Messianic Expectation from the Dead Sea Scrolls in 100 BC

"Now the people were in a state of expectation and all were wondering in their hearts about John,
as to whether he was the Christ
," (Luke 3:15)

"He shall be called a Nazarene" Mt 2:23

“He was raised on the third day according to the Scriptures" (1 Cor 15:4)

 

Quick links inside this document:

·       Introduction

·       Mistaken Jewish ideas of the Messiah at the time of Jesus.

·       Master list of fulfilled messianic prophecies in New Testament

·       Jewish Expectation of the Messiah in 100 BC from the Dead Sea Scrolls

·       Archeological Exhibit #1: Dead Sea Scroll: Testimonia (4Q175-4QTestimonia)

·       Archeological Exhibit #2: Dead Sea Scroll: Florilegium (4Q174-4QFlorilegium)

·       Prophecy: "He shall be called a Nazarene" Mt 2:23

·       Prophecy: “Jesus would rise the third day

 

 

"He shall be called a Nazarene" Mt 2:23

 

Dead Sea Scroll: 4Q175-4QTestimonia

Dead Sea Scroll: 4Q174-4QFlorilegium

 

 

 

 

  

 

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Digging up Bible stories!

Written about 90 BC, two Dead Sea Scroll, 4Q174-4QFlorilegium and 4Q175-4QTestimonia, show us what Bible verses the Jews at the time of Jesus considered to be messianic. Although not a complete list, it clearly shows that the "Branch of David" prophecies were central. This is exactly what Matthew meant when he said, "He shall be called a Nazarene"

 

What you read in the book you find in the ground!

 

 

Messianic Expectation from the Dead Sea Scrolls

 

Introduction:

  1. Messianic expectation was at an all time high fever pitch when Jesus started his ministry:

a.       "But when the fullness of the time came, God sent forth His Son, born of a woman, born under the Law, so that He might redeem those who were under the Law, that we might receive the adoption as sons." (Galatians 4:4–5)

b.       "Now while the people were in a state of expectation and all were wondering in their hearts about John, as to whether he was the Christ, John answered and said to them all, “As for me, I baptize you with water; but One is coming who is mightier than I, and I am not fit to untie the thong of His sandals; He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and fire." (Luke 3:15–16)

c.       "And he confessed and did not deny, but confessed, “I am not the Christ.” They asked him, “What then? Are you Elijah?” And he said, “I am not.” “Are you the Prophet?” And he answered, “No.” Then they said to him, “Who are you, so that we may give an answer to those who sent us? What do you say about yourself?”" (John 1:20–22)

d.       "“And while John was completing his course, he kept saying, ‘What do you suppose that I am? I am not He. But behold, one is coming after me the sandals of whose feet I am not worthy to untie.’" (Acts 13:25)

  1. While Christians rightly compile lists of messianic prophecy (see “60 messianic prophecies of Jesus” below), it is important to understand the messianic expectations of the Jews before he was born from a non-Christian Jewish perspective.
    1. We have supplied a list of messianic prophecy from a Christian New Testament perspective.
    2. We have supplied two Dead Sea Scrolls from Qumran below, that evidence Jewish expectation of the Messiah before the time of Christ.
    3. What is amazing about these two Dead Sea Scrolls, is that they are lists of proof texts used the by the Jews in 90 BC about the nature of the Messiah.
  2. Be warned that these two DSS’s only provided a small picture into the mind of the Jew before the coming of the Messiah, Jesus of Nazareth and should not be considered a complete compilation list.
    1. While each of the two scrolls have a few passages in common, about 80% of the passages are different. This means that if we found a third or fourth “messianic expectation” scroll the total number of messianic bible references would likely double in size!
    2. For example, Isa 7:14 (virgin birth) and other key messianic prophecies are not referenced in either of these scrolls from Qumran.
    3. This does not mean that the Jews in 100 BC did not consider Isa 7:14 to be a messianic prophecy. What this means is that we have not found archeological texts (yet) where Jews quoted Isa 7:14 in a messianic application.
  1. From these two Dead Sea Scrolls, we have compiled a list of Messianic Old Testament Bible prophecies (see below) that every Jew was familiar with before Jesus was born.
    1. These Old Testament Bible verses were universally accepted as prophecies of the coming Messiah before the time of Jesus.
    2. These same messianic verses were applied directly to Christ by the apostles and the first century church in the New Testament.
    3. This does not represent a complete list of verses used by the Hasmonean Jews in 100 BC, since we have only found two Dead Sea scrolls that compile messianic lists. (see below)
  1. These two Dead Sea Scrolls provide us with the keys to easily understand two Messianic fulfillments of Christ. The Jews in 33 AD easily understood how Jesus fulfilled these prophecies from their Tanakh and converted to Christianity:
    1. “Jesus lived in a city called Nazareth. This was to fulfill what was spoken through the prophets: “He shall be called a Nazarene.”" (Matthew 2:23)
    2. “He was raised on the third day according to the Scriptures” (1 Cor 15:4)
  1. Finally, Deuteronomy 18:18-19 quoted in these Jewish manuscripts, especially Testimonia (4Q175) is utterly devastating to Rabbi Tovia Singer, who is an aggressive attacker of Christianity and self described “Anti-Christian Missionary”.

a.       "‘I will raise up a prophet from among their countrymen like you, and I will put My words in his mouth, and he shall speak to them all that I command him. ‘It shall come about that whoever will not listen to My words which he shall speak in My name, I Myself will require it of him." (Deuteronomy 18:18–19)

    1. Rabbi Tovia Singer knows that Deut 18:18-19 is a powerful and central messianic prophecy of Jesus Christ, the Messiah.
    2.  In order to escape the power of Deut 18:18-19 Rabbi Tovia Singer fabricated an interpretation that is as UNJEWISH as it is vacuous.
    3. Rabbi Tovia Singer says that the prophet Moses prophesied that would follow him in Deut 18:18-19, is none other than Joshua of the conquest of 1406 BC after Moses died.
    4. So Rabbi Tovia Singer rejects that  Deut 18:18-19 is messianic at all but was long fulfilled 1400 years before Jesus was even born.
    5. Rabbi Tovia Singer is at odds which the first century Jews who clearly viewed Deut 18:18-19 as not only NOT YET FULFILLED but also was a core and primary messianic proof text. Notice that the entire verse is quoted in Testiminia in anticipation of the Messiah.
    6. Rabbi Tovia Singer has made other blunders that are equally catastrophic for his position. He also says that the first time the 12 minor prophets were translated into Greek was by Christians in 200 AD. Yet we have the Greek minor prophets scroll that dates to 50 BC with utterly refutes his historical revisionist and unscholarly view.
    7. Rabbi Tovia Singer also makes the ridiculous argument that the prophecy excludes Jesus because Jesus was “not like Moses” since Moses was man and Jesus is God incarnate. In fact, the central point is that just as Moses was the “giver” of the Old covenant, Jesus was the author of the New Covenant (See Jer 31:31).
    8. But this passage actually excludes Joshua from the Deut 18:18 prophecy: "Now Joshua the son of Nun was filled with the spirit of wisdom, for Moses had laid his hands on him; and the sons of Israel listened to him and did as the LORD had commanded Moses. Since that time no prophet has risen in Israel like Moses, whom the LORD knew face to face, for all the signs and wonders which the LORD sent him to perform in the land of Egypt against Pharaoh, all his servants, and all his land, and for all the mighty power and for all the great terror which Moses performed in the sight of all Israel." (Deuteronomy 34:9–12)
    9. On Judgement day, Jesus the Messiah will say to Rabbi Tovia Singer: “Do not think that I will accuse you before the Father; the one who accuses you is Moses, in whom you have set your hope. “For if you believed Moses, you would believe Me, for he wrote about Me. “But if you do not believe his writings, how will you believe My words?” (John 5:45–47)
    10. "But their minds were hardened; for until this very day at the reading of the old covenant the same veil remains unlifted, because it is removed in Christ. But to this day whenever Moses is read, a veil lies over their heart; but whenever a person turns to the Lord, the veil is taken away." (2 Corinthians 3:14–16)

 

I. Mistakes the Jews made in messianic prophecy that led some to reject Jesus as the Messiah

1.      ONE NOT TWO MEN: The Jews at the time of Jesus, wrong interpreted messianic prophecy by expecting two messianic figures: “Star” High priest and the “Scepter king”

a.       The messianic connection of the star-priest and the scepter-king came from the Balaam prophecy Num 24:17.

b.      In fact Jesus fulfilled both at the same time as seen in Zech 6:12-13.

c.       "Thus says the Lord of hosts, “Behold, a man whose name is Branch, for He will branch out from where He is; and He will build the temple of the Lord. “Yes, it is He who will build the temple of the Lord, and He who will bear the honor and sit and rule on His throne. Thus, He will be a priest on His throne, and the counsel of peace will be between the two offices.” ’" (Zechariah 6:12–13)

2.      SPIRITUAL NOT PHYSICAL: The Jews at the time of Jesus were looking for a PHYSICAL WARRIOR King who would defeat the enemies of Israel and liberate the state from occupation.

a.       Judea had been a vassal “puppet” state under occupation since 605 BC, under Babylon, Persia, Greece and finally Rome.

b.      The Zealot movement was born with the desecration of the temple in 167 BC by Antiochus IV. This triggered the Hasmonean rebellion under the Maccabees.

c.       The Maccabean movement were the first “Zealots” who rebelled against the Seleucid empire. When Rome conquered both the Seleucid (64 BC) and Ptolemaic (30 BC) empires, Rome became the primary target of the Zealots.

d.      Jesus chose a Roman authorized Tax collection and a Zealot to be two of his apostles and expected them to get along!

e.      The mistaken idea that Jesus was “restoring” the independence of physical Israel was widespread even after his resurrection:  "So when they had come together, they were asking Him, saying, “Lord, is it at this time You are restoring the kingdom to Israel?”" (Acts 1:6)

f.        Today we know that the spiritual CHURCH is both the spiritual KINGDOM of God and the spiritual TEMPLE that fulfilled all messianic prophecy.

g.       Jesus was never planning to overthrow physical Roman government as the first century Jews, Zealots and apostles wrongly thought, he was a spiritual warrior to defeat the devil and his angels in the spirit world.

h.      There is nothing in scripture that says Israel will ever again be an independent physical state with a rebuilt physical temple under the messiah.

i.         This mistaken idea explains why Jesus was taunted to “come down and save Israel (from us Romans) if you can” by the Romans.

j.         "Jesus answered, “My kingdom is not of this world. If My kingdom were of this world, then My servants would be fighting so that I would not be handed over to the Jews; but as it is, My kingdom is not of this realm.” Therefore Pilate said to Him, “So You are a king?” Jesus answered, “You say correctly that I am a king. For this I have been born, and for this I have come into the world, to testify to the truth. Everyone who is of the truth hears My voice.”" (John 18:36–37)

