 600 of Noah's life, on the 17th of the second month, on that exact day, there broke open all sources of the great deep and the sluices of heaven were opened." Its generation will not partake of the Future World and will not be judged as it is said (Gen. 6:3): "My spirit shall not judge this mankind forever." Rebbi Jehoshua says, the 17th of the second month that is the 17th of Iyar, second to Nisan in which the world was created and in which the Pleiads disappear but since they perverted their ways the Holy One, praise to Him, perverted nature for them . Rebbi Eliezer says, the 17th of the second month that is the 17th of Marheshwan, second to Tishre in which the world was created and in which the Pleiads appear, and it was the start of the winter rains. The sages accept the words of R. Eliezer for the Deluge but the words of R. Jehoshua for the computation of seasons.

19.   (Gen. 7:12): "The rain was on the earth for forty days and forty nights" until when? Forty days and forty nights until the 27th of Kislev'. (Gen. 6:24): "The waters were strong over the earth for 150 days" until when? Until the first of Sivan; the waters were standing quietly and the evildoers were punished in them, every one according to his deeds . (Gen. 8:3): "The waters diminished after 150 days," (Gen. 8:5): "The waters diminished steadily until the tenth month; at the first day of the tenth (month), the peaks of the mountains became visible. " The waters were 15 cubits over the earth, they diminished by one cubit every 4 days, one and a half handwidth per day.

20.   (Gen. 8:4): The arc came to rest of the 17th of the Seventh Month, that is Sivan. If you start to count after the stopping of the rains it turns out to be 16 days. Hence, how much was (its bottom) distant from the earth? 4 cubits! And how much was its draught? 11 cubits.

21.   (Gen. 8:6): "It was at the end of forty days"  after the waters started to recede "that Noah opened the window of the arc that he had made."

22.   (Gen. 8:7): "He sent forth the Raven who went and came until the waters dried out from the earth." He waited seven days (Gen. 8:8-9) "and sent the Dove out from him to see whether the waters had become light on the earth. But the Dove did not find a resting place for its feet and returned to him to the arc." He waited another seven days (Gen. 8:10-11) "and sent the Dove another time from the arc. The Dove came to him towards evening with an olive leaf torn in its mouth." He waited another seven days (Gen. 8:12) "and sent the Dove away who did not continue to return to him" but went and rested on the mountain tops. (Gen. 8:5): "In the tenth month at the tenth of the month the mountain tops became visible," this is Abs if one starts to count from the beginning of the rains. The waters were absorbed from the first of Ab to the first of Tishre.

23.   (Gen. 8:13): "It was in the one and sixhundredth year, in the first [month], on the first of the month." We learn from here that part of a month is counted as a month. We learn that from the first of a month one counts a full month, and from the start of a month of a new year one counts the full year since part of the month is like the entire month and part of the year is like the entire year. "The surface of the earth had dried". The water that can come from above were dissolved by the wind and those that had come from below were absorbed where they were, but the earth was still moist and had the consistency of thick soup. They waited and did not sow until the rains came because the waters of the Deluge were a curse and no blessing is contained in a curse.

24.   (Gen. 8:14): "And in the second month, on the 27th of the month," that is Marheshvan, "the earth dried up." That makes in all 12 full months and another 11 days. What is the nature of these? It teaches us that the solar year is 11 days longer than the lunar year. R. Elazar said: But is it not from Creation that the solar year is 11 days longer than the lunar year since they were both created full on the 15th. Deduct from here 4, you arrive at 11. They said to him: But after the first intercalation the moon reaches the sun again. He said to them: It is always periodical and returns. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: He who wants to determine the excess of the solar year over the lunar year should make an incision at the time of the summer solstice and the next year the shadow will not reach there until 11 days afterwards. From that you will know that the solar year is 11 days longer than the lunar year.

 

Chapter 5: Call of Moses at Burning to Mt. Sinai

 

25.   For seven days was the Holy One, praise to Him, arguing with Moses by the thornbush as it says (Ex. 4:10): "And Moses said to the Eternal; please, o Master, I am not a man of words, neither yesterday, nor three days ago, nor since You started to speak to Your servant." Three days ago, that are three days. Neither, nor, nor, another three. Add the day when he was arguing to obtain seven.

26.   This happened at the time of Pesah and one fixes it on the 15th of Nisan. On the same day the following year did the Children of Israel leave Egypt. Similarly, on the 15th of Nisan was our father Abraham talked to between the Pieces. On the 15th of Nisan, the angels came to Abraham to announce [the birth of Isaac] and on the same day the following year was Isaac born as it says (Gen. 18:14): "At that time I shall return to you in the time for life and Sarah will have a son." On the 15th of Nisan, Israel left Egypt as it is said (Ex. 12:41): "It was at the end of 430 years to the day that the hosts of the Eternal left the Land of Egypt," there is one term of all [of these occurrences]. On that 14th of Nisan, Israel were slaughtering their Passover sacrifices in Egypt; in that night the firstborn were smitten.

27.   The day after Pesah was Friday. They travelled from Rameses as it says (Ex. 12:37): "The Children of Israel travelled from Rameses to Sukkoth," and it is written (Num. 33:3): "They travelled from Rameses in the first month, on the fifteenth of the month" and it is written (Num. 33.4): "While the Egyptians were burying the firstborn whom the Eternal had slain among them." From Rameses they travelled to Sukkoth, from Sukkoth to Etham, from Etham to Pi Hahiroth; that makes three days. On the fourth day (Ex. 14:5): "The king of Egypt was informed that the people had fled." On the fifth and sixth (Ex. 14:9): "The Egyptians pursued them and reached them camping on the seashore." In the evening of the seventh day they descended into the sea as it is said (Ex. 14:20): "There was cloud and darkness illuminating the night." The next morning, Israel was rising from the sea, the Egyptians were sinking, and Israel sang as it is said (Ex. 15:1): "Then Moses and the Children of Israel sang the following song." That was a Thursday, the holiday of the last day of Passover.

28.   From the Reed Sea they travelled to Marah as it is said (Ex. 15:23): "they came to Marah";and it is said (Ex. 15:25): "there He gave them ordinances and laws and there He tried them." There Israel received 10 commandments, seven of those had already been given to all of mankind as it is written (Gen. 2:16-17): "There commanded the Eternal, God, to Man, saying: From any tree of the Garden you may certainly eat." "There commanded" refers to a system of laws, and so it says (Gen. 18:19): "For I knew him so that he should command his descendents after him to exercise justice and law in the land." "Eternal" refers to blasphemy as it is said (Lev. 24:16): "He who blasphemes the name of the Eternal shall certainly die." "God" refers to idolatry as it is said (Ex. 20:3): "You shall not have other gods before Me." "To Man" refers to murder, as it is said (Gen. 9:6): "He who spills the blood of a man, by man his blood shall be spilled." "Saying" refers to adultery as it is said (Jer. 3:1): "Saying: If a man send his wife away and she went and became another man's, could he return to her again? Would not the land be filled with immorality? But you committed harlotry with many friends, nevertheless return to Me, pronouncement of the Eternal." "From any tree of the Garden" refers to robbery as it is said (Lev. 5:24): "About anything that one would swear falsely about, he should pay its capital and at its fifths to it." "You may certainly eat" refers to eating limbs of a still living animal as it is said (Gen. 9:4): "But meat, when its life is still in its blood, you shall not eat." Israel added to these at that time Sabbath, the Procedural Law, and Honor of Father and Mother.

29.   From Marah they travelled to Elim as it is said (Num. 33:9): "They travelled from Marah and arrived at Elim; in Elim there were 12 water springs and 70 date palms." Hence', we learn that Israel only encamped near water. From Elim they travelled to Alush as it is said (Ex. 16:1): "They travelled from Elim and the entire congregation of the Children of Israel arrived at the Wilderness of Sin" (that is Alush) "on the 15 day of the second month after the Exodus," which was on a Sabbath. Hence , the First of Iyyar fell on a Sabbath, and in addition we infer  that Israel ate from the cakes that they had taken out of Egypt 30 whole days; on that day it was finished, in the evening they ate quail, and early next morning they collected Mannah. In Alush they were given the Sabbath and there Israel kept the first Sabbath as it is said (Ex. 16:30): "The people observed the Sabbath on the Seventh Day."

30.   On Sundays, the 23rd of Iyar, they travelled from Alush and came to Rephidim. There the Well was given to them , they fought with Amaleq and observed there the second Sabbath . They travelled from Rephidim and came to the wilderness of Sinai and found its top in clouds of glory.

31.   For the next five days Moses ascended the mountain, descended, told the people the words of the Omnipresent, and returned their answer to the Omnipresent. In the Third month, on the Sixth of the month, the Ten Commandments were given to them on a Sabbath day.

 

Chapter 6: The Law of Moses at Mt. Sinai

 

32.   On the Seventh Day after the Ten Commandments', Moses ascended the Mountain as it is said (Ex. 24:16): "The glory of the Eternal dwelt on Mount Sinai and the cloud covered it for seven days," to purify him , "and He called to Moses on the seventh day from amidst the cloud." (v. 18) "He ascended the Mountain; Moses staid on the Mountain for forty days and forty nights." On the 17th of Tammuz he descended , broke the tablets (Ex. 32:30) "and on the next day, Moses said to the people: You have committed a grave sin." He ascended on the 18th of Tammuz and asked for mercy on Israel as it is written (Deut. 9:18): "I fell down before the Eternal the forty days and forty nights that I fell down because the Eternal had said to destroy you." At that moment, the Eternal showed pleasure with Israel and said to Moses to quarry the second tablets and to ascend as it is said (Deut. 10:1) : "At that time, the Eternal said to me: quarry for yourself two stone tablets like the first ones, ascend the Mountain to me, and make yourself a wooden chest."

33.   He descended on the 28th of Ab and quarried two stone tablets identical to the first ones as it says (Ex. 34:4): "He quarried two stone tablets like the first ones, then Moses got up early in the morning and ascended Mount Sinai." He ascended on the 29th of Ab and there the Torah was taught to him a second time as it is said (Deut. 10:10): "I stood on the Mountain like the first days, 40 days and 40 nights; the Eternal listened to me that time also, the Eternal did not desire to destroy you." "Like the first days," just as the first days were in pleasure, so the last days were in pleasure; it follows that the middle days were in anger. He descended on the 10th of Tishre, that is Yom Kippur, and announced that the Omnipresent had shown them His pleasure, as it is said (Ex. 34:9): "You will forgive our crimes and sins and let us inherit." Therefore, it remained an ordinance of remembrance for all generations as it is said (Lev. 16:34): "This shall be for you an eternal ordinance." (Ex. 34:30) "It was when Moses descended from the Mountain that Aaron and all of Israel saw that the skin of his face was radiant, (v.31) they returned to him, (v. 32) and after that all of Israel presented themselves and he commanded them." What did he commend them? He commanded them to build the Tabernacle. They started to build the Tabernacle (Ex. 35:21): "there came everybody whose heart lifted him up."

34.   (Ex. 39:43): "Moses saw all the work, and behold, they had crafted it, just as the Eternal had commanded so they had crafted it, and Moses blessed them." How did he bless them? He said to them: "May it be the Divine pleasure that the Shekhina should dwell in the work of your hands." They said: (Ps. 90:17): "May the pleasure of the Master, our God, be upon us; may He solidly base our handiwork for us; our handiwork, may He solidly base it." He said to them: "Hail to you, Israel, that you merited to work on the Tabernacle. In the same way that you merited this, so may you merit that the Temple will be given to you and that the Shekhina shall rest in your midst as it is said (Ex. 25:8): 'They shall make a holy place for me and I shall dwell in their midst."'

 

Chapter 7: The Tabernacle of Moses

 

35.   (Ex. 40:1-4): "The Eternal spoke to Moses, saying: On the First day of the First month you shall erect the dwelling of the Tabernacle and put there etc., and bring the table," etc. The Seven Days of Dedication started on the 23rd of Adar and were completed on the first of Nisan. All Seven Days of Dedication, Moses was erecting the Tabernacle every morning, brought sacrifices, and disassembled the Tabernacle. On the Eighth Day he erected it and did not dissassembled it. Rebbi Yose the son of Rebbi Yehudah says, also on the Eighth Day he erected and disassembled it.

36.   (Ex. 29:32): "Aaron and his sons shall eat the meat of the ram and the bread in the basket." (Lev. 8:35-36): "At the entrance to the Tabernacle you shall sit day and night for seven days, .. . Aaron and his sons did all that the Eternal had commanded through Moses." (Lev. 9:1): "It was on the eighth day that Moses called Aaron and his sons and the elders of Israel," after the Seven Days of Dedication. It was the first day of the week, the first day of Nisan. On that day, Aaron and his sons entered their priesthood, washed their hands and feet from the wash basin, performed all cultic acts and established their order. On that day, the princes started to sacrifice as it is said (Num. 7:12): "He who sacrificed on the first day was Nahshon ben Aminadab of the tribe of Judah." [This day was] first in the count of Creation, first for the princes, first of the dwelling of the Shekhinah in Israel as it is said (Ex. 29:45): "I shall dwell among the Children of Israel," first day of prohibition of private altars, first for the priesthood, first for the priestly blessing, first for the Temple service, first for slaughtering North of the altar, first for consumption of sacrifices, first for the heavenly fire as it is said (Lev. 8:24): "Fire went out from before the Eternal and consumed holocaust and fats on the altar." On that day, Israel started to offer daily sacrifices, vows, voluntary offerings, sin offerings, reparation offerings, first born animals and tithes. About that day it is said (Cant. 4:16-5:1): "Awake North wind, come South wind, blow in my garden, let its fragrances drip; may my friend enter his garden and eat its delicious fruit. I came to my garden, o sister bride, I plucked my myrrh and fragrances, 1 ate my honeycombs with honey, I drank my wine with milk; eat, o friends, drink and get intoxicated, beloved ones." 'Awake North wind,' this is the holocaust slaughtered North of the altar; 'come South wind,' these are peace offerings slaughtered in the South; 'blow in my garden,' the Tabernacle; let its fragrances drip,' that is the spice burning; 'may my friend enter his garden,' that is the Shekhinah; 'and eat its delicious fruit,' these are the sacrifices. 'I came to my garden, o sister bride,' that is the Eighth Day; 'I plucked my myrrh and fragrances,' that are the incense and flour offerings; 'I ate my honeycombs with honey,' these are the limbs of the holocaust and the altar's parts of the other sacrifices; 'I drank my wine with milk,' these are the wine offerings and offered part of family sacrifices; 'eat, oh friends,' that is Moses and Aaron; 'drink and get intoxicated, beloved ones,' that is the congregation of Israel.