3.      Melchizedek not Aaronic high priest: The Jews at the time of Jesus wrongly expected the Messiah to be in harmony with the Zadokite priesthood:

a.       This false idea originated in prophecies that the messiah would be a priest.

b.      Jesus was in fact a priest, but not of the order of Aaron, but Melchizedek.

c.       The Dead Sea scrolls make it clear that the Messiah would be an “establishment candidate” that worked closely with the existing Jewish authorities: “This (refers to) the sons of Zadok and (to) the m[e]n of [the]ir council, those who see[k jus]tice eagerly, who have come after them to the council of the community.” (Florilegium: Dead Sea Scroll 4Q174, line 7, 90 BC)

d.      The idea of the “Counsel of the Jews” was seen directly on many of the coins of the Hasmoneans: Notice the inscription on two different coins: “High priest and council of the Jews”
 

e.      The Jews never understood at that the Messiah would be OPPOSED to the priesthood and working against it, not working in harmony and under its direction.

f.        The high priesthood was corrupt at the time of Jesus. There were actually two: one appointed by the Romans and another from the Zadokite line of priests that date back to David.

g.       The priesthood, Sanhedrin (council of the Jews) were morally corrupt since they were the ones who knowingly paid the guards of Jesus’ tomb to lie that the disciples stole the body.

h.      The very Jewish leaders who believe the messiah would be directly in the middle of the “council of the Jews” as a Zadokite high priest, were constantly persecuting, attacking and trying to trap Jesus in what he said!

i.         The Jews who were looking for that “Zadokite” high priest ended up crucifying him on a cross.

j.        The Jews were looking for a “Zadokite” high priest when they should have been looking for a “Melchizedek” high priest.

4.      Abomination of desolation was punishment from God not an attack by man on righteous Jews:

a.       From the book of Daniel, the Jews correctly understood that the coming of the Abomination of Desolation was connected directly with the Messiah.

b.      What the Jews at the time of Jesus got wrong, was they thought the “abomination” came from an outside pagan nation like the Babylonian destruction of the Temple in 587 BC.

c.       The Jews correctly understood that God punished them for their wicked idolatry when Nebuchadnezzar burned the temple as a pre-echo of “Abomination of Desolation” before Daniel recorded his messianic visions.

d.      The Jews wrongly assumed that Daniel’s “Abomination of Desolation” would be an evil force attacking innocent Jews which would trigger the rise of the Messiah who would defeat the enemies of Israel.

e.      So in addition to being at war with their own “high priest messiah” whom they crucified, the Jews would again find themselves to be the targets of God’s wrath in 70 AD for killing their messiah.

f.        It was no coincidence that God destroyed the two temples in 587 BC and 70 AD on the same day of the year (10 Av).

 

II. 67 Old Testament Messianic prophecies fulfilled in the New Testament:

1.      This is a good list of fulfilled prophecy from a Christian point of view.

2.      The ones in red are found in the Dead Sea Scrolls and considered messianic by Jews before Jesus was born.

Concerning his birth

Prophesied

Fulfilled

1. Born of the seed of woman

Gen 3:15

Gal 4:4

2. Born of a virgin

Isa 7:14

Mt 1:18-25

3. Seed of Abraham

Gen 22:18

Mt 1:1

4. Seed of Isaac

Gen 21:12

Lk 3:23+34

5. Seed of Jacob

Num 24:17

Lk 3:34

6. Seed of David

Jer 23:5

Lk 3:31

7. Tribe of Judah

Gen 49:10

Rev 5:5

8. Family line of Jesse

Isa 11:1

Lk 3:32

9. Born in Bethlehem

Mic 5:2

Mt 2:1-6

10. Herod kills the children

Jer 31:15

Mt 2:16-18

Concerning his nature

Prophesied

Fulfilled

11. He pre-existed creation

Mic 5:2

1 Pet 1:20

12. He shall be called Lord

Ps 110:1

Acts 2:36

13. Called Immanuel (God with us)

Isa 7:14

Mt 1:22-23

14. Prophet like Moses

Deut 18:18-19

Acts 3:18-25

15. Priest

Ps 110:4

Heb 5:5-6

16. Judge

Isa 33:22

Jn 5:22-23

17. King

Ps 2:6

Jn 18:33-37

18. Anointed by the Spirit

Isa 11:2

Mt 3:16-17

19. His zeal for God

Ps 69:9

Jn 2:15-17

Concerning his ministry

Prophesied

Fulfilled

20. Preceded by a messenger

Isa 40:3

Mt 3:1-3

21. To begin in Galilee

Isa 9:1-2

Mt 4:12-17

22. Ministry of Miracles

Isa 35:5-6

Mt 9:35;11:4

23. Teacher of parables

Ps 78:1-4

Mt 13:34-35

24. He was to enter the temple

Mal 3:1

Mt 21:10-12

25. Enter Jerusalem on donkey

Zech 9:9

Mt 21:1-7

26. Stone of stumbling to Jews

Isa 28:16; Ps 118:22

1 Pet 2:6-8

27. Light to Gentiles

Isa 49:6

Acts 13:46-48

The day Jesus was crucified

Prophesied

Fulfilled

28. Betrayed by a friend

Ps 41:9

Jn 13:18-27

29. Sold for 30 pieces of silver

Zech 11:12

Mt 26:14-15

30. 30 pieces thrown in Temple

Zech 11:13

Mt 27:3-5

31. 30 pieces buys potters field

Zech 11:13

Mt 27:6-10

32. Forsaken by His disciples

Zech 13:7

Mk 14:27+50

33. Accused by false witnesses

Ps 35:11+20-21

Mt 26:59-61

34. Silent before accusers

Isa 53:7

Mt 27:12-14

35. Wounded and bruised

Isa 53:4-6

1 Pet 2:21-25

36. Beaten and spit upon

Isa 50:6

Mt 26:67-68

37. Mocked

Ps 22:6-8

Mt 27:27-31

38. Fell under the cross

Ps 109:24-25

Jn 19:17; Lk23:26

39. Hands and feet pierced

Ps 22:16

Jn 20:24-28

40. Crucified with thieves

Isa 53:12

Mt 27:38

41. Prayed for enemies

Isa 53:12

Lk 23:34

42. Rejected by His own people

Isa 53:3

Jn 19:14-15

43. Hated without cause

Ps 69:4

Jn 15:25

44. Friends stood aloof

Ps 38:11

Lk22:54;23:49

45. People wag their heads

Ps 22:7;109:25

Mt 27:39

46. People stared at Him

Ps 22:17

Lk 23:35

47. Cloths divided and gambled for

Ps 22:18

Jn 19:23-24

48. Became very thirsty

Ps 22:15

Jn 19:28

49. Gall and vinegar offered Him

Ps 69:21

Mt 27:34

50. His forsaken cry

Ps 22:1

Mt 27:46

51. Committed Himself to God

Ps 31:5

Lk 23:46

52. Bones not broken

Ps 34:20

Jn 19:32-36

53. Heart broken

Ps 69:20;22:14

Jn 19:34

54. His side pierced

Zech 12:10

Jn 19:34+37

55. Darkness over the land

Amos 8:9

Lk 23:44-45

56. Buried in rich man's tomb

Isa 53:9

Mt 27:57-60

His Resurrection & Ascension

Prophesied

Fulfilled

57. Raised from the dead

Ps 16:8-11

Acts 2:24-31

58. Begotten as Son of God

Ps 2:7

Acts 13:32-35

59. Ascended to Heaven

Ps 68:18

Eph 4:8-10; John 3:13

60. Seated beside God

Ps 110:1

Heb 1:3+13

Role as Messiah in DSS

Prophesied

Fulfilled

61. “Branch” of David

Isa 11:1-5; Isa 53:2;

Jer 23:5-6; Zech 6:12-13

Mt 2:23

62. Lawgiver

Deut 18:18-19; Jer 31:31

Acts 3:22; 7:37; Jn 17:7-8; Col 2:14;

Heb 7:11-12; 8:13; 9:15;

1 Cor 9:21; Gal 6:2

63. King and Priest:

     “King with scepter” and “star priest”

Num 24:15-17; Isa 9:6-7; Zech 6:12-13

Heb 1:8; Mt 2:2; Rev 22:16

64. Warrior to defeat Israel’s enemies

Num 24:17; Deut 33:11; Ps 89:23

Heb 1:13; Jn 18:36; Rev 17:14

65. “Interpreter of the law”

Daniel 12:10; Ezekiel 37:23; Psalm 2:1

Acts 4:25-27; Mk 1:22;

Jn 7:49; Mt 22:33–34

66. Restore and rebuild temple of David

2 Samuel 7:10-14; Amos 9:11

Acts 15:16; John 2:19-22; Mt 26:61

Mt 27:40; Mk 14:58; Acts 6:14;

Eph 1:21-22; 2:19-22

(body of Christ, church)

67. Abomination of desolation

 Daniel 9:27; 11:21; 12:11

 Mt 24:15-16 + Lk 21:20-21

 