37.   On that day, Elisheba the daughter of Aminadab was differing from the rest of. Jewish [women] by four joys and one mourning: Her brother-in-law was king, her husband high priest, her brother prince, and her sons vice high priests. Her mourning for her two sons Nadab and Abihu. Some people say, also her grandson anointed priest for war, that is Phineas. On the second of Nisan, Eleazar burned the red cow, Israel had its ashes sprinkled and repeated. On the 14th they slaughtered the Passover sacrifice; that was a Sabbath.

 

Chapter 8: Kadesh Barnea

 

38.   (Num. 1:1): "The Eternal spoke to Moses in the wilderness of Sinai, in the Tabernacle, on the first of the second month in the second year': (Num. 1:2) count the heads on the entire congregation of the children of Israel, (Num. 1:3) those twenty years old and older, every man of military age in Israel. (Num. 1:4) With you shall be one man from each tribe, each one being a family head." After that (Num. 4:1) "distinguish the persons from the family of Qehat"; after that (Num. 4:22) "distinguish the persons from the family of Gershon"; after that (Num. 4:29) "distinguish the persons from the family of Merari"; after that (Num. 4:49) "by the order of the Eternal they were put into office by Moses." On the fourteenth of Iyyar the impure by corpses did slaughter the Passover sacrifice as it is said (Num. 9:6-11): "there were people who were impure by a human corpse . . . These people said to [Moses] . . . The Eternal said to Moses, saying: every person that will be impure by a human corpse or on a trip far away, for you or for future generations, shall make a Passover for the Eternal." (Num. 10:11): "It was in the second year in the second month on the twentieth of the month that the Cloud rose from the Tabernacle." It follows that they stayed in the wilderness of Sinai from 12 months minus 10 days . It says (Num. 33:2): "Moses wrote down the starting places of their journeys." They set out from the wilderness of Sinai, came to the Graves of Desire, and staid there for 30 days as it says (Num. 11:19-20): "Not one day shall you eat and not two days . . . but a full month . ." They set out from the Graves of Desire and came to Hazerot and staid there for seven days as it is said (Num. 12:15) "Miryam was locked up for seven days." They set out from Hazerot and came to the wilderness of Paran. On the 28th of Sivan did Moses send out the spies as it is said (Num. 13:20): "the days were those of the ripening of early grapes." (Num. 13:25): "They returned from touring the land after 40 days," this was the Ninth of Ab , hence, one has to say that on the Ninth of Ab our forefathers incurred the decree that they would not enter the Land. After the spies was the quarrel with Qorah and his being swallowed up [by the earth] as it is said (Num. 16:14): "Not even to a land dripping with milk and honey did you lead us." (Num. 32:10): "Then the rage of the Eternal was kindled against Israel" and it is said (Dew . 2:14): "The time that we went from Kadesh Barnea until we crossed Wadi Zered was 38 years." 19 years they were wandering to and fro and 19 years they dwelt in Kadesh Barnea as it is said (Deur. 1:46): "You dwelt at Kadesh a long time, equal to the time that you dwelt. " All way stations together were 42 way stations.

 

Chapter 9 Kadesh Barnea to Crossing the Jordan

 

39.   (Num. 20:1) "The entire congregation came to the wilderness of Zin in the first month. The people dwelt at Kadesh. Miriam died there and was buried there." (v.2) "There was no water for the congregation, so they assembled against Moses and Aaron" because the well had disappeared. This was in the fortieth year, on the first of the month of Nisan'. At that time (v.14) "Moses sent messengers from Kadesh to the king of Edom." Israel stayed there for three months . (Num. 33:38) "Aaron the priest ascended Mount Hor by the command of the Eternal and died there. " (v.39) "Aaron was 123 years old when he died on mount Hor." When Aaron died, the clouds of glory vanished and the Canaanites came to wage war against Israel. (v.40) "The Canaanite, the king of Arad heard." What did he hears? He heard that Aaron had died, the great scout, and the Cloud that had waged war for them had disappeared; so he came and waged war against them. They retraced their steps and returned seven stops and rested at Mosera as it is said (Deut. 10:6): "The children of Israel travelled from the cisterns of Bne Yaacion to Moserah, there Aaron died." But in fact he died on mount Hor. But from the place that he died they returned seven stops until they rested at Moserah. (Deut. 10:7) "From there, they traveled to Gudgodah, from Gudgodah to Yotvatah, a land of water streams." (Num. 21:16) "And from there to the well," that is the well that returned to them .

40.   (Num. 21:10-11) "The Children of Israel travelled and camped at Obot. They travelled from Obot and camped at the ruins of Abarim, in the desert that faces Moab from the East." (v.13) "From there they travelled and camped across the Arnon . . ;" there they made war against Sihon (Num. 21:24) "And Israel smote him by the sword." (v.33) "They turned and went up the way to Bashan ...." (v.34) "The Eternal said to Moses, do not fear him . . . . " (Num. 22:1) "The children of Israel travelled and camped in the prairie of Moab, across the Jordan from Jericho." (Num. 25:19) "It was after the plague that the Eternal said to Moses and Eelazar ben Aharon, the Priest: Count the head of all Children of Isreal . . . ." (Num. 26:53) "For these, the Land shall be divided up . . . " , the sons gave back to the fathers and the fathers in turn let the sons inherit. Serah the daughter of Asher was from those who came to Egypt and those who left Egypt . From those who came to Egypt as it is said (Gen. 46:17): "and their sister Serah", from those who entered the Land as it is said (Num. 26:46): "the name of the daughter of Asher was Serah." Yokhebed was of those who came to Egypt and those who left it as it is said (Num. 26:59): "the name of the wife of Amram was Yokhebed, daughter of Levi, to whom she was born in Egypt.' Yair the son of Manasse and Makhir the son of Manasse were born when our forefather Jacob was still alive ; they died after the death of Moses our teacher. Nobah was born in Egypt, died after the death of Moses our teacher, and was buried in Transjordan. (Num. 26:65) "No single one of them was left, except for Caleb ben Yephuneh and Joshua bin Nun."

 

Chapter 10: Death of Moses

 

41.   (Deut. 1:3-5) "It was in the fortieth year, in the eleventh month, on the first of the month, that Moses spoke to the Children of Israel, following all that the Eternal had commanded him about them. After he had smitten Sihon, the king of Heshbon, ... in Transjordan, in the land of Moab ...." From the first of Shebat to the sixth of Adar, during 36 days, did our teacher Moses explain the entire Torah. On the sixth, (Deut. 31:14) "the Eternal spoke to Moses, behold, your days came close to your death." On the seventh (Deut. 31:1-2) "Moses went and spoke these words to all of Israel. Hundred and twenty years of age I am today." Why does Scripture have to say 'today'? It says 'today' to teach us that on the seventh of Adar Moses was born and on the seventh of Adar he died as it is said (Deut. 34:5-7): "And Moses, the servant of the Eternal, died there in the land of Moab by the word of the Eternal. He buried himself in the valley, in the land of Moab, and nobody knows his burial place . . . . Moses was exactly 120 years old at his death, his eye had not dimmed and his sap had not dried up." (Jos. 1:1-2) "It was after the death of Moses, the Servant of the Eternal, that the Eternal said to Joshua ... My servant Moses died, and now get up to cross the Jordan .. ." (Jos. 1:10-11) "Joshua commanded the policemen of the people: Pass through the camp and order the people, saying, prepare provisions for yourselves for in three days you will cross the Jordan to come to inherit the Land that the Eternal gives you as inheritance." (Jos. 4:19) "The people ascended from the Jordan on the tenth of the first month; they camped at Gilgal, on the eastern fringe of Jericho." Count from here 33 days backwards and you are taught that Moses, our teacher, died on the seventh of Adar.

42.   Three good providers arose for Israel, Moses, Aaron, and Miriam. Three good gifts were given to Israel through them: the well, the pillar of clouds, and the mannah. Mannah by the merit of Moses, the pillar of clouds by the merit of Aaron, the well by the merit of Miriam. When Miriam died, the well disappeared; it was restituted to Israel by the merits of Moses and Aaron. When Aaron died, the pillar of clouds disappeared and was restituted to Israel by the merits of Moses. !When Moses died] all three disappeared and were never restituted, as it is said (Zach. 11:8) "I removed the three shephards in one month," but did they die in one month, not rather in one year? Miriam died on the 10th of Nisan, Aaron on the first of Ab, Moses our teacher on the seventh of Adar. Rather, on the day of Moses' death all three disappeared and never were restituted.

43.   From the Mannah that they collected on the Seventh of Adar they ate until the Sixteenth of Nisan as it is said (Jos. 5:12): "The Mannah stopped the next day when they were eating from the yield of the Land; from thereon, the Children of Israel had no more Mannah but they ate from the produce of the land of Canaan in that year." Why does Scripture say (Ex. 16:35): "The Children of Israel ate Mannah for forty_ years until they arrived at cultivated land," on the day of Moses's death, the Mannah stopped coming down, "they ate the Mannah until they came to the border of the land of Canaan," that day the Mannah that they had in their hands vanished. That makes forty years minus 30 days, plus the thirty days they ate from the cakes they brought with them from Egypt that was good [in taste] for them like Mannah.

 

Chapter 11: Conquest of Joshua

 

44.   (Jos. 4:19) "The people ascended from the Jordan on the Tenth of" that month. The took with them 12 stones from the outside and deposited them under where the feet of the priests stood. They took another 12 stones from the Jordan and deposited them at Gilgal, at the Eastern border of Jericho. After they ascended from the Jordan they came to Mounts Gerizim and Ebal in Samaria, near Sichem, by the groves of Moreh as it is said (Deut. 11:30): "Behold, they are on the other side of the Jordan, westward, on the way to sunset ...." There Israel recited the blessings [and returned to the camp. The stones] they erected in their order as he had ordered them (Jos. 4:3) "saying, carry with you from here, from the Jordan, from the place of the feet of the priests, preparing twelve stones and transfer them with you ... ." (Jos. 4:20) "And those twelve stones that they had taken from the Jordan, Joshua erected them at Gilgal," whitewashed them, and they wrote on it the Torah in 70 languages as it is said (Deut. 27:8): "You shall write on them all the words of this Torah, well explained." They sacrificed peace-offerings and ate there as it is said (v.7): "You shall sacrifice peace offerings and eat there . . ." At that moment, Israel became obligated to the laws of Hallah, `Orlah, and Hadash.

45.   (Jos. 5:2) "At that time, the Eternal said to Joshua," on the eleventh of Nisan. (v.3) "Joshua made flint-stone swords and circumcised the Children of Israel on the hill of foreskins." On the fortieth of Nisan, Israel slaughtered their Passover sacrifices as it is said (Jos. 5:10): "The children of Israel encamped and Gilgal and made Passover . . . . " On the sixteenth of Nisan, Israel sacrificed the 'Omer as it is said (Jos. 5:11): "They ate from the yield of the Land . . . ." After Passover, on the 22nd of Nisan, (Jos. 6:3) "You shall walk around the city ...", (v. 15) "it was on the Seventh day ...";

46.   R. Yose says, is was a Sabbath. The battles for Jericho, Ai, and Gibeon, were all within three months. On the third of Tammuz, (Jos. 10:12-13) "he said before the Children of Israel: Sun stand still over Gibeon, And Moon over valley of Ayalon! So the Sun was still And the Moon stood Until the people from its enemies vengeance took!

47.   R. Yose said: this was the day of the summer solstice. It follows that, in that year the first of Nisan was the spring equinox.

48.   Caleb said to Joshua (Jos. 14:7): "I was 40 years old when Moses, the Eternal's servant, sent me from Kadesh Barnea to spy out the land" (v.10) "and now I am 85 years old." This teaches us that for seven years they were conquering. From where do we know that for seven years they were dividing up the land before they started to count years for tithes, sabbatical years, and jubilee years ? Now Israel stayed 850 years from the time they entered until they left, these are 17 complete Jubilee periods. And so it says (Ez. 40:1): "In the 25th year of our exile, on the day of the New Year, on the tenth of the month, 14 years after the destruction of the city [of Jerusalem]." When did he [Ezechiel] have this vision? At the beginning of a Jubilee period. If they stayed for 17 entire jubilee periods, how can there be an excess of 17 years ? One has to say that 14 years Israel spent at Gilgal, seven when they were conquering and seven when they we distributing. After that (Jos. 18:1) "All the congregation of the Children of Israel assembled at Shiloh and there they put up the Tabernacle." At that moment, they started to count years for tithes, sabbatical years, and Jubilee years. (Jos. 22:1-2) "Then Joshua called the Reubenites, the Gadites, and the semi-tribe of Manasse and said to them: you kept everything that Moses, the Servant of God, had commanded you; you listened to my voice for all orders that I gave you." Joshua sent them to their tents and blessed them. On their return they built a big altar for view . Joshua celebrated with them the first sabbatical year ; he died before he finished the second one. The sanctuary at Shiloh was built on stone walls and was covered by gobelins; Israel worshipped in it for 369 years1 , then it was destroyed.

 

 

1 Footnote: 369 years at Shiloh: Seder Olam, which incorrectly uses 50 years instead of 49 years, says the Exodus was a Jubilee year which creates a deficit of 10 year (using 50 year Jubilee). Exodus 1446 BC -50 years = 1396 BC. 1406 – 1396 = 10 year deficit in Seder Olam. The assembling at Shiloh took place in the 7th year after the conquest in 1406 BC. Before crossing the Jordan in 1406 BC, two Transjordan tribes of Gad and Reuben had already got their inheritance. Then it took 6 years to conquer the land at the end of which three additional tribes, Judah, Ephraim, Manasseh had got their land in 1400 BC. It was after this, that the tabernacle tent was set up at Shiloh in the first sabbatical year of 1399 BC. After that, the 7 remaining tribes got their land. "Then the whole congregation of the sons of Israel assembled themselves at Shiloh, and set up the tent of meeting there; and the land was subdued before them. There remained among the sons of Israel seven tribes who had not divided their inheritance." (Joshua 18:1–2)

Moses said the counting began in 1406 BC, not when the tabernacle was set up at Shiloh. What is worse, is that Seder Olam even gets the date for setting up the Shiloh tent wrong at year 14 after crossing the Jordan (1392 BC) and begin counting the Jubilee starting in 1392 BC. In fact, the tabernacle tent rested at Gilgal from 1406-1400, then in 1399, the first sabbatical year, they moved the tabernacle to Shiloh. Moses explicity said that counting for Jubilees began the day they crossed the Jordan. “When you come into the land which I shall give you, then the land shall have a sabbath to the Lord.” (Leviticus 25:2). This fact is confirmed by Ezek 40:1 which records a Jubilee in 573 BC and the Babylonian Talmud says this is the 17th jubilee cycle which sets 1406 BC as the exact start to the very year of the first cycle. [573 BC + (17*49) = 1406 BC]. The tabernacle was destroyed 305 years later at the death of Eli in 1094 BC. For Jews to be using the Seder Olam today is simply shocking. Steve Rudd 2017 AD

 

 

 

Chapter 12: Judges

 

49.   Joshua provided for Israel for 28 years. (Jos. 24:29-30) "It was after these words that Joshua, the son of Nun, the servant of God, died at the age of 110 years. They buried him at the border of his inheritance at Timnat-Serah in the mountains of Ephraim, North of Mopunt Gadsh." At that time died Eleazar as it is said: (Jos. 24:33) "Eleazar, the son of Aaron died, they buried him on the hill of his son Phineas." (Jos. 24:31) "Israel served the Eternal all the days of Joshua and all the days of the elders who survived Joshua by days, who had known all the deeds of the Eternal that He had done for Israel"; days they survived but not years.

50.   After him was Othniel ben Qenaz 40 years. Deduct from his rule eight years of subservience to Kushan Rish`ataim. In the days of Kushan Rish`ataim was the statue of Micha as it is said (Jud. 18:30): "the Children of Dan put up the idols for themselves and Jonathan the son of Gershom the son of Mo(na)ses, he and his sons were priests for the tribe of Dan until the day of exile of the land." Also in his time was the Concubine of Gibea, (Jud. 19:10,12): "He got up and went and came to oppposite Yebus But his master said to him, let us not go to a city of Gentiles who are not Israelites."

51.   After him Ehud ben Gera 80 years, including 18 years subservience to Eglon, the king of Moab. In his days was Shamgar ben Anath, at the end of Eglon's days. About the time of Eglon it was said (Ruth 1:1-2): "It was in the time of judging the judges, there was famine in the land and a man from Bethlehem in Judea went to dwell in the fields of Moab, he and his wife and his two sons. The name of the man was Elimelekh," and there it says (Ruth 1:13): "No, my daughters, it is more bitter for me than for you, for the hand of the Eternal went out against me", and it is said (Jud. 2:15): "Whenever they ventured out, the hand of the Eternal was against them, for evil." Nahshon ben Aminadab died in the second year after the Exodus. Salmon was of those who entered the Land, he died after Joshua (Jud. 2:10) "with his entire generation." Elimelekh was Salmon's brother.

52.   After him Deborah and Baraq ben Abinoam 40 years. Deduct from these the subjugation under Yabin and Sisera 20 years. (Jud. 6:1): "The Children of Israel did evil in the eyes of the Eternal; so the Eternal gave them into the hand of Midian for seven years. Forty years of Gideon, but the seven years of Midian are not counted in them. (Jud. 9:22): "Abimelekh lorded over Israel three years." (Jud. 10:1-2): "After Abimelekh there rose Tola` ben Puah ben Dodo from the tribe of Issakhar to save Israel .... He judged Israel for 23 years ... ." After him Yair from Gilead 22 years. Deduct from these one year that is counted for both of them.

53.   (Jud. 10:6-8) "The Children of Israel continued to do evil in the eyes of the Eternal . . . . The rage of the Eternal was against Israel and He sold them into the hands of the Philistines and the Ammonites. They roughed up and oppressed the Children of Israel in that year, eighteen years, all Israelites in Trans Jordan, in the land of the Emorite, that is Gilead"; 18 years until the second year of Jephtah. In the second year of Jephtah, he said to the king of the Ammonites (Jud. 10:26): "While Israel dwelt at Hesbon and its surroundings, Ar`or and its surroundings, for 300 years, why did you not save at that time?" Jephtah ruled for six years. Ibzan of Bethlehem seven years. Deduct from these one year that is counted for both of them. [Elon of Zebulun ten years. Abdon ben Hillel eight years. Deduct from these a year that is counted for both of them.] (Jud. 13:1) "The Children of Israel continued to do evil in the eyes of the Eternal; the Eternal gave them in the hand of the Philistines for forty years," 20 in the time of Yephtah and 20 in the time of Simson.

 

Chapter 13: Death of Eli to David

 

54.   Eli governed Israel for forty years. On the day of his death (Ps. 78:60-61,67): "He abandoned the sanctuary at Siloh . . . . He gave His power into captivity .... He despised the tent of Joseph." (1Sam. 6:1-2) "The ark of the Eternal was in the fields of the Philistines for seven months. The Philistines called . ." (1Sam. 7:1-2) "The people of Qiryat Yearim came .... And from the day the arc was installed at Qiryat Yearim, there were many days, they added to twenty years . . . . " Subtract from these the seven years that David ruled over Jehudah at Hebron, there are left 13 years. Subtract from these 10 for Samuel himself and two for Samuel and Saul.

55.   (1Sam. 7:2) " And from the day the arc was installed at Qiryat Yearim it was a long time, 20 years, all of Israel was drawn after the Eternal." At the beginning of these 20 years they brought the Tabernacle to Nob. Even though the Arc of the Eternal was at Qiryat Yearim they sacrificed at Nob for 13 years and 7 years at Gibeon. At the end of 20 years did David bring up the Arc of the Eternal to the house of Obed-Edom the Gittite (2Sam. 6:11) "and the Arc of the Eternal stayed in the house of Obed Edom the Gittite for three months." This teaches us that Obed Edom was blessed only because of God's Ark.

56.   (1Sam. 13:1) "One year Saul was in his reign …." Samuel said to Saul when he anointed him (1Sam. 10:8) "Descend before me to Gilgal ...." He descended the first year, smote Nahash the Ammonite, and Israel anointed him. The second year he descended and did not keep his promise. (1Sam. 13:13) "Samuel said to Saul; you acted foolishly, you did not keep the commandment of your God ...." At that time, David was anointed as it is said (1Sam. 16:1): "The Eternal said to Samuel: until when are you mourning for Saul ....", after that (v. 13) "Then Samuel took the horn of oil and anointed him in the midst of his brothers . . ." when he was 29 years old . (1Sam. 19:8) "Saul was hostile to David ..." and it says (1Sam. 16:14): "The spirit of the Eternal had left Saul." At that time, Nob was destroyed and they came to Gibeon. Samuel lived only to be 52 years and a little, as it is said (1Sam. 1:9-10) "And Eli the priest was sitting on the throne .. . but she was bitter in her soul . . ," at that time he had been appointed Judge over Israel and it says (1Sam. 4:18): "He had judged Israel for 40 years." There are 13 years remaining. Subtract from them one year for [Hannah's] pregnancy and 11 years for Samuel and 1 year for Samuel and Saul, one gets 52 years. Samuel died before the death of Saul about four months as it is said (1Sam. 27:7): "The number of days that David dwelt in the fields of the Philistines were some days and four months." (2Sam. 2:1) "It was after that that David inquired from the Eternal, shall I ascend to one of the cities of Judah . . .." (v. 10): "Forty years was Ishboshet when he became king and two years he ruled ..." It turns out that the kingdom over Israel was vacant for 5 years. (2Sam. 5:3): "All the elders of Israel came to the king at Hebron . ." At that time David was anointed a second time. (v. 4) "Thirty years was David when he became king and forty years he ruled."

 

Chapter 14: David

 

57.   (1Chr. 15:25) "And David, the Elders of Israel, and the commanders over thousands went to bring the Ark of Covenant" (1Chr. 16:1-3, 2Sam. 6:17-19) "They brought the Eternal's Ark and presented it in the tent that David had erected . . . . David finished to bring the sacrifices . . . . He distributed to all the people of Israel, from man to woman, per person one loaf of bread, a date cake, and a raisin cake." (1Chr. 16:4) "He gave before the Eternal's Ark servants from the Levites ...." (1Chr. 16:7) "On that day, David appointed as head, to praise the Eternal, Asaph and his brothers." In the morning they said (1Chr. 16:8): "Thank the Eternal, appeal to His name ..." until (v. 22): "Do not touch my anointed, do not do evil to my prophets." In the evening they said (v. 23): "Sing to the Eternal all the Land . ." until (v. 36): "All the people said 'Amen and praise to the Eternal.' This they were doing all of 43 years before the Ark until Solomon brought it to the eternal Temple. When David was fleeing before his son Absalom, Ebiatar was standing until they ascended the Mount of Olives and inquired of Urim and Tummim. Then Ebiatar was removed and Zadoq replaced him and they returned the Ark to its place. But the Tabernacle that Moses had made in the desert, the copper alter made by Bezalel, the candelabra, the table, and the heavenly fire that had descended in the days of Moses, were at the holy place at Gibeon, (1Chr. 16:39) "But Zadoq the priest and his brothers the priests were before the Eternal's Tabernacle at the holy place at Gibeon." (v. 40) "And with them Heman and Yeduthun ." This they did for 50 years at Gibeon until they came to the eternal Temple.

58.   (2Sam. 15:7-8) "It was at the end of 40 years that Absalom said . . . because your servant made a vow . ," that was the 37th year of the reign of David. Rebbi Nahorai said in the name of R. Yehoshua, at the end of 40 years after Israel demanded a kingdom in the tenth year of Samuel the Seer. From here you can compute that Solomon was 12 years old on his accession. (2Sam. 12:25) "[The Eternal] sent through Nathan the prophet and called his name Yedidiah . . . ." At that time, (2Sam. 13:1): "It was after that, Absalom the son of David had a beautiful sister, Tamar by name . ." (v. 23) "It was after two years ...." (v. 39) "But Absalom fled and went to Geshur; he was there for three years," makes together five. (2Sam. 14:28) "Absalom lived in Jerusalem for two years and did not see the king," that makes seven. (2Sam. 21:1) "There was famine in the days of David for three years ...." (2Sam. 21:8) "They toured the entire land and returned to Jerusalem after 9 months and 20 days," that makes 11 years. In his last year, king David instituted the classes of priests and Levites and wrote the rules for the Temple, and it is written (2Chr. 26:31): "In the fortieth year of the reign of David they were sought..:'

 

Chapter 15: Solomon

 

59.   (1Kings 2:11) "The days that David ruled over Israel were 40 years." And it is said (1Kings 6:1): "It was in the 480th year after the Exodus, in the fourth year, in the month of Ziv, that is the second month, of Solomon's rule over Israel, that he built the Temple." In the second year of Jephtah, he said to the king of the Ammonites (Jud. 10:26): "While Israel dwelt at Hesbon and its surroundings, Ar`or and its surroundings, for 300 years . . ." and from Jephtah's second year until the Temple was built 140 years, and 40 years that Israel was in the wilderness, makes together 480 years. The Temple was built in the middle of a Jubilee period and in the fourth year both of a Shemittah period and of Solomon's reign as it is said (1Kings 6:37-38,7:1): "In the fourth year, the Temple had its foundation laid in the month Ziv. In the eleventh year, in the month Bul, that is the eighth month, the Temple was finished according to all its works and rules; it was seven years in building. His own house Solomon built for 13 years . . ." (1Kings 8:1-2) "Then Solomon would assemble the elders of Israel and all the heads of the tribes, the hereditary princes of Israel, to king Solomon in Jerusalem, to bring up the Ark of the Covenant of the Eternal from the city of David, that is Zion. There assembled around king Solomon all men of Israel, ...." This teaches us that the Shekhinah dwells only on the general assembly, and so it is said (Lev. 9:24): "All the people saw and rejoyced" and it says (Lev. 9:5): "All the congregation assembled and stood before the Eternal", and at the Giving of the Torah it says (Ex. 19:11): "On the third day, The Eternal will descend onto Mount Sinai before the eyes of all the people." For the eternal Temple it says (2Chr. 7:1): "When Solomon was finished with his prayer, the fire descended from heaven and consumed the holocausts and sacrifices and the glory of the Eternal filled the Temple." (v.3) "All the Children of Israel saw the descent of the fire and the glory of the Eternal on the Temple, they fell face down to the earth on the floor and praised the Eternal, the truly good one, whose kindness is eternal." About that hour it says (Cant. 3:11): "Come out and look, o daughters of Zion, at the King Solomon, at the crown with which his mother crowned him at the day of his wedding and the day of the joy of his heart," at the day of his wedding, at the eighth day after the dedication, and the day of the joy of his heart, at the completion of the eternal Temple.

60.   (1Kings 3:3) "Solomon loved the Eternal, going in the laws of his father David," four years until he started to build the Temple. (v. 1) "He took Pharao's daughter and brought her to the city of David." At that time (1Kings 11:21): "Hadad heard in Egypt that David laid with his fathers and that Joab, the commander of the army, had died," (v. 25) "He made war upon Israel all the days of Solomon like the evil that was Hadad." (1Kings 10:27-29, 11:1) "The king made silver in Jerusalem like stones . . , and the origin of Solomon's horses was from Egypt . . , there was imported from Egypt a chariot for 600 pieces of silver . . , and king Solomon loved many foreign women in addition to Pharao's daughter . . ," that you end up saying (Jer. 32:31): "Certainly, for anger and rage was this city for me .. .." But in Solomon's old age, close to his death, the holy spirit rested on him and he composed these three books: Proverbs, Song of Songs, and Ecclesiastes.

61.   Ahiyah said to Jeroboam (1Kings 11:38): "It will be if you listen to all that I am commanding to you, that you will walk in My ways and do the right thing in My eyes, to keep My laws and ordinances, as did David, my servant, then I shall be with joy and build for you a long lasting dynasty just as I did for David, and I shall give you Israel." What did He build for David? He gave him rule over Israel for 36 years, 33 years for him and 3 years for his son. But since Jeroboam did not gain merit, his rule was finished in his hands after 33 years for him and 3 for his son. And so it says (1Kings 11:39): "I shall deprive the seed of David for that, but not all the days." What does he mean by "for that," for the 36 years that-Solomon was son-in-law of Pharao, and what does he mean by "but not all the days," it was already clear before Him that Asa would go astray in the future.