III. Jewish Messianic Expectation from the Dead Sea Scrolls before the birth of Christ:

  1. MYSTERY OF THE MESSIAH: ONE MAN NOT TWO: Dead Sea Scrolls; John 1:25; Ephesians 3:3–5
    1. The Dead Sea Scrolls and John 1:25 make it clear that the Jews were mistakenly looking for two men to fulfill messianic prophecy: The "Scepter/King warrior" and the "Star/Priest interpreter of the law".
    2. One of the reasons they rejected Christ, was because he was not a military warrior like the Zealots to overthrow the Romans.
    3. As Christians it all seems so easy looking back to see that all the messianic prophecies were fulfilled in Christ but for the Jews, it was a mystery and they misunderstood that two men would arise in the end times.
    4. "Now while the people were in a state of expectation and all were wondering in their hearts about John, as to whether he was the Christ," (Luke 3:15)
    5. "They asked him, and said to him, “Why then are you baptizing, if you are not the Christ, nor Elijah, nor the Prophet?”" (John 1:25)
    6. "that by revelation there was made known to me the mystery, as I wrote before in brief. By referring to this, when you read you can understand my insight into the mystery of Christ (THE MYSTERY OF THE MESSIAH), which in other generations was not made known to the sons of men, as it has now been revealed to His holy apostles and prophets in the Spirit;" (Ephesians 3:3–5)
    7. "but we speak God’s wisdom in a mystery, the hidden wisdom which God predestined before the ages to our glory; the wisdom which none of the rulers of this age has understood; for if they had understood it they would not have crucified the Lord of glory;" (1 Corinthians 2:7–8)
    8. "And He was saying to them, “To you has been given the mystery of the kingdom of God, but those who are outside get everything in parables, so that while seeing, they may see and not perceive, and while hearing, they may hear and not understand, otherwise they might return and be forgiven.”" (Mark 4:11–12)
    9. "Now to Him who is able to establish you according to my gospel and the preaching of Jesus Christ, according to the revelation of the mystery which has been kept secret for long ages past, but now is manifested, and by the Scriptures of the prophets, according to the commandment of the eternal God, has been made known to all the nations, leading to obedience of faith; to the only wise God, through Jesus Christ, be the glory forever. Amen." (Romans 16:25–27)
    10. "He made known to us the mystery of His will, according to His kind intention which He purposed in Him with a view to an administration suitable to the fullness of the times, that is, the summing up of all things in Christ, things in the heavens and things on the earth. In Him" (Ephesians 1:9–10)
  2. BRANCH OF DAVID: Isa 11:1-5; Isa 53:2; Jer 23:5-6; Zech 6:12-13; Mt 2:23
    1. The messiah would be a descendant of David referred to widely as the "branch of David".
    2. "Then a shoot will spring from the stem of Jesse, And a branch from his roots will bear fruit. The Spirit of the Lord will rest on Him, The spirit of wisdom and understanding, The spirit of counsel and strength, The spirit of knowledge and the fear of the Lord. And He will delight in the fear of the Lord, And He will not judge by what His eyes see, Nor make a decision by what His ears hear; But with righteousness He will judge the poor, And decide with fairness for the afflicted of the earth; And He will strike the earth with the rod of His mouth, And with the breath of His lips He will slay the wicked. Also righteousness will be the belt about His loins, And faithfulness the belt about His waist." (Isaiah 11:1–5)
    3. "For He grew up before Him like a tender shoot, And like a root out of parched ground; He has no stately form or majesty That we should look upon Him, Nor appearance that we should be attracted to Him." (Isaiah 53:2)
    4. "“Behold, the days are coming,” declares the Lord, “When I will raise up for David a righteous Branch; And He will reign as king and act wisely And do justice and righteousness in the land. “In His days Judah will be saved, And Israel will dwell securely; And this is His name by which He will be called, ‘The Lord our righteousness.’" (Jeremiah 23:5–6)
    5. "“Then say to him, ‘Thus says the Lord of hosts, “Behold, a man whose name is Branch, for He will branch out from where He is; and He will build the temple of the Lord. “Yes, it is He who will build the temple of the Lord, and He who will bear the honor and sit and rule on His throne. Thus, He will be a priest on His throne, and the counsel of peace will be between the two offices.” ’" (Zechariah 6:12-13)
    6. It is this most important and most widely used reference to the Messiah as branch that provides the foundation of the interpretation of Mt 2:23.
    7. EVERYBODY knew the Messiah was called the BRANCH.
  1. A LAWGIVER PROPHET LIKE MOSES: Deut 18:18-19; Jer 31:31; Acts 3:22; 7:37; Jn 17:7-8; Col 2:14; Heb 7:11-12; 8:13; 9:15; 1 Cor 9:21; Gal 6:2
    1. Jesus abolished the first covenant (Law of Moses/Ten commandments) when He nailed it to the cross at His death. The New covenant came into force at the same time like a "Will". Today we are not under the law of Moses but the Law of Christ: "to those who are without law, as without law, though not being without the law of God but under the law of Christ, so that I might win those who are without law." (1 Corinthians 9:21) "Bear one another’s burdens, and thereby fulfill the law of Christ." (Galatians 6:2)  
    2. Deut 18:18 was known by all the Jews as a prophecy of the Messiah. "‘I will raise up a prophet from among their countrymen like you, and I will put My words in his mouth, and he shall speak to them all that I command him. ‘It shall come about that whoever will not listen to My words which he shall speak in My name, I Myself will require it of him." (Deuteronomy 18:18–19)
    3. "Now if perfection was through the Levitical priesthood (for on the basis of it the people received the Law), what further need was there for another priest to arise according to the order of Melchizedek, and not be designated according to the order of Aaron? For when the priesthood is changed, of necessity there takes place a change of law also." (Hebrews 7:11–12)
    4. "For this reason He is the mediator of a new covenant, so that, since a death has taken place for the redemption of the transgressions that were committed under the first covenant, those who have been called may receive the promise of the eternal inheritance." (Hebrews 9:15)
    5. "When He said, “A new covenant,” He has made the first obsolete. But whatever is becoming obsolete and growing old is ready to disappear." (Hebrews 8:13)
    6. "having canceled out the certificate of debt consisting of decrees against us, which was hostile to us; and He has taken it out of the way, having nailed it (the Law of Moses) to the cross." (Colossians 2:14)
    7. All aspects of this prophecy were fulfilled by Christ including speaking directly from God: "“Now they have come to know that everything You have given Me is from You; for the words which You gave Me I have given to them; and they received them and truly understood that I came forth from You, and they believed that You sent Me." (John 17:7-8)
    8. The Apostles applied this prophecy fulfilled in Christ:  Acts 3:22 and Acts 7:37.
  1. KING WITH SCEPTER AND PRIEST AS STAR: Num 24:15-17; Isa 9:6-7; Zech 6:12-13; Heb 1:8; Matthew 2:2; Rev 22:16

a.      "He took up his discourse and said, “The oracle of Balaam the son of Beor, And the oracle of the man whose eye is opened, The oracle of him who hears the words of God, And knows the knowledge of the Most High, Who sees the vision of the Almighty, Falling down, yet having his eyes uncovered. “I see him, but not now; I behold him, but not near; A star shall come forth from Jacob, A scepter shall rise from Israel, And shall crush through the forehead of Moab, And tear down all the sons of Sheth." (Numbers 24:15–17)

    1. There would be two different people: a Messiah and an interpreter of the Law.
    2. This the Jews misunderstood since Jesus was both king and priest after the order of Melchizedek.
    3. "For a child will be born to us, a son will be given to us; And the government will rest on His shoulders; And His name will be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Eternal Father, Prince of Peace. There will be no end to the increase of His government or of peace, On the throne of David and over his kingdom, To establish it and to uphold it with justice and righteousness From then on and forevermore. The zeal of the Lord of hosts will accomplish this." (Isaiah 9:6–7)
    4. "“Then say to him, ‘Thus says the Lord of hosts, “Behold, a man whose name is Branch, for He will branch out from where He is; and He will build the temple of the Lord. “Yes, it is He who will build the temple of the Lord, and He who will bear the honor and sit and rule on His throne. Thus, He will be a priest on His throne, and the counsel of peace will be between the two offices.” ’" (Zechariah 6:12-13)

f.        Scepter = king: God the Father says of Jesus, God the son: "But of the Son He says, “Your throne, O God, is forever and ever, And the righteous scepter is the scepter of His kingdom." (Hebrews 1:8)

    1. Priest = Star: The Magi and Apostle John referred to Jesus as THE STAR: "Where is He who has been born King of the Jews? For we saw His star in the east and have come to worship Him.”" (Matthew 2:2)
    2. “I, Jesus, have sent My angel to testify to you these things for the churches. I am the root (branch) and the descendant of David, the bright morning star.”" (Revelation 22:16)
  1. WARRIOR TO DEFEAT ISRAEL'S ENEMIES: Num 24:17; Deut 33:11; Psalm 89:23; Heb 1:3; Jn 18:36; Rev 17:14
    1. "“I see him, but not now; I behold him, but not near; A star shall come forth from Jacob, A scepter shall rise from Israel, And shall crush through the forehead of Moab, And tear down all the sons of Sheth." (Numbers 24:17)
    2. "“O Lord, bless his substance, And accept the work of his hands; Shatter the loins of those who rise up against him, And those who hate him, so that they will not rise again.”" (Deuteronomy 33:11)
    3. Jesus was indeed a warrior king after his resurrection.

a.      Crush enemies: "But to which of the angels has He ever said, “Sit at My right hand, Until I make Your enemies A footstool for Your feet”?" (Hebrews 1:13)