 

Chapter 16: Rehoboam to Asa

 

62.   (1Kings 11:42) "The days that Solomon ruled in Jerusalem over all of Israel, 40 years." His son Rehoboam 17 years. Abiyyah, the latter's son, 3 years. (1Kings 15:9) "In the year 20 of Jeroboam, king of Israel, Asa became king over Jehudah." (2Chr. 12:13) "For 41 years old was Rehoboam when he became king and 17 years did he rule in Jerusalem." You would say. how long did David see him? One year. They kept the Torah, he and his sons, for three years but in the fourth year they rebelled as it is said (2Chr. 12:13): "They walked in the ways of David and Solomon for three years." In the fourth they rebelled against the Omnipresent one as it is said (2Chr. 12:1): "It was when the rule of Rehoboam was well-founded and fortified that he, and all Israel with him, abandoned the Torah of the Eternal." (1Kings 14:24): "And even male prostitutes were in the Land . .." (2Chr. 12:2) "It was in the year five of king Rehoboam that Shishaq, the king of Egypt, went against Jerusalem since they were untrue against the Eternal." (v. 9) "He took all treasures of the Temple and the treasures of the royal palace ...."

63.   (2Chr. 13:19-20) "Abiyyah pursued Jeroboam and captured cities from him, Beth El and its surroundings, Yeshanah and its surroundings, and Ephrayin and its surroundings. And Jeroboam did not regain strength in the days of Abiyyah, and the Eternal smote him and he died." You do not know who was smitten. But we can say that Jeroboam buried Abiyyah. And why (did the king not slay him) [did the Omnipresent One smite him] because he was standing and upbraiding Israel, saying to them (2Chr. 13:8): "With you are the golden calfs that Jeroboam made as gods for you," but when he captured Beth El he saw the golden calf and left it standing; therefore the Omnipresent One smote him.

64.   Asa ruled 41 years. (2Chr. 13:23) "In his days, the land was quiet for 10 years." In Asa's 16th year came Zerah the Nubian and returned to Asa all the loot that Shishaq, the king of Egypt, had looted from Jerusalem. Asa took it in the year 35 after Solomon's death. The Eternal put up Rezon ben Elyada` as agressor against Israel. (2Chr. 16:1) "In the year 36 of Asa's reign, Ba`sha the king of Israel attacked Jehudah . . ." It is impossible to say so since Asa buried Ba`sha in the year 26 of his reign. What does Scripture have to tell us? Corresponding to the 36 years that Solomon was married to the daughter of Pharao, the king of Egypt, and corresponding to the 36 years that it was ordained that the kingdom of David should be split but then it should return to them, and corresponding to the 36 years that it was ordained that the kings of the Arameans should attack Israel but then to fall by the hands of the Davidic dynasty; therefore it says 'In the year 36 of Asa's reign' This was in Asa's year 16 after Zerah the Nubian fell into his hands, that is the year 36 after Solomon's death. At that time, the kings of Israel and Aram concluded an alliance to go up and make war against Asa and Asa went astray. (2Chr. 16:2-5) "Asa took silver and gold from the treasuries of the Temple and the Palace and sent to Ben-Hadad the king of Aram who was headquartered at Damascus, saying: There is a treaty between me and you and between my father and your father. Look, I sent you silver and gold that you should violate your treaty with Ba`sha the king of Israel, that he should withdraw from me. Ben-Hadad listened to king Asa and send his army commanders against cities of Israel, they smote Iyyun, Dan, and Abel Mayim, and the all the storage cities of Naphtali. When Ba`sha heard this, he refrained from building Ramah and stopped the work." (2Chr. 16:7-9) "At that time, Hanani the seer came to Asa, king of Jehudah, and said to him: 'Because you relied on the king of Aram and did not rely on the Eternal, your God, therefore the army of the king of Aram has escaped your hand. Were not the Nubians and Libyans an enormous army with chariots and horsemen, but when you relied on the Eternal they were given in your hands. Certainly, the eyes of the Eternal scan the entire earth to strengthen those whose heart is full with him; you were silly in this for from now on you will have war with you."' The kings of Aram did not stop attacking Israel until the death of Ahaz. In the days of Ahaz, the kings of Israel and Aram formed an alliance to go up and make war against Ahaz, but Ahaz had no merit that they should fall by his hand, so both of them fell by the hand of Tiglat Peleser, the king of Assyria.

 

Chapter 17: Asa to Ahaziah

 

65.   Ba`sha ruled 24 years. Elah his son two years. So Asa buried Elah in the 27th year of his reign. Zimri killed Elah and ruled after him 7 days at Tirzah. (1Kings 16:16) "The people in the camp heard that Zimri had plotted and slain the king; all Israel in the camp declared the commander Omri as king of Israel at that day." (1Kings 16:21) "The the people were split in the middle; half of the people were after Tibni ben Ginat to make him king, and half after Omri." How did that split endure? (40) [4] years. In the year 31 of Asa, Omri became undisputed king (1Kings 16:22): "The people that were behind Omri overcame the people behind Tibni ben Ginat." Why did they kill Tibni? When Omri married his daughter to Jehoshaphat's son they killed Tibni. Omri ruled for 12 years. (1Kings 16:29) "Ahab, the son of Omri, became king over Israel in the year 38 of Asa, the king of Judah, Ahab ben Omri ruled over Israel in Samaria for 22 years." In the year 4 of Ahab did Jehoshaphat become king. He was 35 years old at his accession and ruled 25 years over Jerusalem. In the year 13 of Ahab there was a great famine in Samaria for three years, followed by war with Ben Hadad for 2 1/2 years. (1Kings 22:1) "They sat three years without war between Aram and Israel." Ahaziah ben Ahab ruled for two years. In Ahaziah's second year, Elijah was hidden and will not be seen again until King Messiah will come, then he will be seen, then hidden a second time until Gog and Magog come. But now he writes down the deeds of all generations. (2Kings 1:17) "He (Ahaziah) died, following the Eternal's word that Elijah had spoken."

66.   (2Kings 1:17) "[Jehoram was king in his stead] in the year 2 of Jehoram, the son of Jehoshaphat, since he had no son." Is it possible to say this? Did not he [Jehoram] became king in the year (9) [18] of Jehoshaphat? But since it said (1Kings 22:32) "Jehoshaphat cried," Jehoshaphat should have been killed at that moment but by the merit of the cry that he cried does the verse give him another 7 years, but the government is counted for his son. (2Kings 8:16) "In the year 5 of Joram ben Ahab the king of Israel, and Jehoshaphat being king of Judah, did Jehoram ben Jehoshaphat become king of Judah." When they returned from war, after they killed Ammon, Moab, and Mount Sell , they came and made Jehoram king of Judah. (2Chr. 21:2-3) "He had brothers, sons of Jehoshaphat, Azariah, Zekhariahu, Azariahu, Mikhael, and Shephatiahu . . . . Their father gave them many gifts of silver, gold, delicacies, with fortified cities in Judah; but the reign he gave to Jehoram who was the firstborn." After the death of Jehoshaphat, Jehoram stood up and killed his brothers by the sword, as is said (2Chr. 21:4): "Jehoram took over the kingdom of his father and established himself firmly; then he killed all his brothers by the sword and also from the princes of Israel." (2Chr. 21:12) "There came to him a letter from the prohet Elijah .. ," seven years after Elijah was hidden.

67.   (cf. 2Kings 8:17) Thirty-two years Jehoram was when he became king and eight years he ruled in Jerusalem. About his son Ahaziahu it says (2Kings 8:26): "Twenty-two years old was Ahaziahu when he became king" and at another place it says (2Chr. 22:2): "Forty-two years old was Ahaziahu when he became king and he ruled for one year." Rebbi Yose said: How is it possible for a son to be two years older than his father? But when Asa married his son to the daughter of Omri there was issued a heavenly decree that the dynasty of David should come to an end with the house of Ahab, and so it says (2Chr. 22:7): "From God was the downfall of Ahaziahu to come to Joram ..." and both of them fell together on the same day.

 

Chapter 18: Joash

 

68.   In the time of Jehoram ben Ahab there was an extended famine in Samaria for 7 years; during that time Ben Hadad made war against Israel. In the last year did Elisha curse Gehazi. Elisha went to Damascus and anointed Hazael as king over Aram and sent Jonah ben Amittay to anoint Jehu at Ramot Gilead. (2Chr. 22:8-9) "It was when Jehu executed judgment over the house of Ahab, he found the princes of Judah and the nephews of Ahaziahu serving Ahaziahu, and he killed them. He searched for Ahaziahu and caught him while he was hiding in Samaria, he killed and buried him . . . ." (2Kings 11:1-3) "But Athaliahu, the mother of Ahaziahu, when she saw that her son was dead, she took the initiative and killed all aspirants to the throne. But Jehosheba, the daughter of King Joram, sister of Ahaziahu, took Joash, the son of Ahaziah and stole him from amongst the king's sons who were being put to death, him and his wet-nurse from the bed room, and they hid him from Athaliahu and he was not put to death. He was whith her in the Eternal's house for six years . . ,"; about him the verse says (Ps. 27:5): "He surely will hide me in His hut on the day of evil, He will conceal me in His secret tent, on the rock He will lift me up!" What is 'on the rock He will lift me up'? That refers to the priest Jehoiada, a man similar to a rock. (2Kings 11:12) "He anointed him . . . and they said: 'long live the king!' (2Kings 11:20) "The people of the land were joyous and the city was quiet . . ." (2Kings 12:1-2) "Seven years old was Jehoash when he became king. In the year 7 of Jehu did Jehoash become king and 40 years he ruled in Jerusalem." In Joash's 23rd year did he renovate the Temple; that makes 155 years from the time that Solomon built it until Joash renovated it. (2Chr. 24:2) "Joash did what was right in the eyes of the Eternal all the days of Jehoiada the priest." (2Chr. 24:15) "When Jehoiada aged and went along in years he died, 130 year he was at his death." When the corruption started in the times of Solomon, Jehoiada who fixed it was born. (2Chr. 24:16) "After the death of Jehoiada, the princes of Judah came," this shows that Joash set himself up as a deity as it is said "they prostrated themselves before the king; then the king listened to them."

 

Chapter 19: Jehu to Uziah

 

69.   Jehu ruled over Israel for 28 years. (2Kings 10:30) "And the Eternal said to Jehu: Since you were good and did the right things in my eye, all my intentions you executed on the dynasty of Ahab, your Children of the fourth generation will sit on the throne of Israel." Who said that to him? Jonah ben Amittai. (2Kings 10:31-32) "In these days did the Eternal start to reduce the boundaries of Israel; klazael smote them along all borders of Israel. From the Jordan eastwards ...." (2Kings 13:1) "In the 23rd year of Joash ben Ahaziahu, the king of Judah, did Jehoahaz ben Jehu become king over Israel at Samaria, for 17 years." (v. 10) "In the year 37 of Joash, the king of Judah, did Jehoash ben Jehoahaz become king over Israel at Samaria for 16 years." (v. 14) "And Elisha became sick with his final sickness," that was in the tenth year of Joash, the king of Israel. From there one may compute the number of years during which Elisha cared for Israel, from year 19 of Jehoshaphat until now, more than 60 years.

70.   (2Kings 14:1-2) "In the second year of Joash [ben Joahaz the king of Israel] did Amaziah [ben Joash] become king [over Judah.] He was 25 years old when he became king and he was king for 22 years." In the 12th year of Amaziah (2Kings 14:7) "he smote Edom in the Salt Valley . ." (2Chr. 25:14-16) "It was when Amaziah returned from vanquishing the Edomites, he brought the idols of the sons of Se`ir and put them up for himself as gods before whom he would prostrate himself and to whom he burned incense. The anger of the Eternal was raging against Amaziah and he sent to him a prophet . . . . When he was talking to him, he said to him, did they make you a king's counsellor? Stop, why should they kill you. The prophet stopped and said: 'I know, that God has given counsel to destroy you since you did this and did not listen to my counsel." What was the counsel that the Omnipresent counselled about him? (2Chr. 25:17-20) "Amaziah, the king of Judah, took counsel and sent to Joash ben Joahaz ben Jehu, the king of Isarel, saying: let us have a fight'. Joash, the king of Israel, sent to Amaziah, the king of Judah, saying: 'the thistle of the Lebanon sent to the cedar of Lebanon .... You said, lo, you smote Edom, so your mind got overbearing . . . . But Amaziah did not listen because this was from God . . . ." (2Chr. 25:22-24) "Judah was beaten before Israel, each one fled to his tent. And Amaziah, the king of Judah, ben Joash ben Jehoahaz did Joash, the king of Israel, catch at Beth Shemesh . . . . All the gold and silver and all vessels of the Temple in the custody of Obed Edom, the treasures of the palace, and the hostages, and he returned to Samaria." At that time, Joash died and Amaziah returned to Jerusalem. (2Chr. 14:25) "Amaziah ben Joash, the king of Judah, lived after the death of Joash ben Jehoahaz, the king of Israel, for 15 years." (2Chr. 25:27) "And from the moment that Amaziah deviated from behind the Eternal," that he did not listen to the prophet, "there started a conspiracy against him in Jerusalem and he fled to Lachish."

 

Chapter 20: The Prophets I

 

71.   It says (Zach. 14:5): "And you will flee to the mountain valley because the mountain valley will reach Azal, you will flee as you fled because of the earthquake in the days of Uzziah, the king of Judah." (Is. 1:1) "Vision of Isaiah ben Amoz that he saw about Judah and Jerusalem in the days of Uzziahu, Jotham, Ahaz, Hezekiah, kings of Judah." (Hos.1:1) "The word of the Eternal that was to Hosea ben Bari in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, Hezekiah, kings of Judah and in the days of Jeroboam ben Joash, King of Israel." (Amos 1:1) "The words of Amos who was from the shepherds of Tekoa that he saw about Israel in the days of Uzziah, the king of Judah, and Jeroboam ben Joash, king of Israel, two years before the earthquake." (Michah 1:1) "The word of the Eternal that was to Micha of Morasha in the days of Jotham, Ahaz, Hezekiah, kings of Judah, that he saw about Samaria and Jerusalem." This teaches us that all of them prophezied during the same period. But you do not know who preceded whom. But since it says (Hosea 1:2): "The word of the Eternal was first to Hosea .. ," for Amos it says "two years before the earthquake," and for Isaiah it says (Is. 6:1): "In the year of death of king Uzziahu ..." and that was the moment of the earthquake as it is written (v. 4) "The supports of the thresholds were moving .. ." (Michah 1:1) "The word of the Eternal that was to Micha of Morasha in the days of Jotham . . . ," this proves that the others all preceded Michah.