    1. "“But I shall crush his adversaries before him, And strike those who hate him." (Psalm 89:23)
    1. The Jews misunderstood Jesus was NOT a physical warrior to overthrow the Romans.
    2. This misunderstanding fueled the Zealot movement and the two Jewish wars of 66 and 132 AD.
    3. Jesus said, "Jesus answered, “My kingdom is not of this world. If My kingdom were of this world, then My servants would be fighting so that I would not be handed over to the Jews; but as it is, My kingdom is not of this realm.”" (John 18:36)
    4. “These will wage war against the Lamb, and the Lamb will overcome them, because He is Lord of lords and King of kings, and those who are with Him are the called and chosen and faithful.”" (Revelation 17:14)
    5. The Jews rejected Jesus in part, because they were looking for the wrong kind of Messiah and misunderstood the prophecies.
    6. Jesus was not going to overthrow physical Roman as the first century Jews, Zealots and apostles wrongly thought, he was a spiritual warrior to defeat the devil and his angels in the spirit world.
  1. RIGHTEOUS AND PERFECT INTERPRETER OF THE LAW: Daniel 12:10; Ezekiel 37:23; Psalm 2:1/Acts 4:25-27
    1. "“Many will be purged, purified and refined, but the wicked will act wickedly; and none of the wicked will understand, but those who have insight will understand." (Daniel 12:10)
    2. "“They will no longer defile themselves with their idols, or with their detestable things, or with any of their transgressions; but I will deliver them from all their dwelling places in which they have sinned, and will cleanse them. And they will be My people, and I will be their God." (Ezekiel 37:23)
    3. "Why are the nations in an uproar And the peoples devising a vain thing?" (Psalm 2:1/Acts 4:25-27)
    4. Righteous Jesus was never accused of any sin and Jesus was most commonly referred to as "Rabbi" meaning teacher of the Law.
    5. Jesus perfectly fulfilled the role of the "Interpreter of the Law" that the Jews were looking for.
    6. "They were amazed at His teaching; for He was teaching them as one having authority, and not as the scribes." (Mark 1:22)
    7. "The officers answered, “Never has a man spoken the way this man speaks.”" (John 7:46)
    8. Sermon on the Mount: "When Jesus had finished these words, the crowds were amazed at His teaching; for He was teaching them as one having authority, and not as their scribes." (Matthew 7:28–29)
    9. Silencing the Sadducees on conscious life after death and resurrection: "When the crowds heard this, they were astonished at His teaching. But when the Pharisees heard that Jesus had silenced the Sadducees, they gathered themselves together." (Matthew 22:33–34)
  1. RESTORE THE TEMPLE OF DAVID: 2 Samuel 7:10-14; Amos 9:11 = Acts 15:16; John 2:19-22; Mt 26:61; Mt 27:40; Mk 14:58; Acts 6:14; Eph 1:21-22; 2:19-22
    1. "“I will also appoint a place for My people Israel and will plant them, that they may live in their own place and not be disturbed again, nor will the wicked afflict them any more as formerly, even from the day that I commanded judges to be over My people Israel; and I will give you rest from all your enemies. The Lord also declares to you that the Lord will make a house for you. “When your days are complete and you lie down with your fathers, I will raise up your descendant after you, who will come forth from you, and I will establish his kingdom. “He shall build a house for My name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever. “I will be a father to him and he will be a son to Me; when he commits iniquity, I will correct him with the rod of men and the strokes of the sons of men," (2 Samuel 7:10–14)
    2. The idea in 2 Sam 7 that God would chasten the sinful son of David is seen fulfilled first in Solomon. Just before Solomon died in 931 BC, God chastened the lost idolatrous Solomon by giving his kingdom to Jeroboam. This brought Solomon to repentance and it was at this time (931 BC) that Solomon wrote two self rebuke books: Song of Solomon and Ecclesiastes.
    3. The sinless Jesus was “made to be” a sinner and notice the same two ideas found in 2 Sam 7 (sin and the rod of correction) are found in the great Isa messianic prophecy: "Surely our griefs He Himself bore, And our sorrows He carried; Yet we ourselves esteemed Him stricken, Smitten of God, and afflicted. But He was pierced through for our transgressions, He was crushed for our iniquities; The chastening for our well-being fell upon Him, And by His scourging we are healed. All of us like sheep have gone astray, Each of us has turned to his own way; But the LORD has caused the iniquity of us all To fall on Him." (Isaiah 53:4–6)
    4. Thus God rebuked Solomon for his own sin and the messiah suffered innocently and vicariously for the sins of the entire world.
    5. In that day I will raise up the fallen booth of David, And wall up its breaches; I will also raise up its ruins And rebuild it as in the days of old" (Amos 9:11)
    6. "“With this the words of the Prophets agree, just as it is written, ‘After these things I will return, And I will rebuild the tabernacle of David which has fallen, And I will rebuild its ruins, And I will restore it," (Acts 15:15–16)
    7. The great messianic prophecy to David that his son would be king and build the temple was fulfilled first in Solomon, then in Christ.
    8. For the Bible scoffers who challenge that 2 Sam 7:10-14 is a DOUBLE PROPHECY, fabricated by New Testament writers, the Dead Sea Scrolls prove that the Jews in 90 BC viewed it as a double prophecy as well!
    9. 2 Sam 7:10-14 was one of the most common and widely known messianic verses at the time of Jesus and twice the apostles apply it to fulfillment in Christ:
    10. "For to which of the angels did He ever say, “You are My Son, Today I have begotten You”? And again, “I will be a Father to Him And He shall be a Son to Me”?" (Hebrews 1:5)
    11. "The Lord has sworn to David A truth from which He will not turn back: “Of the fruit of your body I will set upon your throne." (Psalm 132:11)
    12. "“I have made a covenant with My chosen; I have sworn to David My servant," (Psalm 89:3)
    13. "“Brethren, I may confidently say to you regarding the patriarch David that he both died and was buried, and his tomb is with us to this day. “And so, because he was a prophet and knew that God had sworn to him with an oath to seat one of his descendants on his throne, he looked ahead and spoke of the resurrection of the Christ, that He was neither abandoned to Hades, nor did His flesh suffer decay. “This Jesus God raised up again, to which we are all witnesses." (Acts 2:29–32)
    14. "Jesus answered them, “Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up.” The Jews then said, “It took forty-six years to build this temple, and will You raise it up in three days?” But He was speaking of the temple of His body. So when He was raised from the dead, His disciples remembered that He said this; and they believed the Scripture and the word which Jesus had spoken." (John 2:19–22)
    15. "and said, “This man stated, ‘I am able to destroy the temple of God and to rebuild it in three days.’ ”" (Matthew 26:61)
    16. "and saying, “You who are going to destroy the temple and rebuild it in three days, save Yourself! If You are the Son of God, come down from the cross.”" (Matthew 27:40)
    17. "“We heard Him say, ‘I will destroy this temple made with hands, and in three days I will build another made without hands.’ ”" (Mark 14:58)
    18. "Those passing by were hurling abuse at Him, wagging their heads, and saying, “Ha! You who are going to destroy the temple and rebuild it in three days," (Mark 15:29)
    19. "for we have heard him say that this Nazarene (branch), Jesus, will destroy this place and alter the customs which Moses handed down to us.”" (Acts 6:14)
    20. "So then you are no longer strangers and aliens, but you are fellow citizens with the saints, and are of God’s household, having been built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus Himself being the corner stone, in whom the whole building, being fitted together, is growing into a holy temple in the Lord, in whom you also are being built together into a dwelling of God in the Spirit." (Ephesians 2:19–22)
  1. ABOMINATION OF DESOLATION OF THE PHYSICAL TEMPLE: DSS: Dan 11; 12 Abomination = Mt 24:15
    1. What is fascinating is the way the Essenes at Qumran applied Dan chapters 11-12 to the messiah including the "abomination of desolation" language.
    2. "“And he will make a firm covenant with the many for one week, but in the middle of the week he will put a stop to sacrifice and grain offering; and on the wing of abominations will come one who makes desolate, even until a complete destruction, one that is decreed, is poured out on the one who makes desolate.”" (Daniel 9:27)
    3. "“Forces from him will arise, desecrate the sanctuary fortress, and do away with the regular sacrifice. And they will set up the abomination of desolation." (Daniel 11:31)
    4. "“From the time that the regular sacrifice is abolished and the abomination of desolation is set up, there will be 1,290 days." (Daniel 12:11)
    5. Little did they know that one thing the Messiah would do is destroy the physical temple in 70 AD since it had already been replaced by a spiritual one: the church in Christ's body.
    6. It is exactly 1000 years from the founding of David's physical temple in 967 BC to the founding of the Spiritual kingdom in 33 AD.
    7. Physical Jerusalem was destroyed on the same day of the year (10 Av) in both 587 BC by Nebuchadnezzar and 70 AD by Titus, both of whom were crown princes.
    8. Jesus specifically equated the "abomination of desolation" with "when you see Jerusalem surrounded armies, then know her desolation is at hand".

"“Therefore when you see the abomination of desolation which was spoken of through Daniel the prophet, standing in the holy place (let the reader understand), then those who are in Judea must flee to the mountains." (Matthew 24:15–16)

"“But when you see Jerusalem surrounded by armies, then recognize that her desolation is near. “Then those who are in Judea must flee to the mountains, and those who are in the midst of the city must leave, and those who are in the country must not enter the city;" (Luke 21:20–21)

IV. MAIN ARCHEOLOGICAL EXHIBIT: Dead Sea Scrolls of Jewish Expectation In 90 BC

A. Archeological Exhibit #1: Dead Sea Scroll: 4Q175-4QTest

2.      Discovered in Cave 4 at Qumran in 1952 AD.

a.      Testimonia was written by the hand of the same scribe also wrote the famous 1QS, Rule of community for Qumran.

b.      Referenced as 4Q175 or 4QTest or "Testimonia" and contains lines 1-30

c.       This Dead Sea Scroll is currently housed in the Israel Museum.

3.      Bible verses used in 4QTest: Deut 5:28-29; 18:18-19; Num 24:15-17; Deut 33:8-11; Josh 6:26

    1. "“The Lord heard the voice of your words when you spoke to me, and the Lord said to me, ‘I have heard the voice of the words of this people which they have spoken to you. They have done well in all that they have spoken. ‘Oh that they had such a heart in them, that they would fear Me and keep all My commandments always, that it may be well with them and with their sons forever!" (Deuteronomy 5:28–29)
    2. "‘I will raise up a prophet from among their countrymen like you, and I will put My words in his mouth, and he shall speak to them all that I command him. ‘It shall come about that whoever will not listen to My words which he shall speak in My name, I Myself will require it of him." (Deuteronomy 18:18-19)
    3. "He took up his discourse and said, “The oracle of Balaam the son of Beor, And the oracle of the man whose eye is opened, The oracle of him who hears the words of God, And knows the knowledge of the Most High, Who sees the vision of the Almighty, Falling down, yet having his eyes uncovered. “I see him, but not now; I behold him, but not near; A star shall come forth from Jacob, A scepter shall rise from Israel, And shall crush through the forehead of Moab, And tear down all the sons of Sheth." (Numbers 24:15–17)
    4. "Of Levi he said, “Let Your Thummim and Your Urim belong to Your godly man, Whom You proved at Massah, With whom You contended at the waters of Meribah; Who said of his father and his mother, ‘I did not consider them’; And he did not acknowledge his brothers, Nor did he regard his own sons, For they observed Your word, And kept Your covenant. “They shall teach Your ordinances to Jacob, And Your law to Israel. They shall put incense before You, And whole burnt offerings on Your altar. “O Lord, bless his substance, And accept the work of his hands; Shatter the loins of those who rise up against him, And those who hate him, so that they will not rise again.”" (Deuteronomy 33:8–11)
    5. "Then Joshua made them take an oath at that time, saying, “Cursed before the Lord is the man who rises up and builds this city Jericho; with the loss of his firstborn he shall lay its foundation, and with the loss of his youngest son he shall set up its gates.”" (Joshua 6:26)

4.      Historical insight: of Jewish messianic expectations in 4QTest:

a.      Prophet like Moses: Peter directly applied this prophecy to Jesus in 33 AD: "Moses said, ‘The Lord God will raise up for you a prophet like me from your brethren; to Him you shall give heed to everything He says to you." (Acts 3:22)

b.      Priest = Star: The Magi and Apostle John referred to Jesus as THE STAR: "Where is He who has been born King of the Jews? For we saw His star in the east and have come to worship Him.”" (Matthew 2:2) “I, Jesus, have sent My angel to testify to you these things for the churches. I am the root (branch) and the descendant of David, the bright morning star.”" (Revelation 22:16)

c.       Scepter = king: God the Father says of Jesus, God the son: "But of the Son He says, “Your throne, O God, is forever and ever, And the righteous scepter is the scepter of His kingdom." (Hebrews 1:8)

d.      Crush enemies: "But to which of the angels has He ever said, “Sit at My right hand, Until I make Your enemies A footstool for Your feet”?" (Hebrews 1:13)

e.      The same sequence or "Chain text style" references used in 4Q174  is also used in Heb 1:5-13 (Numbers 24:15-17 + Deuteronomy 33:8-11)

5.      This Dead Sea Scroll (4Q175 or 4QTest) uses "Nomina sacra" and replaces the name of God (tetragrammaton) YHWH for four stars "****". The other DSS below (4Q174-4QFlorilegium) fully spells out the name of God.