72.   (Obadiah 1:1) "Vision of Obadiah," when was this war? In the days of Amaziah (1Kings 22:48) "No kings stood up over Edom." Since the Edomites fell in the days of Amaziah they did not put up a king not raise their heads until today. Since the Arameans fell according to the words of Elisha they did not get up again, only they woke up in the days of Ahaz and fell. Since the Philistines fell in the days of Hezekiah they did not put up a king until today. And since Egypt fell through Nebuchadnezzar, it did not raise itself over any peoples at it is said (Ez. 29:15): "Among kingdoms it will be lowly and not raise itself further over peoples ...."

73.   (1Chr. 2:6) "The sons of Zerah: Zimri, Ethan, Heman, Kalkol, Dara`, altogether five;" these prophesied in Egypt. (Ex. 6:24) "The sons of Qorah: Assir, Elkanah, Abiasaph," they prophezied in the wilderness. (Jud. 6:6) "The Eternal sent a prophetic man to the Children of Israel," that was Phineas. (1Sam. 2:27) "A man of God came to Eli," that was Elkanah. (1Chr. 9:22) "These were instituted by David and Samuel in their faith," these are the 24 clans of priests and Levites.

74.   Gad the seer and Nathan the prophet established the rules of the Temple service together with David. Asaph, Heman and Yedutun prophesied in David's time'. Ahiyyah said to Solomon (1Kings 6:12-13): "This Temple that you are building, if you will walk in my rules, implement my laws, and keep all my commandments to walk in them . . . then I shall dwell among the children of Israel and never abandon My people Israel." At the end, he said to him (1Kings 11:11): "Because that was found with you that you did not keep my covenant and my rules ... ." Shemayahu said to Rehoboam (2Chr. 11:4): "Do not attack and make war against your brethren ...." At the end, when they were fleeing before Shishaq (2Chr. 12:7), "was the word of the Eternal to Shemayah saying, they submitted, I shall not destroy them . . . ." Was his name Shishaq and not rather Zebub as it is said (Is. 7:18): "On that day, the Eternal will whistle to the fly (zebub) that is at the end of the Nile branches of Egypt and to the bee in the land of Assyria." So why is he called Shishaq because he was waiting and watching when Solomon would die since Solomon was unique, and after the death of Solomon he came and took the treasures of the Temple . The prophet Iddo prophesied about the altar at Bethel and said (1Kings 13:2) "Altar, altar . . . ." (2Chr. 15:1-2) "The spirit of God was upon Azariahu ben Oded and he went out before Asa and all of Judah and Benjamin ... ." (2Chr. 16:7) "At that time came Hanani, the seer, to Asa king of Judah." Michaihu said to Ahab (1Kings 20:13): "So says the Eternal, did you see all this great multitude, I shall give them into your hands today . . . ." The second time, he told him (1Kings 20:22): "Go, strengthen yourself, know and see what you are doing . ." The third time, he said to him (1Kings 20:28): "Because Aram said that the Eternal is a god of mountains .. .." (1Kings 20:35) "One man of the younger prophet said to his neighbor: by the Eternal's word, hit me ... ." They said, this was Michaihu. At the end, he said to him (1Kings 22:20): "The Eternal said: who will seduce Ahab . ?" And in the days of Jehoshaphat (2Chr. 19:2), "before him went Jehu ben Hanani, the seer, ..." (2Chr. 20:14) "and Jahaziel ben Zechariahu ben Benaiah ben Yeiel ben Mathaniah, the Levite of the descendant of Asaph . . ." (2Chr. 20:37) "And Eliezer ben Dodawahu from Maresha prophesied about Jehoshaphat .." In the days of Joram (2Chr. 21:12) "a letter from Elijah was delivered to him . ." In the days of Joash (2Chr. 24:19-20) "he sent to them prophets to make them return to the Eternal . .. and the spirit of God clothed Zechariah ben Jehoiada.." In the days of Amaziah (2Chr. 25:7) "a man of God came to him to say: 0 king, do not let the army of Israel come with you .. .." At the end, he told him (2Chr. 25:16): "I understand that God has planned to destroy you ...." They say, this was his brother Amoz . In the days of Ahaz (2Chr. 28:9) "there was a prophet of the Eternal by the name of Oded ...." Joel, Nahum, and tlabakkuk prophesied in the days of Manasse but because Manasse was no good they are not referred to him. And so it says (2Chr. 33:10-11): "The Eternal spoke to Manasse and to his people and they did not listen. Therefore, the Eternal brought over them the generals of the king of Assyria and they caught Manasse with hooks ...."

75.   (Zeph. 1:1) "The word of the Eternal that was upon Zephaniah ben Kushi ben Gedaliah ben Amariah ben Hizkiah ." (Jer. 1:1) "The words of Jeremias ben Hilqiahu. (Ez. 1:3) "The word of the Eternal was to Ezechiel ben Buzi the priest . .." All of these were prophets at the time of the destruction of the Temple. Baruch ben Neriah ben Mahseiah and Daniel, the lovely man, were in the time of Nebuchadnezzar. Mordecai the Jew, Haggai, Zachariah and Maleachi all prophesied in the second year of Darius. You find (among the prophets) 10 who were called "man of God": Moses, Elkanah, Samuel, David, Shemaiah, Iddo, Eliahu, Elisha, Micha and Amoz. Samuel and Hanani were called seers since it says about them "the seer." Ezechiel and Daniel are called "son of man."

 

Chapter 21: Prophets II

 

76.   It is said about our forefather Abraham (Gen. 20:7): "And now return the man's wife because he is a prophet." About Sarah it is said (Gen. 11:29): "the daughter of Haran, the father of Milkah and of Jessica" . From where do we know that the patriarchs and matriarchs are called prophets? Because it says (1Chr. 16:20, 22): "They wandered from people to people and from one kingdom to another nation. Do not touch my anointed and do not harm my prophets." About Miriam  it says (Ex. 15:20): "And Miriam, the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took ...." About Deborah it says (Jud. 4:4): "Deborah was a prophetess." About Hannah (1Sam. 2:1) : "Hannah prayed and said: My heart is jubilant in the Eternal, my horn is lifted by the Eternal." Abigail prophesied for David . And David told her (1Sam. 25:33): "Blessed be your understanding." About Huldah it says (2Kings 22:14, 2Chr. 34:22): "to Fluldah the prophetess." About Esther it is said (Esther 9:29): "And Esther the queen, the daughter of Abihail, wrote (with the assistance of Mordecai the Jew) all this valid document." These are the 48 prophets and 7 prophetesses that prophesied for Israel and who are mentioned in Scripture, but there were prophets in number equal to those who left Egypt and they were not mentioned by name. One could think that (those that are not mentioned) were few, but Scripture says (2Kings 2:7): "And 50 men from among the young prophets went ...." One could think that (those that are not mentioned) were not professionals, but Scripture says (2Kings 2:3,5): "They said to him: Do you know that today the Eternal will remove your master from your head"; they do not say 'our master' but `your master'; this shows that there all were Elijah's equals and more weighty than Elisha. Similarly, Moses said (Deut. 5:26): "May their heart be like that all the time," and he said (Num. 11:29): "If only all of the Eternal's people were prophets that the Eternal would give His spirit onto them." And Obadiah said to Elijah (1Kings 18:13): "Certainly it was told to my master what I did when Isabel killed all the prophets of the Eternal, and I hid from the prophets of the Eternal 100 men .. ," not counting those that were in Judah and Benjamin. And Elijah said to Elisha (2Kings 2:2-3): "Please, stay here because the Eternal sent me to Bethel. And the young prophets that were at Bethel came out . ." Then he said to him (2Kings 2:5,7): "Please, stay here because the Eternal sent me to the Jordan ... And 50 from the young prophets went ..." because there was no single city in Israel without its prophets. But every prophecy that was important for future generations was written down [and what was for its time only] was not written . About these it is spelled out in Song of Songs (4:10­11): "How beautiful is your friendship, o sister, bride, how much better is your friendship than wine and the smell of your oils than all spices. Your lips, o bride, drip of flowing honey; honey and milk is under your tongue ...."

77.   About Adam it says (Gen. 2:21): "And God made fall sleep on Adam .... " About Noah it says (Gen. 6:9): "Noah was a just, straightforward man in his generation, Noah walked with God." About Japheth it says (Gen. 9:27): "May God beautify Japheth". About Shem it says (Gen. 9:26): "Praised be the Eternal, the God of Shem," (Ps. 110:4) "about my word to Malchisedekio [Melchizedek]." About Eber it says (Gen. 10:25): "The name of one of them was Peleg since in his days the earth was split' ." These are the prophets that arose in the world before our forefather Abraham came to the world. And since our forefather Abraham came to the world: Balaam and his father, Job from the land of Oz, Eliphaz the Yemenite, Bildad the Shuhite, Zopher the Nadmite, and Elihu ben Berachel the Buzite. These are the prophets that arose in the world before the Torah was given to Israel. But after the Torah was given to Israel, the Divine Spirit stopped among the Gentiles, and so Moses said (Ex. 33:16): "By what should it then be known that I found grace in Your eyes, I and Your people, only that You would go in our midst, and we would be distinguished, I and Your people, from all other peoples on the face of the earth." From where (do we know) that the Holy One, praise to Him, fulfilled his wish? Because it says (Ex. 34:10): "Behold, I am concluding a covenant, before all of your people I shall work miracles ..."; at that moment the Divine spirit stopped among the Gentiles.

 

Chapter 22: Assyrian Captivity of 10 Northern tribes of Israel (Samaria)

 

78.   Shallum ben Jabesh slew Zechariahu and ruled after him a month in Samaria. (2Kings 15:14) "There rose Menahem ben Gadi from Tirzah . . ." (2Kings 15:17) "In the year 39 of Azariah, the king of Judah, did Menahem ben Gadi become king over Israel for ten years." (2Kings 15:23) "In the year 50 of Azariah, the king of Judah, did Pekahiah ben Menahem become king of Israel at Samaria for two years." (2Kings 15:27) "In the year 52 of Azariah, the king of Judah, did Pekah ben Remaliahu become king of Israel at Samaria for twenty years." (2Kings 15:32-33) "In the year 2 of Pekah ben Remaliahul, the king of Israel, did Jotham ben Uzziahu, the king of Judah, become king. He was 25 years old at his accession and ruled for 16 years in Jerusalem." (2Kings 16:1­2) "In the year 17 of Pekah ben Remaliahu did Ahaz ben Jotham become king of Judah. Ahaz was 20 years old at his accession and 16 years he ruled in Jerusalem." In Pekah's year 17 (2Chr. 28:6): "Pekah ben Remaliahu slew in Judah 120'000 at one day ..." (v. 19) "Because the Eternal had humbled Judah because of king Ahaz . . ." (v. 7-8) "Zikri, the strongman of Ephraim, killed Maaseiahu, the king's son, Azrikam, the head of the household, and Elkanah, the viceroy. The men of Israel captured 200'000 women and children ...." In Pekah's year 20 there happened (Is. 7:1-6): "It was in the days of Ahaz

79.   It was told to the house of David . . . The Eternal said to Isaiah ... Tell him ... Because they took counsel ... Let us go up against Judah and dismember it ... So says the Eternal, God: It shall not continue and not be." At that time (2Kings 16:9-10): "Ahaz took all the silver and gold that was found in the Temple and the king's treasuries and sent it as a bribe to the king of Assyria. The king of Assyria listened to him ...." In Pekah's year 20 (2Kings 15:29) "came Tiglath Pileser ...." He took the golden calf at Dan and went away. And so it says (2Chr. 28:20-21): "There came against him  Tilgath Pilneeser, the king of Assyria, and oppressed him, he did not support him. For Ahaz had stripped the Temple and the palaces of king and nobles and gave it to the king of Assyria, but it did not help him," after he had heard the prophet say "It shall not continue and not be."

80.   At that time (2Kings 15:30): "Hoshea ben Elah formed a conspiracy against him . . . in the year 20 of Jotham ben Uzziah." That is year four of Ahaz. It is impossible to say so, but the (heavenly) decree was issued in the time of Jotham. Another explanation: Scripture prefers to count for Jotham in the grave rather than for Ahaz living. (2Kings 17:3) "Against him came Salmaneser, the king of Assyria, and Hosea became his servant ..."; it turns out that Ahaz, the king of Judah, and Hoshea, the king of Israel, were subjects of the king of Assyria for 8 years . In the year 12 of Ahaz  (1Chr. 5:26): "The God of Israel raised the spirit of Pul, the king of Assyria, and the spirit of Tilgat Pilneeser, the king of Assyria, and he exiled the tribes of Reuben, Gad, and half of Manasseh . . ," he took the golden calf at Bethel and returned, to confirm what is said (Hosea 10:6): "It also shall be transported to Assyria." R. Nahorai said in the name of R. Joshua, here it says (Amos 3:12): "So says the Eternal: Just as the shepherd will save from the mouth of the lion two feet or an earlobe," these from all of Israel, "like the corner of a couch ," this teaches us that one in eight was left of them. Where were the remainder of the people? In Damascus, to fulfill what was said (Amos 5:27): "I shall exile you farther than Damascus ...."