6.      The branch, star, king, priest connection with the Messiah in Jewish coins:

a.      78 BC: Widow’s Mite "Star Coin" was the popular coin at time of Jesus: "I see him, but not now; I behold him, but not near; A star shall come forth from Jacob, A scepter shall rise from Israel, And shall crush through the forehead of Moab, And tear down all the sons of Sheth." (Numbers 24:17)
 

b.      37 BC: The last Hasmonean (Maccabees) ruler Anitogus, claimed on his coin to be both king and priest, echoing the Messianic prophecies that the Messiah would be a king and priest: "Then say to him, ‘Thus says the Lord of hosts, “Behold, a man whose name is Branch, for He will branch out from where He is; and He will build the temple of the Lord. “Yes, it is He who will build the temple of the Lord, and He who will bear the honor and sit and rule on His throne. Thus, He will be a priest on His throne, and the counsel of peace will be between the two offices." (Zechariah 6:12–13)
 

c.       135 AD: In the second Jewish war Simon bar Kosiba claimed to be the messiah. His name before being defeated by Hadrian was "Simon bar Kosiba": bar Kokhba = son of star. However after Hadrian totally crushed the Jewish revolt, the Jews realized that Simon WAS NOT the messiah and gave him the name: "Simon bar Koziba" = son of lie.
 

7.      Translation of Testimonia: Dead Sea Scroll 4Q175

Testimonia: Dead Sea Scroll 4Q175

1 And **** [in place of YHWH]  spoke to Moses saying: [Deut 5:28–29] «You have heard the sound of the words of

2 this people, what they said to you: all they have said is right.

3 If (only) it were given (that) they had /this/ heart to fear me and keep all

4 my precepts all the days, so that it might go well with them and their sons for ever!»

5 [Deut 18:18–19] «I would raise up for them a prophet from among their brothers, like you, and place my words

6 in his mouth, and he would tell them all that I command him. And it will happen that /the/ man

7 who does not listen to my words which the prophet will speak in my name, I

8 shall require a reckoning from him.» Blank

9 And he uttered his poem and said: [Num 24:15–17] «Oracle of Balaam, son of Beor, and oracle of the man

10 of penetrating eye, oracle of him who listens to the words of God and knows the knowledge of the Most High, who

11 sees the vision of Shaddai, lying down and with an open eye. I see him, but not now,

12 I espy him, but not close up. A star has departed from Jacob, and a sceptre /has arisen/ from Israel. He shall crush

13 the temples of Moab, and cut to pieces all the sons of Sheth.» Blank

14 And about Levi he says: [Deut 33:8–11] «Give to Levi your Thummim and your Urim, to your pious man, whom

15 I tested at Massah, and with whom I quarrelled about the waters of Meribah, /he who/ said to his father {not}

16 {…} and to his mother ‘I have not known you’, and did not acknowledge his brothers, and his sons he did not

17 want to know. For he observed your word and kept your covenant. /They have made/ your judgments /shine/ for Jacob,

18 your law for Israel, they have placed incense in your nose and a whole-offering upon your altar.

19 Bless, ****  [in place of YHWH], his courage and accept with pleasure the work of his hand! Crush /the loins/ of his adversaries, and those who hate him,

20 may they not rise!» Blank

21 Blank At the moment when Joshua finished praising and giving thanks with his psalms,

22 he said [Jos 6:26] «Cursed be the man who rebuilds this city! [=Lxx; Masoretic text adds Jericho] Upon his first—born

23 will he found it, and upon his youngest son will he erect its gates!» And now an accursed /man/, one of Belial,

24 will arise to be a [fo]wler’s tr[ap] for his people and ruin for all his neighbours. And

25 […] will arise [to b]e the two instruments of violence.[Gen 49:5] And they will rebuild

26 [this city and ere]ct for it a rampart and towers, to make it into a fortress of wickedness

27 [in the country and a great evil] in Israel, and a horror in Ephraim and Judah.

28 [… And they will com]mit a profanation in the land and a great blasphemy among the sons of

29 [Jacob. And they will shed blo]od like water upon the ramparts of the daughter of Zion and in the precincts of

30 Blank {in} Jerusalem.

Testimonia: Dead Sea Scroll 4Q175

 

 B. Archeological Exhibit #2: Dead Sea Scroll: 4Q174-4QFlorilegium

1.      Florilegium is Latin for "a compilation of excerpts from other writings" hence, a bible outline that refers to many different bible verses. This dead sea scroll is a single document that has been sewn together from 27 fragments discovered in Cave 4 at Qumran in 1952 AD.

a.      This collection of fragments of Dead Sea Scrolls from a single document are referenced as 4Q174 or 4QFlor or "Florilegium".

b.      The composite of fragments reconstruct into Col 1-5; lines 1-19

c.       This Dead Sea Scroll currently housed in the Rockefeller Museum.

2.      Bible verses used in 4QFlor: Ps 89:23; 2 Sam 7:10-14; Ex 15:17-18; Amos 9:11; Ps 1:1; Isa 8:11; Ezek 44:10; 37:23; Ps 2:1; Dan 12:10; 11:32

    1. "“But I shall crush his adversaries before him, And strike those who hate him." (Psalm 89:23)
    2. "“I will also appoint a place for My people Israel and will plant them, that they may live in their own place and not be disturbed again, nor will the wicked afflict them any more as formerly, even from the day that I commanded judges to be over My people Israel; and I will give you rest from all your enemies. The Lord also declares to you that the Lord will make a house for you. “When your days are complete and you lie down with your fathers, I will raise up your descendant after you, who will come forth from you, and I will establish his kingdom. “He shall build a house for My name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever. “I will be a father to him and he will be a son to Me; when he commits iniquity, I will correct him with the rod of men and the strokes of the sons of men," (2 Samuel 7:10–14)
    3. "“You will bring them and plant them in the mountain of Your inheritance, The place, O Lord, which You have made for Your dwelling, The sanctuary, O Lord, which Your hands have established. “The Lord shall reign forever and ever.”" (Exodus 15:17–18)
    4. In that day I will raise up the fallen booth of David, And wall up its breaches; I will also raise up its ruins And rebuild it as in the days of old" (Amos 9:11)
    5. "How blessed is the man who does not walk in the counsel of the wicked, Nor stand in the path of sinners, Nor sit in the seat of scoffers!" (Psalm 1:1)
    6. "For thus the Lord spoke to me with mighty power and instructed me not to walk in the way of this people, saying," (Isaiah 8:11)
    7. "“But the Levites who went far from Me when Israel went astray, who went astray from Me after their idols, shall bear the punishment for their iniquity." (Ezekiel 44:10)
    8. "“They will no longer defile themselves with their idols, or with their detestable things, or with any of their transgressions; but I will deliver them from all their dwelling places in which they have sinned, and will cleanse them. And they will be My people, and I will be their God." (Ezekiel 37:23)
    9. "Why are the nations in an uproar And the peoples devising a vain thing?" (Psalm 2:1/Acts 4:25-27)
    10. "who by the Holy Spirit, through the mouth of our father David Your servant, said, ‘Why did the Gentiles rage, And the peoples devise futile things? ‘The kings of the earth took their stand, And the rulers were gathered together Against the Lord and against His Christ.’ “For truly in this city there were gathered together against Your holy servant Jesus, whom You anointed, both Herod and Pontius Pilate, along with the Gentiles and the peoples of Israel," (Acts 4:25-27)
    11. "“Many will be purged, purified and refined, but the wicked will act wickedly; and none of the wicked will understand, but those who have insight will understand." (Daniel 12:10)
    12. "“By smooth words he will turn to godlessness those who act wickedly toward the covenant, but the people who know their God will display strength and take action." (Daniel 11:32)

3.      Jesus is the "branch" of David who will destroy the enemies of Israel:

a.      This was interpreted by the Hasmoneans as a physical, not spiritual battle as seen vividly in the Zealots and the two physical Jewish wars of 66-69 AD and 132-235 AD which were lost to the Romans.

b.      "Jesus answered, “My kingdom is not of this world. If My kingdom were of this world, then My servants would be fighting so that I would not be handed over to the Jews; but as it is, My kingdom is not of this realm.” Therefore Pilate said to Him, “So You are a king?” Jesus answered, “You say correctly that I am a king. For this I have been born, and for this I have come into the world, to testify to the truth. Everyone who is of the truth hears My voice.”" (John 18:36–37)

c.       "4Q174 identifies the seed of David as the “Branch of David,” a figure once again derived from Jer 23:5 and 35:15, who is also expected to stand in the end of days. 4Q174’s exegesis of 2 Sam 7:14 specifies that this Branch of David is the son of God (line 11). Because the Branch of David is also called the “Messiah of Righteousness” (משׁיח הצדק) in 4Q252, this figure in 4Q174 is certainly a Davidic messiah. 4Q174’s exposition of 2 Sam 7:14 therefore demonstrates that the title “Son of God” is an additional epitaph for the Davidic Messiah." (Journal of Biblical Literature, Volume 118, p457, 1999 AD)

d.      "4Q174 also quotes Amos 9:11 to declare that this Branch of David will have an active role in restoring Israel’s fortunes (lines 12–13). Although 4Q174 does not delineate the means by which this Branch of David will deliver Israel, its verb, ישׁע, is also used in 1QM 10–11 and elsewhere to denote God’s deliverance of his people from their enemies within the context of battle. In regard to 4Q174’s use of ישׁע to depict this emancipation, Brooke comments: “Nowhere does the community operate ‘to save Israel,’ but these other aspects of salvation can be observed in 4QFlor [= 4Q174] if צמח is seen to refer to a particular individual who will have the powers and function of a king.” Given that this verb is consistently used to specify God’s deliverance that is implemented through human agency, the messiah of 4Q174 therefore possesses a militant function and will presumably lead in eschatological battle as king. As the messiah of 4Q252 also took office in order to save Israel, the messiah in 4Q174 will presumably fight God’s enemies, including the current illegitimate Herodian monarch, to save Israel from its present distress." (Journal of Biblical Literature, Volume 118, p458, 1999 AD)

4.      Jesus is King, Priest & Interpreter who restores Israel & builds temple

a.      The Jews at the time of the birth of Jesus in 1BC did not understand that all the messianic prophecies pointed to a single man.

b.      Historical insight and Jewish expectations of multiple messiahs: They never understood "the mystery" that all things were summed up in one man: Jesus Christ.