81.   At that time, when Hoshea ben Elah saw that the golden calves had been taken away he removed the border guards that Jorobeam ben Nebat had set up at the borders not to let anybody do a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. Because for all kings of Israel it says "he went in the ways of Jeroboam ben Nebat and his sins" but about Hoshea it says (2Kings 17:2): "He did evil in the eyes of the Eternal, only not like the kings of Israel that were before him." For which reason was their fate sealed in his days to go into exile? Because (before that) they deflected the curse onto their kings as it is said (Hosea 5:3): "I know Ephraim and Israel is not hidden from me ...." At that time, when Hoshea saw that the king of Assyria was determined to attack and to exile Israel a third time, he went and sought support from the kings of Egypt. (2Kings 17:1) "In the year 12 of Ahaz, the king of Judah, did Hoshea ben Elah become king of Israel." (2Kings 17:6) "In the year 9 of Hoshea ...", it impossible to say so; did he not become king in the year 4 of Ahaz? Why does Scripture say "in the year 9," 9 years of his revolt. And so he says (2Kings 17:4): "The king of

82.   Assyria found a conspiracy by Hoshea ." (2Kings 18:9-10)
"In the seventh year of king Hezekiah, that is the seventh year of Hoshea ben Elah the king of Israel, Salmaneser attacked Samaria, besieged it and captured it after three years, in the year 6 of Hezekiah (that is the year nine of Hoshea's revolt), Samaria was taken." The king of Assyria deported Israel and removed them from their land. (2Kings 17:24) "The king of Assyria brought from Babylonia" (Ezra 4:9-10) "from Din, Afarsatach, Erech, Babylon, Shushan that is Elam and from the rest of the peoples" (2Kings 17:24) "they inherited Samaria and lived in its cities."

 

Chapter 23: Hezekiah

 

83.   It was (2Kings 18:13) "in the year 14 of king Hezekiah, Sennacherib attacked . . . ." Eight years he' waited between the first and the second deportations and eight years between the second and third deportations. He waited another eight years and attacked Judea to confirm what is written (Is. 8:23): "In the first time, he lightened the land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali, and at the end he will sweep out. " R. Joshua ben Qorha said: Sennacherib erred a grievous error. (2Chr. 32:4) "After these happenings of true faith," at this moment he sent Tartan to Ashdod, (Is. 20:1) "in the year that Tartan came to Ashdod . ," he swept away the Ammonites and Moabites that had helped him when he was besieging Samaria for three years, to confirm what is written (Is. 16:14): "And now, the Eternal spoke as follows: In three years, the standard contract of a hired man, will the honor of Moab will be despised by all this great multitude, and a few will be left, not mighty ." At that time (2Kings 18:17-18): "The king of Assyria send Tartan, the Chief Eunuch, and Rabshekah, from Lakhish to king Hezekiah with a big army . . . . There came out to them Eliakim ben Hilkiahu, the minister of the royal household .. . ." (2Kings 19:5-7)

84.   "The servants of king Hezekiah came to Isaiah. Isaiah said to them: So you shall say to your master: So says the Eternal, do not be afraid of the words that you have heard, how the boys of the king of Assyria blasphemed me. Behold, I shall give into him a spirit, he will hear some news and return to his land, then I shall fell him be the sword in his land." What was the news that he heard? (Is. 19:9) "He heard about Tirhaqa, the Nubian king, as follows: He went out to make war against you, so he turned backs and sent messengers to Hezekiah ...." He swept away Shebna, the agento, and his group, went to Nubia, took the best of all countries, and came to Jerusalem, to confirm what is written (Is. 45:14): "The effort of Egypt ," that is the army of Pharao, the king of Egypt, "and the trade of Nubia," that is Tirhaqa, the king of Nubia, "Sabeans, tall men," these are their armies, "they shall pass by you," that refers to Jerusalem, "they shall be yours," already they are paid to you, "they shall walk after you," that refers to Hezekiah, "in chains they will pass by," these are the handcuffs, "to you they shall bow down, to you they shall pray." They shall proclaim the praise of the Holy One, praise to Him, in your midst and say "Only in you there is a power, none exists except God." At that moment, (2Kings 19:17-18): "The king of Assyria send Tartan, the Chief Eunuch, and Rabshekah, from Lakhish to king Hezekiah .... They called on the king ... ." (2Kings 19:20-24) "Isaiah ben Amoz sent to king Hezekiah ... That is the word that the Eternal said about him ... Whom did you abuse and blaspheme ... Through your messengers you blasphemed the Master . . . I dug and drank strange waters . . ." (2Kings 19:35): "It was in that night, the angel of the Eternal went out and slew in the camp of Assyria 185,000 men; they got up in the morning and found them all to be dead corpses," all kings with their crowns bound to their heads. Before the fall of Sennacherib, Hezekiah was sick for three days .

85.   R.Yose says, the downfall of Sennacherib was on the third day of Hezekiah's sickness and the sun was arrested for him as it stood for Ahaz as it is said (Is. 38:8): "Behold, I shall turn back the shadow of the sundial . . .." On that day, Sennacherib travelled 10 waystations 10:28-32): "He came to Ayyat . . . they crossed the ford . . . Sing your voice, Bat Gallim, . . . Madmenah moved . . . This day still he wants to stay at Nob." You find that on that day he travelled through all of them. In the eleventh year of a Jubilee cycle", in the fourth year of a Sabbatical cycle, Sennacherib attacked, and so he says (Is. 37:30): "That shall be the sign for you: to eat in the first year aftergrowth," he attacked just before Passover, so they could not sow and had to eat the late growth of the previous harvest, "in the second year the spontaneous growth," because the legions had cut down all fruit trees, "but in the third year sow, and harvest, plant vineyards and eat their yields." That teaches you that only one year was left in the Sabbatical cycle. After the downfall of Sennacheribil, Hezekiah stood up and released the multitudes that came to him in chain-gangs; they accepted on themselves the Kingdom of Heaven, to confirm what is written (Is. 19:18): "On that day, there will be five cities in Egypt that speak the language of Canaan and swear by the Eternal Sabaoth . . ." They went and built an altar and sacrificed on it holocaust sacrifices as it is written (Is. 19:19): "On that day, there will be an altar for the Eternal in the land of Egypt . . . ." They were praying and prostrating themselves in the direction of Jerusalem as it is said (Is. 45:14): "To you they will bow down, to you they will pray." Before Sennacherib came did Hezekiah enclose the waters of Gihon as it is said (2Chr. 32:3): "He took counsel with his ministers and heroes to close in the waters of the wells outside the city, and they helped him." (2Chr. 32:30): "He, Hezekiah, closed in the waters of the upper Gihon spring and lead them, westward, subterraneously, to the city of David . . . ." (2Chr. 29:1): "Hezekiah became king at the age of 25 and reigned 29 years in Jerusalem . ..."

 

Chapter 24: Manasseh to Jehoiakim

 

86.   (2Chr. 33:1, 2Kings 21:1) "Twelve years old was Manasseh when he became king . . . ." In his 22nd year was Manasseh exiled to Babylonia' and the statue of Micah with him , as it is said (Jud. 18:30): "The people of Dan put up the statue . . . to the day of the deportation of the land". (2Chr. 12) "When he was in straits, he implored the Eternal . . . ." It turns out that Manasseh repented 33 years before his death. (2Chr. 33:21, 2Kings 21:19) "Twenty-two years old was Amon when he became king and two years he reigned . ." (2Kings 21:20) "He did evil in the eyes of the Eternal, just as Manasseh, his father, had done." (2Chr. 33:23) ". . . for he, Amon, (2Chr. 34:1, 2Kings 22:1) "Eight years old was Josiah when he became king and 31 years he reigned in Jerusalem . . . ." (2Kings 22:3) "It was in 18th year of king Josiah ...." In that year, the book of the Torah was found in the Temple and in that year had Josiah made repairs to the Temple. There were 218 years from the repairs under Joash until the repairs under Josiah. And why was it necessary to repair so quickly in the days of Joash? (2Chr. 24:7) "Because of the criminal Athaliahu, her sons damaged the House of God . . . ." That year, Josiah repented (2Kings. 23:25) "and before him there was no king who so wholeheartedly returned to the Eternal ... ." Josiah hid the Arks as it is said (2Chr. 35:3): "He said to the Levites, the instructors of all of Israel, the ones holy to the Eternal, put the Holy Ark into the Temple built by Solomon, David's son, king of Israel, so that it cannot be carried further on the shoulders." (2Kings 23:29) "In his days there attacked Pharao Necho, the king of Egypt, against the king of Assyria on the river Euphrates; King Josiah went towards him, but he (Necho) had him (Josiah) killed as soon as he (Necho) saw (him)." (2Chr. 35:21-24) "He (Necho) had sent him messengers, saying: What have I to do with you, king of Judah . . . But Josiah did not turn his face away from him . . . And the archers shot at king Josiah ... So his servants transferred him to his secondary chariot and brought him to Jerusalem where he died . .." Jeremiah composed a funeral dirge about him (Threni 4:20): "The spirit of our life, the anointed of the Eternal, was caught in their pits. "

87.   (2Kings 23:30-31) "The people of the land took Jehoahaz ben Josiah, anointed him and made him king instead of his father. Jehoahaz was 23 years old when he became king; he ruled in Jeruisalem for 3 months." (2Kings 23:33-34): "Pharao Necho arrested him at Riblah in the land of Hama Pharao Necho appointed as king Eliakim ben Josiah instead of his father Josiah and changed his name to Jehoiakim." (2Kings 23:35) "Jehoiakim was 25 years old when he became king and he ruled in Jerusalem for 11 years." It turns out that Jehoiakim was two years older than his brother. (Jer. 26:1) "At the begin of the rule of Jehoiakim ben Josiah, King of Judah was this word from the Eternal." (Jer. 25:2) "When Jeremiah, the prophet, spoke to all the people of Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem:" So says the Eternal of Hosts, the God of Israel, (Jer. 25:5) "turn back, each man from his bad way and evil intentions ..." He exhorted them many times but they would not listen. He repeated and prophesied for them (Jer. 26:6): "I shall make this Temple like Shiloh." (Jer. 27:1-8) "At the begin of the rule of Jehoiakim ben Josiah, King of Judah ... . So did the Eternal say to me: make yourself fetters and yokes and put them on your neck. And send them to the kings of Edom, Moab , . . . So says the Eternal of Hosts, the God of Israel . . . I created the earth . . . I gave all these lands in the hand of Nebuchadnezzar, the king opf Babylon, my servant ... And all nations must serve him ... But the people and country that will not serve him ... I shall remember that people, says the Eternal, until I finish them off through his hand." At that time did Jehoiakim kill Uriah as it is said (Jer. 26:22): "They took Uriahu away from Egypt and brought him to king Jehoiakim who killed him by the sword . ." All that Uriah prophesied also Jeremiah prophesied but (Jer. 26:24) "but the power of Ahiqam ben Shaphan protected Jeremiah." (Jer. 46:1-2) "The word of the Eternal was to Jeremiah, the prophet, about the Gentiles, about Egypt, the army of Pharao Necho ...." In the first year, he (Nebuchadnezzar) conquered Nineveh, in the second he subdued Jehoiakim. (2Kings 24:1) "Jehoiakim was his vassal for three years, then he turned around and revolted against him." (2Kings 24:7) "The king of Egypt did not leave his country any more since the king of Babylonia took all possessions of the king of Egypt from the brook of Egypt to the Euphrates." In the fourth year of Jehoiakim was the judgement sealed for Israel to exile and for Jerusalem to drink the cup of wine of rage.

 

Chapter 25: Jehoiakim to Zedekiah

 

88.   (Dan. 1:1): "In the year three of the reign of Jehoiakim, the king of Judah, came Nebuchadnezzar, the king of Babylonia, to Jerusalem and besieged it." It is impossible to say so since Nebuchadnezzar became king in the year four of Jehoiakim. So why does Scripture say in Jehoiakim's year three? It must mean the year three of his revolt. One verse says (Jer. 52:28) "in year seven" and another verse (2Kings 24:12) "in the year eight (of Nebuchadnezzar)." Why does one verse say year seven and the other year eight? It must mean the year eight since he became king and the year seven after Jehoiakim became his vassal. (Dan. 1:2): "The Lord gave into his hand Jehoiakim and some vessels of the Temple and he brought them to Iraq." At another place, it says (Jer. 22:19) "The burial of a donkey will be for him, drag and throw outside the gates of Jerusalem." At a third place, it says (2Chr. 36:6): "He put him into bronze fetters to lead him to Babylon." This teaches us that as soon as he was arrested, he died in his prison, was taken out and dragged, to confirm what is written "drag and throw."

89.   (2Kings 24:14) "He exiled all of Jerusalem and all the ministers, all the able soldiers, 10'000 exiles, all metal workers and all weapon makers; nobody was left but the poor of the land." (Jer. 52:28) "That are the people whom Nebuchadnezzar had exiled in his year seven: from Judah 3'023," the rest from Benjamin and the other tribes, 7000. (2Kings 24:15) "All of them heroes, trained soldiers"; but what is the heroism in people who are going into exile and what kind of war may people fight that are in held in fetters and given in chains; but one talks about heroes of the Torah as it is said (Ps. 103:20): "Praise the Eternal, all His messengers, strong in power, warriors, . . ." who were active in the war of the Torah as it is said (Num. 21:14): "Therefore, it has been said in the book of the wars of the Eternal: given in a hurricane . ." Among them "one thousand metal workers and weapon makers." "Metal workers" that one of them only was talking at any time and the others listened silently. "Weapon makers" Nob), where everybody was sitting before him and learning from him, as it is said (Is. 22:22): "I shall give the key of the house of David on his shoulders, that he may open and nobody can lock, or he locks and nobody can open." (2Kings 24:15): "The leaders of the land," these are the freemen of Judah and Benjamin and about them says Scripture (Jer. 24:5): "Like these good figs, so I shall recognize for their benefit the deported of Judah whom I have sent to the land of the Chaldeans."

90.   (2Chr. 36:9) "Jehoiachin was eight years old when he became king and he reigned in Jerusalem for three months and ten days." At another place it says (2Kings 24:8): "Jehoiachin was eighteen years old when he became king and he reigned in Jerusalem for three months." Why does Scripture say eight years and why eighteen years? He was eight years old when he became king but it was eighteen years of ter his Divine decree that he should go into exile, and about him did Nebuchadnezzar say: From a bad dog comes no good whelp. Jehoiachin was exiled in the middle of a Jubilee cycle, in the fourth year of a Sabbatical cycle. And so it says (2Chr. 36:10): "At the turn of the year did king Nebuchadnezzar send and brought him to Babylon, together with the most desirable vessels of the Temple. The most desirable vessels of the Temple are the Holy Ark. (2Kings 24:17) "The king of Babylonia appointed his uncle Mattaniah in his stead and changed the latter's name into Zedekiah." (2Kings 24:18) "Zedekiah was 21 years old when he became king . ..." (Jer. 28:1-3) "It was in that year, at the start of the reign of Zedekiah, king of Judah, in the fourth year, in the fifth month, that Hananiah ben `Azzur the prophet said to me .... So says the Eternal of Hosts, the God of Israel: I broke the yoke of the king of Babylonia. In another two years I shall return to this place all the Temple vessels . . ." What made Hanaiah err? The prophecy that Jeremiah had pronounced over Elam, (Jer. 49:35): "Behold, I am breaking the bow of Elam, the mainstay of their power." (Jer. 28:17) "Hananiah the prophet died in that year, in the seventh month."

91.   (Jer. 29:1) "This is the text of the scroll that Jeremiah, the prophet, sent from Jerusalem to the elders of the diaspora." (Jer. 29:4-7) "So says the Eternal of Hosts, the God of Israel, to all the deportees . . . Build houses and well in them, plant gardens and eat their fruits. Take wives and beget sons and daughters . . . and look after the well-being of the town into which I deported you . . ." It also says (Jer. 29:10): "Once there are fulfilled 70 years for Babylon, I shall remember you . ..." In Zedekiah's fourth year he went to Babylon to appear before Nebuchadnezzar, the king of Babylonia, and Seraiah with him; then he returned and came to his kingdom in Jerusalem.

 

Chapter 26: Ezekiel

 

92.   (Ez. 1:1) "It was in the thirtieth year, in the fourth month, on the fifth day .. ," thirty years after the Book of the Law was found in the Temple. In the fourth year, (Ez. 1:2-3) "on the fifth of the month, that was the fifth year of the exile of king Joiachin. The word of the Eternal was to Ezechiel ben Buzi, the priest, ..." (Ez. 3:15) "I came to the deportees at Tel Abib . . . I sat there seven days speechless among them." After seven days it was said to him (Ez. 4:4-5): "Lie on your left hand side and put the sin of the house of Israel onto it ... And I shall give onto you the years of their sins by the number of days, 390 days . ."; that proves that Israel were enraging the Holy One, Praised be He, 390 years from the time they entered the land until they left it. (Ez. 4:6): "When you will have finished these, these lie a second time on your right hand side and carry the sin of the house of Judah for 40 days . ."; this teaches that for forty years the house of Judah were enraging the Holy One, Praised be He, from the time the Ten Tribes were exiled to the destruction of Jerusalem, 430 years in all. (Ez. 8:1) "It was in the sixth year, in the sixth month, on the fifth of the month when I was sitting in my house and the elders of Judah were sitting before me," that proves that the year was intercalary, "when the hand of the Eternal fell upon me there." At that time, the Omnipresent showed to Ezechiel how God's glory was departing from the Temple. (Ez. 10:19) "The Cherubim lifted their wings and ascended from the earth." and it is said (Ez. 11:23): "The glory of the Eternal went up, away from the midst of the city ...." You find that God's Glory moved ten times in all .

93.   (Ez. 20:1-4) "It was in the Seventh year, in the fifth month, on the tenth of the month, there came men from the elders of Israel ... And the word of the Eternal was to me: Son of man, speak to the elders of Israel ... did you come to seek me? ... Judge them, tell them the abominations of their forefathers." At that time, Zedekiah (Jer. 34:8-9) "concluded a covenant with the entire people . . . that everyone should free his Hebrew slave ...." (Jer. 34:11) "And they turned around and returned the slaves and bondmaids that they had freed, and forced them to be slaves and bondmaids." About that he said (Jer. 34:18): "The calf, that they had split into two and passed between its pieces" in order to rebel against the Omnipresent. You will say, these (the covenanters) and those (who broke the covenant) were in rebellion against the Omnipresent. At that time did Zedekiah rebel against the king of Babylonia and leaned on the kings of Egypt. You may say these (Israel) leaned on the kings of Egypt and those (Judah) leaned on the kings of Egypt. Both these and those were exiled in three successive deportations. Both these and those suffered three years of siege. Both these and those ate the flesh of their sons and daughters. And so is says (Ez. 23:31): "You (Jerusalem) went in the ways of your sister (Samaria), so I gave her cup into your hand." In the eighth year of Zedekiah did the army of the king of Babylonia against Jerusalem (Jer. 37:5) "and the army of Pharao left Egypt ..." swept over Gaza, and returned to Egypt.

94.   (Ez. 24:1-2) "The word of the Eternal was to me in the ninth year, in the tenth month, on the tenth of the month: Son of man, note down the name of this day, on this exact day did the king of Babylonia invest Jerusalem. On this same day, the Tenth of Teveth.

95.   (Ez. 29:1-2) "In the tenth year, in the tenth month, on the twelfth of the month, was the word of the Eternal to me: Son of man, put your face against Pharao, the king of Egypt, and prophesy about him and all of Egypt. (Jer. 32:6-7): "Behold, Hanamel, the son of your uncle Shallum will come to you, saying: buy for yourself my field in Anathoth, because yours is the duty of redemption, to buy. And Hanamel, my uncle's son, came to me, according to the Eternal's word, to the courtyard of the jail, and said to me: please, buy my field in Anathoth, in the land of Benjamin, because yours is the right of inheritance and redemption . . and I knew that this was the Eternal's word."

96.   (Ez. 30:20-21) "It was in the eleventh year, in the first month, on the seventh of the month, that the Eternal's word was to me: Son of man, I broke the arm of Pharao, the king of Egypt

97.   (Ez. 31:1-2) It was in the eleventh year, in the third month, on the first of the month, that the Eternal's word was to me: Son of man, say to Pharao and his multitude, to whom did you compare yourself in your greatness .. ." (Ez. 26:1-2) It was in the eleventh year, on the first of the month, that the Eternal's word was to me: Son of man, because Tyre said about Jerusalem hey, it is broken, the gates of peoples I shall turn to me, I shall fill the destruction . . ." On the third of Tishre, 52 days after the destruction of the Temple was Gedaliah ben Ahikam ben Shaphan and the Jews that were with him slain at Mizpah; the remainder of the escapees went to Egypt and Jeremiah and Baruch with them.

98.   (Ez. 33:21) "It was in the twelfth year of our exile, in the tenth month, on the fifth of the month, there came to me the escapee from Jerusalem saying, the city had fallen." (Ez. 32:1­2) "It was in the twelfth year, in the twelfth month on the first of the month, that the Eternal's word was to me: Son of man, declaim a dirge about Pharao, king of Egypt, and say to him,

99.   you imagined yourself as you lion among the Gentiles . ."
(Ez. 32:17-18) "It was in the twelfth year, on the fifteenth of the month, that the Eternal's word was to me: Son of man, wail about the multitude of Egypt and bring it down ... ." At that moment, the Holy One, Praise to Him, showed Ezechiel that the Gentiles are condemned to the pit of destruction.

100.                      In the 23rd year of Nebuchadnezzar was Tyre given in his hand; he swept out all the Jews that were in Ammon, Moab, and in countries bordering on the Land of Israel, 745 souls. In the 27th year of Nebuchadnezzar was Egypt given in his hand, he plundered its plunder, collected its booty, and his army made itself be paid. He exiled Jeremiah and Baruch to Babylon. (Ez. 40:1) "In the twenty-fifth year of our exile, on New Year's Day, on the tenth of the month, fourteen years after the City had fallen, on this same day, was on me the hand of the Eternal and brought me there." At that moment, the Holy One, Praise to Him, showed to Ezechiel in a vision the shape of the Temple of the future.

 

Chapter 27: Babylonian Destruction of Jerusalem

 

101.                      (Jer. 52:4-11) "In the ninth year of his reign, in the tenth month on the tenth of the month, came Nebuchadnezzar and all his army against Jerusalem, camped around it and built a siege-dam around it. The city came into siege until the eleventh year of king Zedekiah. In the fourth month, on the ninth of the month, did hunger overpower the city and there was no bread for the ruling class. The city was breached and all the soldiers fled and left the city in the night through the gate between the double walls by the king's garden, while the Chaldeans were around the city, and they took the road to the arid plain. The army of the Chaldeans pursued the king and caught up with Zedekiah in the arid plain of Jericho; then all his army scattered away from him. They arrested the king and transported him to the king of Babylonia at Riblah in the land of Hamah, who passed judgment upon him. The king of Babylonia killed all sons of Zedekiah before his eyes, also all the ministers of Judah he killed at Riblah. The eyes of Zedekiah he blinded, he had him bound with brass fetters; the king of Babylonia brought him to Babylon and put him under house arrest until the day of his death."

102.                      All of 28 days he was picking and flattening on the mountain, and so it says (2Kings 25:8): "In the fifth month, on the seventh of the month, that is year 19 of Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylonia, came Nebuzaradan, the chief cook, servant of the king of Babylonia, to Jerusalem." At another place, it says (Jer. 52:12): "On the tenth of the month," and it says (Jer. 52:29): "In year 18 of Nebuchadnezzar." Why does Scripture say 19 and why 18? 19 years of his reign and 18 years since he subdued Jehoiakim. Why does Scripture say the seventh of the month and why the tenth? And if it was the tenth, why is the seventh mentioned? Say then that the Gentiles entered the Temple on the seventh, took away the basin, its foundations, and the pillars, and were picking in it the seventh, eighth, and nineth until evening as it is said (Jer. 6:4): "Start against it (Jerusalem) war, get up and attack ... woe us because the day is turning, the evening shadows are lengthening." At nightfall they set fires and the Temple was burned on the tenth. About that generation it had been said (Deut. 31:21): "Certainly, I (God) know its evil intentions ... before I shall bring them to the land that I had sworn to them." It also says (Deut. 31:27): "Certainly, I (Moses) know your rebelliousness . . ," (Deut. 31:29) "Certainly, I know that after my death you will degenerate ...." And so it says about Zedekiah (2Chr. 36:13­21): "Also, he revolted against king Nebuchadnezzar who had let him swear by God . . . Also the leaders of the priests and the people were exceedingly faithless . . . But the Eternal, the God of their forefathers, sent to them by his messengers, early to rise and to be sent ... But they insulted the messengers of God, were contemptuous of his word, and making fun of his prophets ... The king of the Chaldeans attacked them ... And all the vessels of the Temple ... he brought to Babylon ... He burned the Temple and the palace . . . And exiled those who remained from the sword to Babylonia . .. To fulfill the word of the Eternal through Jeremiah, until the land had enjoyed it Sabbatical years, all the years that it was desolate it rested, to fulfill seventy years.

103.                      Rebbi Yose says: For 52 years nobody was passing by Judah as it is said (Jer. 9:9): "About the mountains I lift my voice in cry and wail, on the oases of the wilderness in dirges, because they have been destroyed so that no one passes by, they do not hear the noise of animals; from the birds of the sky to animals they moved away, went." Rebbi Yose says: Seven years was that verse fulfilled in the land of Israel (Deut. 29:22)

104.                      "Sulphur and salt, burned is all its land, it cannot be sown and nothing will grow . ." (Jer. 52:27) "The king of Babylonia slew them and killed them ... and exiled Judah from its land," (Jer. 52:29) "832 souls." Three deportations, 4600, and from Benjamin and other tribes 7000 that went into exile with Jehoiachin.

 

Chapter 28: Daniel

 

105.                      (Dan. 2:1) "In year two of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar, his spirit pounded inside him and his sleep fell on him." It is impossible to say so, but Scripture counts the years after the destruction of the Temple and months after the destruction of the Temple. Similarly, it says (Jer. 52:31): "It was in year 37 of the exile of Jehoiachin, king of Judah, in the twelfth month on the 25th of the month." Another verse says (2Kings 25:27): "27th." Why does Scripture say 25th and 27th? But on the 25th his accuser Nebuchadnezzar died and was buried, on the 26th, Evil-merodakh removed him from his grave and dragged him through the streets in order to annull his decrees, to fulfill what is written (Is. 14:19): "You have been thrown from your grave like a despised shoot . . ."; on the 27th he freed Jehoiachin. At that time, Zedekiah died and they eulogized him: "Woe that king Zedekiah died who drank the dregs for everybody"; to fulfill what is written (Jer. 34:5): "You shall die in peace . . ." One will say that anybody in luck should never forget the possibility of bad luck and anybody unlucky should never give up hope for luck. From whom do we know, from Jehoiachin and Zedekiah. Nebuchadnezzar ruled 45 years, his son Evil-merodakh 23 years, the latter's son Belshazzar 3 years.

106.                      (Dan. 7:1) "In year one of Belshazzar, the king of Babylonia, did Daniel have a dream . . . ." (Dan. 8:1) "In year three of king Belshazzar, I Daniel, had a vision ...." (Dan. 5:1-6) "King Belshazzar made a big dinner . . . Belshazzar said under the influence of wine, to bring the silver and gold vessels that his ancestor Nebuchadnezzar had brought from the Temple of Jerusalem . . . Then the golden vessels were brought . . . and from them drank the king and his nobles, his wife and concubines. They drank wine and praised gods of gold and silver . . . At that time, there came out fingers of a human hand and wrote .. . Upon that, the king's face changed . . . ." (Is. 21:8) "The lion calls: I am standing on the Lord's watch ... ." (Is. 21:11-12) "Assertion about Diimah: To me it calls from Seir, watchman, what will be after the night, watchman, what will be after the night?" Who is the watchman? He is the Holy One, praise to Him, as it is said (Ps. 121): "Behold, the Watcher over Israel never slumbers nor sleeps ... The Eternal may preserve you from all evil . . . " and the entire psalm. What does the prophet mean? That the rule of one people does not overlap with that of another people, nor the rule of one government with that of another government, but a government whose time has expired during the day will fall during the day and that whose time has expired during the night will fall during the night, and so it is said (Ez. 30:16,18): "The enemies will come over Noph by day .. . At Tahpanhes the day will become dark . . . ." And it says (Dan. 5:30): "During that night, Belshazzar, king of the Chaldeans, was killed."

107.                      (Dan. 6:1) "Darius the Mede received the kingdom when he was 62 years old." What does the verse intend with the information that he was 62 years old? That on the day that Nebuchadnezzar entered the Temple in the days of Jehoiachin, his adversary Darius was born. Similarly, on the day that Jehu was anointed at Ramot Gilead, his adversary tlazael was anointed. These are 70 years since Nebuchadnezzar's accession, and 69 years since he conquered Jehoiakim. (Dan. 9:1) "In year one of Darius ben Ahasuerus from the seed of Media . . . ." You do not find any year of rule for Media in Scripture except this one. And so Jeremiah told Israel (Jer. 51:46): "That your heart should not be weakened by the news that is heard in the land," that refers to Belshazzar, "oppression in the land," on Jerusalem, "a ruler," that is Cyrus the Persian.