c.       They were looking for many men to fulfil rather than one (Jesus) John 1:25: Messiah, Elijah, Prophet:

d.      "They asked him, and said to him, “Why then are you baptizing, if you are not the Christ, nor Elijah, nor the Prophet?”" (John 1:25)

e.      "Now while the people were in a state of expectation and all were wondering in their hearts about John, as to whether he was the Christ," (Luke 3:15)

5.      Historical insight: of Jewish messianic expectations in 4QFlor:

a.      Interpreter of Law: Aaronic Priestly Messiah:

b.      Restore Israel, temple: Amos 9:11 = Acts 15:16

c.       "4Q174 links the messiah with the Interpreter of the Law, who is elsewhere portrayed as the historical leader of the community (CD 6:7; 7:18). Here, however, the Interpreter of the Law is clearly an eschatological figure, possibly the eschatological priest of 4Q541 (4QAaron A). If one equates the Interpreter of the Law with the eschatological priest, one may further identify the Interpreter of the Law with the messiah of Aaron and associate the Branch of David with the messiah of Israel. 4Q174’s dual leadership likely reflects the author’s insistence on the separation of the monarchy from the temple cult, in contrast to the previous combination of those offices by the Hasmoneans." (Journal of Biblical Literature, Volume 118, p457, 1999 AD)

d.      2 Sam 7:14 was directly applied to the "Branch of David" messianic prophecies: The messiah would be a "branch of David" as the Kingly Messiah.

e.     Dan 11; 12 Abomination = Mt 24:15

f.        The same sequence or "Chain text style" references used in 4Q175 is also used in Heb 1:5-13 AND Acts 13:33-37 AND 2 Cor 6:14-18:
2 Sam 7 + Ps 2:1  = Heb 1:5;  Acts 13:33-37
2 Sam 7 + Ezek 37:23 + Belial = 2 Cor 6:14-18

6.      Ps 2:1 is quoted by the Apostles as fulfilled inn 33 AD: Acts 4:25-27 "Why did the Gentiles and kings rage against the Christ

7.      This DSS (4Q174-4QFlorilegium) fully spells out the name of God. The other Dead Sea Scroll above (4Q175 or 4QTest) uses "Nomina sacra" and replaces the name of God (tetragrammaton) YHWH for four stars "****".

8.      Translation of Aramaic Text: Florilegium: Dead Sea Scroll 4Q174

Florilegium: Dead Sea Scroll 4Q174

Frags. 1 Col. i, 21, 2 [Ps 89:23 «Not] 

1 [will] an enemy [strike him any]more, [2 Sam 7:10] [nor will] a son of iniquity [afflict] him [aga]in as in the past. From the day on which

  2 [I appointed judges] over my people, Israel». This (refers to) the house which [he will establish] for [him] in the last days, as is written in the book of

  3 [Moses: [Exod 15:17-18] «The temple of] YHWH your hands will est[a]blish. YHWH shall reign for ever and ever». This (refers to) the house into which shall not enter

  4 [… for] ever either an Ammonite, or a Moabite, or a bastard, or a foreigner, or a proselyte, never, because his holy ones are there.

  5 «Y[HW]H [shall reign for] ever». He will appear over it forever; foreigners shall not again lay it waste as they laid waste, in the past,

  6 the tem[ple of I]srael on account of their sins. And he commanded to build for himself a temple of man, to offer him in it,

  7 before him, the works of thanksgiving. And as for what he said to David: [2 Sam 7:11] «I [shall obtain] for you [rest] from all your enemies»: (it refers to this,) that he will obtain for them rest from a[ll]

  8 the sons of Belial, those who make them fall, to destroy th[em on account of] their [sins,] when they come with the plan of [B]el[i]al to make the s[ons of]

  9 lig[ht] fall, and to plot against them wicked plans so th[at] they [are] trapped by Belial because of their gui[l]ty error. Blank

  10 [And] YHWH [de]clares to you that [2 Sam 7:12-14] «he will build you a house. I will raise up your seed after you and establish the throne of his kingdom

  11 [for ev]er. I will be a father to him and he will be a son to me.» This (refers to the) «branch of David», who will arise with the Interpreter of the law who

  12 [will rise up] in Zi[on in] the [l]ast days, as it is written: [Amos 9:11] «I will raise up the hut of David which has fallen», This (refers to) «the hut of

  13 David which has fall[en», w]hich he will raise up to save Israel. Blank

  14 Midrash of [Ps 1:1] «Blessed [the] man who does not walk in the counsel of the wicked». The interpretation of this wor[d: they are] those who turn aside from the path of [the wicked,]

  15 as it is written in the book of Isaiah, the prophet, for [the] last days: [Isa 8:11] «And it happened that with a strong [hand he turned me aside from walking on the path of]

  16 this people». And (this refers to) those about whom it is written in the book of Ezekiel, the prophet, that [Ezek 44:10; 37:23] «[they should] no[t defile themselves any more with all]

  17 their [i]d[o]ls». This (refers to) the sons of Zadok and (to) the m[e]n of [the]ir council, those who see[k jus]tice eagerly, who have come after them to the council of the community.

  18 [Ps 2:1] [«Why ar]e the nations [in turmoil] and hatch the peoples [idle plots? The kings of the earth t]ake up [their posts and the ru]lers conspire together against YHWH and against

  19 [his anointed one». Inter]pretation of the saying: [the kings of the na]tions [are in turmoil] and ha[tch idle plots against] the elect ones of Israel in the last days.

Frags. 1 Col. II, 3, 24, 5

  1 It is the time of trial which co[mes … J]udah to complete […]

  2 Belial, and a rem[nant] will remain [… for the l]ot, and they shall put into practice all the law […]

  3 Moses; it is [… a]s is written in the book of Daniel, the prophet: [Dan 12:10; 11:32] «[The wicked] act wicked[ly …]

  4a and the just [… shall be whi]tened and refined and a people knowing God will remain strong». Th[ey …]

  4 … […] after the trial which is for them … […]

  5 […] when he descends […]

  6 [wic]kedness when […] … […]

  7 [I]srael and Aaron […]

  8 [k]now that he […]

  9 […] among all the seers […]

  10 […] … […]

  11 … […]

Frag. 4

  1 […] those who devour the offspring of

  2 [… fu]rious against them in their zeal

  3 […] This (refers) to the time when Belial will open

  4 [… up]on the house of Judah difficulties to persecute them

  5 […] and he will seek with all his might to scatter them

  6 [… w]ho will bring them to be

  7 [… Ju]dah and to I[sra]el … […]

Florilegium: Dead Sea Scroll 4Q174

  

 

V. Matthew's three messianic prophecies fulfilled by "Jesus the Nazarene":

“Behold, a man whose name is Branch [Hebrew: tsemach], for He will branch out from where He is; and He will build the temple of the Lord. “Yes, it is He who will build the temple of the Lord, and He who will bear the honor and sit and rule on His throne. Thus, He will be a priest on His throne, and the counsel of peace will be between the two offices.” (Zechariah 6:12-13)

Introduction:

  1. It is clear that Matthew, the professional tax collector, was fluent in Hebrew. For example, when Matthew records, "Jesus came and lived in a city called Nazareth. This was to fulfill what was spoken through the prophets: “He shall be called a Nazarene.” (Matthew 2:23)
    1. Atheists, Jews and "Bible trashers" say Matthew got it wrong because no Old Testament prophecy says anything about Jesus being "called a Nazarene".
    2. In fact, when Matthew wrote, "as the prophets prophesied" in Mt 2:23, he was following a Midrashic method and style of connecting many different texts and prophecies in exactly the same way as the Jewish rabbis of his day.
    3. The Jews in Matthew's day would instantly recognize his method of connecting scriptures the way he did in Mt 2:23.
    4. Mirroring the first century Jewish Midrashic style Matthew makes three prophetic connections that the messiah would be called a "Nazarene".
  2. While today we may scratch our heads at first, everyone in the first century knew exactly which Old Testament passages to which Matthew was referring.
    1. Non-Christian Jews today who say "Matthew got it wrong" are being very "un-Jewish" since the interpretation methods of the first century rabbis were identical to Matthew's throughout his entire gospel.
    2. The fact that Matthew does not give specific details of the origin of the prophecy proves that it was common knowledge that had already been widely preached.

 

A. JESUS THE BRANCH: The phonic wordplay between "Nazarene" [Greek: Naṣrat] and "branch" [Hebrew: nēṣer] Isa 11:1

  1. "Aramaic Hebrew" was a consonantal text that had no vowels. When you remove the modern vowels from the words for Nazarene and Branch (netser = nsr) the Hebrew consonants of Naṣrat (Nazareth) and nēṣer are phonetically similar. Bible scoffers go so far as to say Matthew, like the rest of the population obviously had no working knowledge of Hebrew. In fact the opposite is true. Matthew knew the scriptures in Hebrew and could make the phonic connection between Nazarene and branch. Since Matthew wrote in Greek, this argument was directed at the Jerusalem elite who had already made the connection as soon as the general population began announcing the messiah to be Jesus the Nazarene (branch).
    1. The first century expectation of the Messiah was fueled by a whole series of Bible passages that connect him linguistically with the "branch and root of David" using the word: "tsemach" Isa. 4:2; 53:2; Jer 23:5; 33:15; Zech 3:8; 6:12. But the central and most significant of these "messiah = branch" prophecies was Isaiah 11:1: "Then a shoot will spring from the stem of Jesse, and a branch [netser] from his roots will bear fruit. The Spirit of the Lord will rest on Him" (Isaiah 11:1)
    2. It was Matthew's intimate knowledge of Hebrew that allowed him to construct a phonic play on words between the sound of the Greek word for Nazareth (Nazaret), Nazarene (Nazōraios) and the sound of the Hebrew word for Branch (netser) in Isa 11. The non-Hebrew speaking Christians would initially be at a loss, like we are today, to make the connection. They would have asked the Hebrew speaking "elite Jerusalem" priests if they knew any place in the Old Testament that said the messiah would be called a Nazarene. Only they would catch the obvious play on words found in the most important messianic text Isa chapters 7-11.
    3. The incredible power of this messianic prophecy is that in 730 BC when Isaiah was living, Mosaic Hebrew was the language of the general Hebrew public but at the time of its fulfillment, Aramaic and Greek were the native languages and Hebrew was functionally extinct among the masses. In other words, the Holy Spirit was able to construct the prophecies so that the fulfillment required a then non-existent Greek named city called "Nazareth". When the masses, who did not speak Hebrew, began to announce that the Messiah was Jesus the Nazarene, they unknowingly irked the Hebrew speaking "Temple Elites" who would hear, "Messiah, Jesus the Branch". No wonder they said, “But this crowd which does not know the Law is accursed.” (John 7:49)
  2. The etymological origin of the name Nazareth is unknown, but archeological excavation indicate it was an agricultural town with vineyards.
    1. "Vineland" is a town in Ontario Canada named after its vineyards.
    2. "Recent excavations there by Stephen Pfann and others have revealed the presence of building activity, viticulture—that is, growing and processing grapes and producing wine—and terrace farming" (NT307 Archaeology and the New Testament, Craig Evans, Nazareth, 2014 AD)
  1. To illustrate, if you say to a blonde Swedish girl you want to "kiss her" she might slap you because in Swedish "kiss" sounds like "pee". If you order "salsa" in a Korean restaurant, the waiter might chuckle because in Korean "salsa" sounds like "diarrhea". In the same way, the crowds unknowingly went around saying the "Messiah was Jesus the Branch" (Nazarene) which would annoy the Scribes, Pharisees and Sadducees who spoke Hebrew and heard the crossover connection between the Greek town of Nazareth and the Hebrew word for Branch almost immediately. The later Christians, of course, all knew about this phonic word play which Matthew records as a matter of historical fact.
  2. Messianic texts:
    1. Twice in Matthew's nativity narrative he draws from the foremost messianic text of Isa 4-11 and applies it to Jesus:

                                                              i.      Virgin + God with us: Isa 7:14 + 8:10.