108.                      (Dan. 11:1-2) "But I, in the first year of Darius the Mede, kept my stand to strengthen and help him. And now I shall tell you the truth; behold, another three kings will arise for Persia," that refers to Cyrus, Ahasuerus, and Darius who built the Temple, "and the fourth will be the richest of them all." What does Scripture mean by "fourth," fourth for Media, as it is said (Dan. 1:21): "Daniel lasted until the first year of king Cyrus." At that time, it was said to him (Dan. 9:23-25): "At the start of your prayers, the word went out, and I came to tell you . . . Seventy sabbatical periods it was decided about your people and your holy city to eliminate crime, seal sins, and forgive transgression, and to bring permanent justice; to. end vision and prophecy and to anoint the Holiest of Holies. You shall know and understand from the result of the word, to rebuild Jerusalem under the anointed leader, seven sabbatical periods; and 62 sabbatical periods it shall be rebuilt wide and fortified, in times of danger." Seven sabbatical periods they spent in exile and then returned. 62 sabbatical periods they spent in the Land and one sabbatical period partially in the Land and partially outside it. (Dan. 9:26-27) "After 62 sabbatical periods, the anointed will be eliminated; a dominant people will destroy the holy city, its end in a flood, and to the end of war destruction is decreed. For one sabbatical period the covenant of the many will prevail, but for half a sabbatical period he will abolish sacrifice and offering, on the wing of an abomination of devastation, until decreed total ruin is poured out on the devastator." R. Yose said, 70 sabbatical periods [490 years] from the destruction of the first Temple [actually 587 BC] to the destruction of the second Temple [70 AD]; 70 (years) in its destruction and 410 [420] when it was rebuilt. [the actual period is 587 + 70 = 657 years not 490]. And why does scripture say, 70 weeks? That the Divine decree was before the 70 years. Similarly, it says (Gen. 6:3): ". . his days shall be 120 years." And it says (Gen. 7:3): "In year 600 of Noah's life ...." It is impossible to say so; but the Divine decree was issued 120 years before. Similarly, it says (Is. 7:8): "In another 65 years, Ephraim will no longer be a people." That was in year four of Ahaz. It is impossible to say so, but the Divine decree was issued in the time of Amos, two years before the earthquake, as it is said (Amos 7:11): "So said Amos, Jeroboam will die by the sword and Israel will certainly be exiled from its land."

 

Chapter 29: Persia and Esther

 

109.                      (Ezra 1:1-3) "In year one of Cyrus, king of Persia, when the word of the Eternal through Jeremiah was fulfilled, did the Eternal enlighten the spirit of Cyrus, king of Persia. He had a public announcement made in all his kingdom and also by letter, as follows: "So says Cyrus, king of Persia: All kingdoms of the earth the Eternal gave to me, the God of Heaven, and he ordered me to build for Him a Temple in Jerusalem that is in Judah. Anyone among you from all his people, may his God be with him and may he return to Jerusalem in Judah." (Ezra 1:5) "The heads of the families of Judah and Benjamin, the priests and Levites, supported everybody whose spirit was enlightened by God to return and build the Temple of the Eternal in Jerusalem." (Ezra 2:64-65) "All the community together, 42'360. In addition, their male and female slaves, 7'337 . . . ." These numbers are the totals; the sum of the details is only 29'450. Where are the missing 12'360? These are the returnees from the other tribes. (Ezra 3:3) "They prepared the altar on its foundation while they were afraid of the Gentiles . .." (Ezra 3:7) "They gave money to the stone masons and metal workers, food, drink, and oil to the Sidonians and Tyrians to deliver to them cedars to the harbor at Jaffa, following the permit issued to them by Cyrus, king of Persia." Cyrus ruled incomplete three years. (Ezra 4:6) "In the reign of Ahasuerus, at the start of his reign, they wrote accusations against the inhabitants of Judah and Jerusalem." (Ezra 4:24) "In the meantime, the work at the Temple in Jerusalem stopped and was idle until year two of Darius, king of Persia."

110.                      (Esther 1:3) "In the year 3 of his (Ahasuerus's) reign he made a feast ...." For four years, Esther was hidden in the fortress Susa. (Esther 2:16) "Esther was taken to the king, to his palace, in the tenth month, that is Tevet, in the seventh year of his reign." For five years, Haman amassed riches for Mordecai. (Esther 3:7) "In the first month, that is Nisan, in the year 12 of king Ahasuerus, they threw the lot before Haman . . ." On the 13th of Nisan did Haman write letters (Esther 3:13) "to destroy and kill all Jews ...." On the 15th of Nisan did Esther appear before the king. On the 16th of Nisan was Haman hanged. On the 23rd of Nisan did Mordecai write to countermand the missives of Haman. On the 13th of Adar (Esther 9:5) "did the Jews slay all their enemies," (Esther 9:12) "and in the fortress Susa the Jews slew 500 men" and they hanged the ten sons of Haman who had written incitements against the inhabitants of Judah and Jerusalem. (Esther 9:11) "On that day, the king was informed of the number of the slain." About the same time the next year it is said (Esther 9:29) "Queen Esther and the Jew Mordecai wrote ...."

111.                      Lo, it says (Jer. 29:10): "When Babylon will have filled 70 years I shall remember you and fulfill My good word to return you to this place"; (Dan. 9:2) "I checked the books for the number of years, about which the word of the Eternal was to the prophet Jeremiah, that 70 years were fulfilled since the destruction of Jerusalem." Israel was 52 years in the kingdom of the Chaldeans, then they were remembered and returned, three years in the reign of Cyrus, 14 of Ahasuerus, and in the second year of Darius the Temple was built. And so says Zachariah (Zach. 1:12): "The angel of the Eternal declaimed and said: 0 Eternal of Hosts, until when will you not have mercy on Jerusalem and the cities of Judah, about which You are angry now these 70 years." The Temple was built for four years as it is said (Ezra 6:15): "This temple was finished at the third of Adar in the year six of the reign of Darius." At the same time the next year did Ezra come up from Babylon and other deportees with him as it is said (Ezra 7:6-10): "He is Ezra, who came from Babylon, a scribe quick in the Torah of Moses that the Eternal, the God of Israel had given ... There came from the Israelites and from the priests, levites (singers, doorkeepers), and temple servants to Jerusalem, in the seventh year of king Artaxerxes. He arrived at Jeruasalem in the fifth month of the king's seventh year. Really, of the first of the first month was the begin of the voyage from Babylon, and on the first of the fifth month he came to Jerusalem since the hand of the Eternal was good over him. Because Ezra had concentrated on studying the Torah of the Eternal, to do and to teach laws and judicial rules in Israel." He came to separate Israel from the foreign wives.

 

Chapter 30: Nehemiah to Roman Destruction of Jerusalem

 

112.                      (Neh. 1:1) "The words of Nehemiah ben Hakhaliah . . ." Twelve years he was in the land of Israel, repairing the wall and returning every man to his town and his inherited land. And so it says (Neh. 13:6): "When all this happened, I was not in Jerusalem because in the year 32 of Artaxerxes I came to the king and after one year I took leave from the king." From year 20 to year 32 are 12 years. Behold, it says (Ezra 6:14): "The elders of the Jews did build and were successful, following the prophecy of the prophet Haggai, and Zachariah ben Iddo; they built and perfected by the order of the God of Israel and by the order of Cyrus, and Darius, and Artaxerxes, the king of Persia. You find only two Persian kings, Cyrus and Darius, and for Media Darius and Ahasuerus. But Cyrus is Darius is Artaxerxes, since the kingdom was called Artaxerxes. The kings of Media and Persia ruled for a total of 521 years.

 

(1: footnote: All French manuscripts of Seder Olam have "52 years" for the duration of the Persian empire. This is the only acceptable date according to the method of the Tanna, as will be seen later. Some manuscripts read “210 years”. Some oriental manuscripts have "250 years.")

 

113.                      (Neh. 7:73-8:1) "The priest, Levites (gate keepers and singers), from the people, and Temple servants, and all of Israel lived in their towns; there arrived the Seventh Month and all of Israel were in their towns. Then all the people assembled spontaneously on the plaza that was before the water gate; they told Ezra the sopher to bring the book of the Torah of Moses that the Eternal had commanded to Israel." And it says (Neh. 8:17): "All the congregation that had returned from captivity made tabernacles. They lived in tabernacles, because the children of Israel had not done so since the days of Joshua bin Nun until that day." It is impossible to say so; but he brackets their coming in the time of Ezra with the coming in the time of Joshua. Just as in the time of Joshua they became obligated for tithes, Sabbatical and Jubilee years and they sanctified walled cities and were happy before the Omnipresent, [similarly at their coming in the time of Ezra] as it is said (Neh. 8:17): "The joy was exceedingly great." And so it says (Deur. 30:5): "The Eternal, your God, will bring you to the land that your father had inherited and you shall inherit it." He brackets your inheritance with that of your forefathers. Just as the inheritance of your forefathers implies the renewal of all these things so also your inheritance implies the renewal of all these things. I could think that you will have a third inheritance, the verse says "you shall inherit it," a first and second you have, you do not have a third inheritance.

114.                      (Dan. 8:21) "The horned ram, that is the king of Greece; the mighty horn that is between his eyes, that is the first king." (Dan. 11:3-4) "A valiant king will arise ... and when he arises, his kingdom will be broken and separated in the four directions of the sky." That is Alexander the Macedonian who ruled for 12 years. Until that time there were prophets prophesying by the Holy Spirit; from there on (Prov. 22:10) "bend your ear and listen to the words of the wise," as it is said (Prov. 22:18-19): "How pleasant if you will preserve them in your body ... that your trust shall be in the Eternal." And it is said (Prov. 22:20-21): "Behold, I wrote for you triple ... to tell you the trustworthiness of true teachings." And so it says (Deut. 32:7): "Ask your father and he will tell you, your elders and they will inform you." I could think of old men from the market place, the verse says "they will inform you." From this you learn that an elder is a man who has acquired wisdom.

115.                      R. Yose says: The Persian empire existed during the time of the Temple for 24 years. The kingdom of the Greeks 180 years. The kingdom of the Hasmoneans 103 years. The kingdom of Herod 103 years. After that start counting after the destruction of the Temple. And in Babylonia one writes in the Seleucide era one thousand. The following are the eight kings of the Greeks: Alexander the Macedonian, Antipatros, Ptolemy, Seleukos, Sntrvq, Antonius, Antiochos, Gaius Caligula. From the war of Varus to the war of Vespasian 80 years. These were during the time of the Temple. From the war of Vespasian to the war of Quietus 24 years. From the war of Quietus to the war of Ben Koziba [literally: Koziba = “son of Lie”] 16 years. The war of ben Koziba [literally: Koziba = “son of Lie”] two and one half years; that was 22 years after the destruction of the Temple.

116.                      R. Yose says: A day of rewards attracts rewards and a day of guilt attracts guilt. You find it said that the destruction of the first Temple was at the end of Sabbath, at the end of a Sabbatical year, when the priests of the family of Yehoiariv was officiating, on the Ninth of Ab, and the same happened the second time. Both times the Levites were standing on their podium and sang. Which song did they sing? (Ps. 94:23) "He repaid them for their evil deeds . . . ." The city wall was breached on the Ninth of the Fourth month the first time and on the Seventeenth the second time.

117.                      (Ps. 106:48) "Praised be the Eternal, the God of Israel, from one world to the next world; the entire people said: Amen, Halleluiah!" (Ps. 72:18-19) "Praised be the Eternal, God, the God of Israel, Who alone creates wonders. Praised be His glorious name forever; may His glory be filling all the earth, Amen, Amen." (Dan. 2:21) "He changes seasons and times," seasons that is the season of Sodom, times is the time of Jerusalem, may be soon rebuilt, Amen. "He deposes kings,", that refers to Joiakim, "and appoints kings," that refers to Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylonia. "He gives wisdom to the wise," that refers to our teacher Moses, the greatest sage with the greatest understanding. "And understanding to those who know understanding," that refers to Joshua bin Nun as it is said (Deut. 34:9): "And Joshua bin Nun was filled with the spirit of wisdom ...." Another explanation: "He gives wisdom to the wise," that refers to Joseph, the just, as it is said (Gen. 41:39): "There is nobody insightful and wise as you are." "And understanding to those who know understanding," that refers to Daniel and his companions as it is said (Dan. 2:19): "Now the secret was unveiled to Daniel in a nightly vision." (Dan. 2:22) "He unveils the deep and mysterious"; deep refers to the depth of the Heavenly Chariot, mysterious that is Creation. "He knows what is in darkness," that is the punishment of sinners in hell; "but light dwells with him," that is the rewarding of just people in the future world. Another explanation: "He gives wisdom to the wise," that refers to Joshua bin Nun as it is said (Dew . 34:9): "And Joshua bin Nun was filled with the spirit of wisdom ...." "And understanding to those who know understanding", that refers to Jeremiah, as it is said (Jer. 1:5): "Before I created you in the womb I did know you." I could think that this was just in his time, but Scripture says (Gen. 5:1): "This is the book of the descent of man." This teaches us that the Holy One, praise to Him, showed Adam every generation and its leaders, every generation and its prophets, every generation and its seekers, every generation and its judges; the sages of every generation, the prophets of every generation, the just of every generation, the number of their years, the count of their days, the computation of their hours, the sum of their steps, as it is said (Job 34:16) "Certainly, now You are counting my steps . ." and it says (2Sam. 7:19): "And that was a little thing in the eyes of the Eternal, God; You decreed about the dynasty of Your servant from far away." And it says (Ps. 139:15-17): "My unformed body was seen by Your eyes; in your ledger they are all written down, their days bundled before one of them was. Regarding me, how dear are Your friends, o Powerful; how many are their heads! If I would count them, they would be more than sand!"

 

The Septuagint LXX

“Scripture Cannot Be Broken”

Start Here: Master Introduction and Index

Six Bible Manuscripts

1446 BC

Sinai Text (ST)

1050 BC

Samuel’s Text (SNT)

623 BC

Samaritan (SP)

458 BC

Ezra’s Text (XIV)

282 BC

Septuagint (LXX)

160 AD

Masoretic (MT)

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Seder Olam Rabbah

Steve Rudd, November 2017 AD: Contact the author for comments, input or corrections

 

By Steve Rudd: November 2017: Contact the author for comments, input or corrections.

 

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