                                                            ii.      Nazarene = Branch: Isa 4:2; 11:1.

    1. "Then a shoot will spring from the stem of Jesse, and a branch [Hebrew: nēṣer] from his roots will bear fruit. The Spirit of the Lord will rest on Him, The spirit of wisdom and understanding, The spirit of counsel and strength, The spirit of knowledge and the fear of the Lord." (Isaiah 11:1-2)
    2. “Behold, a man whose name is Branch [Hebrew: tsemach], for He will branch out from where He is; and He will build the temple of the Lord. “Yes, it is He who will build the temple of the Lord, and He who will bear the honor and sit and rule on His throne. Thus, He will be a priest on His throne, and the counsel of peace will be between the two offices.” (Zechariah 6:12-13)
  1. At the time Matthew wrote his gospel, the idea that Jesus fulfilled the prophecies that the "messiah would be a Nazarene" was universally understood and widely preached.
    1. The Messiah's name was "the branch" Isa 11:1; Zech 6:12.
    2. So widely was Jesus known as "the branch from branchland", that 13 times in the New Testament Jesus is called "the Nazarene". Jesus' "name" was "the Nazarene" which to the Jewish leaders sounded like "Jesus the Branch" through a play on words in two languages: Greek and Hebrew. "What I consider most probable is that Mattityahu is combining the second and third alternatives by means of wordplay, a technique very common in Jewish writing, including the Bible. Yeshua is both netzer and Natzrati." (Jewish New Testament Commentary, D. H. Stern, Mt 2:23, 1996 AD)
    3. At his arrest, twice they said they were looking for "Jesus the Nazarene" and twice Jesus said, "I am He".
  1. The sign above Jesus' cross read, "Jesus The Branch [Nazarene], The King Of The Jews.”
    1. The tri-lingual sign was written in Aramaic for the common people because only Elite Jerusalem temple priests spoke Hebrew. The sign was in the Aramaic (Jews), Latin (Romans/legislative) and Greek (World/commerce) inscription Pilate put on Jesus' Cross. (John 19:20)

                                                              i.      "John notes that the notice is trilingual, in Aramaic (the spoken language of Jewish Palestine), in Latin (the official language of the Roman Empire), and Greek (the common language of trade and literature)." (The College Press NIV Commentary,  John 19:20, 1989 AD)

                                                            ii.      "The reading was aided also by the fact that the inscription was trilingual. Anyone in the crowd who could read could almost certainly read Aramaic or Latin or Greek. Thus Pilate’s description of Jesus would become widely known through the city and beyond. Moreover, each of the languages has a significance of its own. Aramaic was the language of the country, Latin the official language, and Greek the common language of communication throughout the Roman world." (NICNT commentary, John 19:19, Leon Morris, 1995 AD) 

                                                          iii.      "The inscription was read by many Jews because the site of the crucifixion (in those days) was close to the city. The inscription is in three languages (not a hint in the Synoptics of this): Aramaic, Latin, Greek." (Hermeneia, Jn 19:20, 1984 AD)

                                                           iv.      "That is, it would have been written in Aramaic (a related language to Hebrew), the common language of the people; in Latin, the official language of the Roman government; in Greek, the trade/international language of the eastern Mediterranean world." (New Testament Background Commentary, Harold Mare, Jn 19:20, 2004 AD)

                                                             v.      "Since the sign was written in three languages—Aramaic, Latin, and Greek—and the Crucifixion was in a public place, all who could read saw a clear proclamation." (Bible Knowledge Commentary, Jn 19:20, 1985 AD)

                                                           vi.      Since the inscription was written in three languages yet the recorded inscription differs in each of the four gospels, the question arises if John was directly quoting from either the Aramaic, Latin or Greek inscription. Perhaps all three inscriptions were identical, but simply recorded differently by each evangelist. The word Nazarene sounds equally like the Hebrew word for "branch" in either Aramaic, Latin, "Nazarenvs" or Greek, "Nazoraios". Just as in today, all three languages would create a word in their own languages that sounded like Nazarene, the same way all non-English speaking foreigners call citizens of the USA "Americans" the same way the native Americans pronounce it.

    1. Pilate designed the sign to irritate the Jewish leaders as much as possible which is why he DID NOT write the inscription in Hebrew.

                                                              i.      Hebrew was the professional academic language of the Temple that the officiating Sadducees, scribes and Pharisees used, the very group who tried and crucified Jesus.

                                                            ii.      The inscription therefore, was a direct communication from Pilate to the general population that Jesus was an innocent man. This would remind the crowds that it was initially the Hebrew speaking "temple professionals" who in fact incited the general population to crucify Jesus at the very reluctant hands of the Romans.

                                                          iii.      Pilate clearly designed the inscription to snub and annoy the temple academics by the wording that emphasized the difference of the two verdicts where the three Jewish trials judged Jesus guilty but the three Roman trials judged Jesus innocent and proclaiming Jesus was their king. This is one thing Pilate got right and the Jews God wrong.

                                                           iv.      "As for the notice itself, its implication that the Jews are a people whose miserable “king” hangs on a cross, offends them, and is made all the worse by being publicly accessible as well to Gentiles passing by who read only Greek or Latin. Pilate is rubbing salt in old wounds, the wounds that were opened when he repeatedly called Jesus “the King of the Jews” (see 18:33, 39; 19:3, 5), and finally presented him as “your king” (see vv. 14, 15)." (NICNT commentary, Jn 19:20, J. Michaels, 2010 AD)

    1. On the day of Pentecost, Peter preached the very first sermon and his opening statement was to say that JESUS THE BRANCH and 3000 repented and were baptized for the remission of their sins:

                                                              i.      "“Men of Israel, listen to these words: JESUS THE NAZARENE [BRANCH], a man attested to you by God with miracles and wonders and signs which God performed through Him in your midst, just as you yourselves know— this Man, delivered over by the predetermined plan and foreknowledge of God, you nailed to a cross by the hands of godless men and put Him to death. “But God raised Him up again, putting an end to the agony of death, since it was impossible for Him to be held in its power." (Acts 2:22–24)

                                                            ii.       “Therefore let all the house of Israel know for certain that God has made Him both Lord and Christ—this Jesus whom you crucified.” Now when they heard this, they were pierced to the heart, and said to Peter and the rest of the apostles, “Brethren, what shall we do?” Peter said to them, “Repent, and each of you be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins." (Acts 2:36-38)

  1. Apostle Paul who was part of the "Jerusalem Elite" was fluent in Hebrew being trained by famous teacher of the Law "Gamaliel". The "converting words" spoken by Jesus directly to him were, "I am Jesus the Branch [Nazarene], whom you are persecuting." (Acts 22:8) Paul was certainly very familiar with the connection between the messianic "branch" prophecy of Isa 11 and Jesus the messiah being universally called, "the branch" (the Nazarene). Paul immediately converted to Christianity and was baptized for the remission of his sins three days later. (Acts 22:16)

 

B. JESUS THE HOLY ONE OF GOD: phonic wordplay between Nazarene and Nazarite (LXX) and Jesus "the holy one of God" = Isa 4:1-3





  1. Nazarite Vow in the Law of Moses: Num 6:1-21

a.       "Speak to the sons of Israel and say to them, ‘When a man or woman makes a special vow, the vow of a Nazirite, to dedicate himself to the Lord, he shall abstain from wine and strong drink; he shall drink no vinegar, whether made from wine or strong drink, nor shall he drink any grape juice nor eat fresh or dried grapes. ‘All the days of his separation he shall not eat anything that is produced by the grape vine, from the seeds even to the skin. ‘All the days of his vow of separation no razor shall pass over his head. He shall be holy until the days are fulfilled for which he separated himself to the Lord; he shall let the locks of hair on his head grow long. ‘All the days of his separation to the Lord he shall not go near to a dead person. ‘He shall not make himself unclean for his father or for his mother, for his brother or for his sister, when they die, because his separation to God is on his head. ‘All the days of his separation he is holy to the Lord." (Numbers 6:2-8)

    1. It is impossible for a Christian to keep the Nazarite vow since the Aaronic priesthood is extinct.
    2. It is amusing to meet Christians today who think they are keeping the Nazarite vow. The attraction to be spiritually superior as a “long-haired hippie” outweighed the negative aspect of abstinence, given they usually love to drink beer. Most of these already had long hair and their only battle was not getting caught drinking beer or partaking the Lord’s Supper in church.
  1. The phonic similarity between Nazarene and Nazarite would cause early Christians to explore messianic passages that predicted Jesus would be a Nazarite who would "vow" not shave his hair or drink wine like Samson.
    1. "the designation “Nazarene” might have been intended to spark an association with “Nazirite” (ναζιραῖος, naziraios; Judg 13:5, 7; 16:17; 1 Macc 3:49 LXX). Because the two terms had similar pronunciations, this theory requires no jump from Greek to Hebrew. Furthermore, pre-Gospel tradition already might have exploited the terms’ phonological similarity as well as the semantic equivalence in the LXX between “Nazirite of God” (ναζιραῖος θεοῦ, naziraios theou) and “holy one of God” (ἅγιος θεοῦ, hagios theou; see Mark 1:24; Luke 4:34; perhaps John 6:69). Luke’s infancy narrative shares significant parallels with that of Samuel the Nazirite in 1 Sam 2" (Lexham Bible dictionary, Nazareth, 2016 AD)
    2. The Septuagint (LXX) was the standard text used in every synagogue inside and outside Israel in the first century because nobody could speak Hebrew any more except the Jerusalem temple elites (scribes, priests, Sadducees, Pharisees). Aramaic and Greek were the working languages inside Israel and exclusively Greek outside Israel.
    3. Although they would quickly conclude no such prophecy exists, they would surely notice in their Septuagint, fact that Samson, the Nazarite was called "the holy one of God" in both Judges 13:7 and 16:7.
    4. Even more profound, was the fact that two hundred years earlier, the translators of the Septuagint chose to substitute "Samson shall be a Nazirite to God" (Masoretic) with "Samson shall be called the holy one of God" (LXX).
    5. So powerful is this argument, that some non-Christian Jewish apologists say Judges and Isaiah were not translated into Greek until after 200 AD by Christians who corrupted the text. This idea it easily proven false. It was Jews in 200 BC who translated it that way long before the Christian era. This "substitution" was in every synagogue on earth in the first century, since the LXX was the standard text they used.
    6. "To begin with, there is in the LXX an interchange between ναζαραῖος θεοῦ and ἅγιος θεοῦ and (see A and B for Judg 13:7; 16:17). This is significant because Jesus was known as ‘the holy one of God’ (Mk 1:24; Lk 4:34; Jn 6:69; cf. Acts 3:14; 1 Jn 2:20; Rev 3:7). Moreover, in Mk 1:24 we find this: ‘What have you to do with us, Jesus of Nazareth (Ναζαρηνέ)? Have you come to destroy us? We know who you are, the holy one of God’ (ὁ ἅγιος τοῦ θεοῦ). Here ‘Jesus of Nazareth’ and ‘holy one of God’ are in parallel and we clearly have a word play: Jesus, the ‘holy one of God’ (= nāzîr), is from Nazareth." (Critical and Exegetical Commentary, Davies, Allison, Matthew 2:23, 2004 AD)
  1. Jesus was widely known as "the Holy one of God".
    1. The very first reports about Jesus that spread through the population were about a cast out demon who called Jesus "the Holy one of God".The demon called Jesus "Holy one of God" inside the crowded Capernaum synagogue: “Let us alone! What business do we have with each other, Jesus of Nazareth? Have You come to destroy us? I know who You are—the Holy One of God!” … And the report about Him was spreading into every locality in the surrounding district." (Mark 1:24; Luke 4:34,37)
    2. Peter's short confession included on fact: "We have believed and have come to know that You are the Holy One of God.” (John 6:69)
    3. Peter's first and second sermons that resulted in over 5000 Jews converting to Christianity contained direct references to Jesus being the Holy One of God:  "You will not allow Your Holy One to undergo decay. (Jesus rose the third day)" Acts 2:27. "But you disowned the Holy and Righteous One and asked for a murderer to be granted to you," (Acts 3:14)
    4. "And to the angel of the church in Philadelphia write: He who is holy, who is true, who has the key of David, who opens and no one will shut, and who shuts and no one opens, says this:" (Revelation 3:7)
  1. The Christians then connected the allusion that Jesus would be holy like a Nazarite in a metaphoric sense:
    1. The name of the "messiah branch" is HOLY: "For seven women will take hold of one man in that day, saying, “We will eat our own bread and wear our own clothes, only let us be called by your name; take away our reproach!” In that day the Branch of the Lord will be beautiful and glorious, and the fruit of the earth will be the pride and the adornment of the survivors of Israel. It will come about that he who is left in Zion and remains in Jerusalem will be called holy—everyone who is recorded for life in Jerusalem." (Isaiah 4:1-3)
    2. Samson the most famous Nazarite was directly called THE HOLY ONE OF GOD in the standard synagogue Bibles at the time Christ began his ministry.
    3. Jesus was already reported to be THE HOLY ONE OF GOD.
    4. Therefore the Messianic prophecy that the Messiah would be CALLED holy was metaphorically fulfilled through the similarity of the words Nazarene and Nazarite through the translation of the Septuagint in 200 BC.
  1. This kind of connection may seem strange to Christians today, but to the Jerusalem elite priests and experts in the Law of Moses and the prophets, this was very, very typical in Jewish Midrashic style.

 

C. JESUS THE DESPISED: Jesus was associated with a town of bad reputation: "Nazareth"

  1. Towns you don’t want to say you are from today if you are a Christian:

Sin city: Las Vegas

Immoral/crazy city: San Francisco

Slum city: Detroit or Flint Michigan

Death city: Chicago

  1. "Can any good thing come from Nazareth"
  2. Even Nathaniel, the "Israelite in whom is no guile" commented, "can any good thing come from Nazareth" (Jn 1:46).
    1. People are often stereotyped based upon where they grew up.
    2. Jesus grew up in Nazareth which had a bad reputation like Detroit or Flint Michigan have today
  3. This exactly matches the lowly and despised "ambiance" of the Messiah.
    1. "He was despised and forsaken of men …. we did not esteem Him." (Isaiah 53:3)
    2. "But I am a worm and not a man, a reproach of men and despised by the people." (Psalm 22:6)
  1. The messiah was not going to be from a place of high esteem, like Jerusalem, but of low esteem, even despised.
    1. The holy one of God was born in insignificant Bethlehem and grew up in despised Nazareth.

 

D. Conclusion to Mt 2:23:

He Shall be called a Nazarene" Mt 2:23

"Jesus, the despised Holy branch messiah"

Midrashic style            

Prophetic connection

Comment

Phonic wordplay: similar sounding in Hebrew

"Branch" Isa 11:1

The Greek word for "Nazarene" [Naṣrat] sounds like the Hebrew word for "Branch" [nēṣer]. The "branch of David" meant "Son of David" and was the foremost messianic attribute. Not only was Jesus universally called, "Jesus the Nazarene" the crowds often addressed him as "Son of David have mercy on me". Mark 10:48

Phonic wordplay: similar sounding in Greek

"Nazarite"

Name of Messiah branch is HOLY Isa 4:1-3

LXX substitutes "Holy one of God" for Nazarite in Judg 13:7 and 16:7. Jesus was universally known as the "Holy one of God". As they searched the scriptures, they noticed Isa 4 prophesied the name of the messiah was "HOLY".

Allusion: Town of Nazareth had a bad reputation. Jn 1:46

Nazareth "Despised, forsaken, worm" Isaiah 53:3; Psalm 22:6

Just as a good man from the inner city of Detroit or Flint Michigan would be stigmatized in a negative stereotype, so too was Jesus for being from the town of Nazareth. Even Nathaniel, the "Israelite in whom is no guile" commented, "can any good thing come from Nazareth". The holy one of God was born in insignificant Bethlehem and grew up in despised Nazareth.

 

VI. Prophecy: Jesus would rise the third day: 1 Cor. 15:3-4

There is a clear strong pattern of importance attached to the third day in the Old Testament.

"For I delivered to you as of first importance what I also received, that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures, and that He was buried, and that He was raised on the third day according to the Scriptures" (1 Cor 15:3-4)

 

"But we were hoping that it was He who was going to redeem Israel. Indeed, besides all this, it is the third day since these things happened." (Luke 24:21)

 

 

A. The Bible skeptic will say "Paul claimed that the Hebrew Scriptures prophesied the resurrection of the Messiah on the third day. Nowhere in the Old Testament (Tanakh) is such a prophecy found."

1.      “As a Jew schooled in the Scriptures from his childhood, Paul was not thinking of just one passage but of several passages that pointed to the Messiah’s resurrection on the third day. In fact, when we study the Tanakh, we see that the third day is often the day of completion and climax—and so it was with the Messiah’s death and resurrection!" (Answering Jewish objections to Jesus: Messianic prophecy objections, M. L. Brown, Vol 3, p 181, 2003 AD)

2.      Modern skeptics make the mistake of using 20th century hermeneutic (method of interpretation) and either ignore or are totally ignorant of the first century Jewish Hermeneutic at the time of Christ. 

 

B. Messianic prophecies of Jesus being raised the third day:

1.            Genesis 22:3-4: "So Abraham rose early in the morning and saddled his donkey, and took two of his young men with him and Isaac his son; and he split wood for the burnt offering, and arose and went to the place of which God had told him. On the third day Abraham raised his eyes and saw the place from a distance."

a.       This very important event known as “the binding (of Isaac)” is called in later Rabbinic tradition the “Akedah”.

b.      "By faith Abraham, when he was tested, offered up Isaac, and he who had received the promises was offering up his only begotten son; it was he to whom it was said, “In Isaac your descendants shall be called.” He considered that God is able to raise people even from the dead, from which he also received him back as a type." (Hebrews 11:17-19)

c.       The detail of THE THIRD DAY arriving at Jerusalem is otherwise irrelevant unless the Holy Spirit was setting it as part of the pattern of importance of the third day in connection with the Resurrection of Christ.

d.      Remember that the third day of Abraham’s journey to Jerusalem was the same day he “received Isaac back from the Dead”

e.      This kind of stunning synchronism of two events, 2000 years apart is no mistake or coincidence and only the blind could not be persuaded by it.

f.        When the Hebrew writer said, “from which he also received him back as a type [of Christ]” the readers would be “blown away” in amazement and awe of the power of God to bring about His will.

2.            Hosea 6:1–2: “Come, let us return to the Lord. For He has torn us, but He will heal us; He has wounded us, but He will bandage us. “He will revive us after two days; He will raise us up on the third day, That we may live before Him."

a.       All of sinful mankind was revived and healed when Jesus rose from the dead on the third day.

3.            Jonah 1:17: "And the Lord appointed a great fish to swallow Jonah, and Jonah was in the stomach of the fish three days and three nights."

a.       The imagery is so crystal clear to echo the death burial and resurrection of Christ on the third day, only the willingly blind would deny it.

b.      Inside the fish represented being in the grave is certain because Jonah says: "I cried for help from the depth of Sheol; You heard my voice." (Jonah 2:2) “Water encompassed me to the point of death” (Jonah 2:5)

c.       Being spit on the shore was a type of resurrection from the dead because the word “pit” is used: “But You have brought up my life from the pit” (Jonah 2:6) and “Salvation is from the Lord” (2:9)

d.      No wonder Jesus used Jonah as a central prophetic foundation of his death burial and resurrection the third day: "for just as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the sea monster, so will the Son of Man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth." (Matthew 12:40)

e.      Even if you discount that the story of Jonah was not specifically intended to Messianic, the fact that Jesus used the story BEFORE his death and resurrection after three days makes the event just as powerful from a prophetic point of view. When you are honest and accept Jonah was indeed intended to be messianic, combined with Jesus claim to fulfill it before His death, makes the resurrection the third day doubly powerful.

5.      Jewish expectation was that Jesus would rise from the dead on the third day:

a.       "But we were hoping that it was He who was going to redeem Israel. Indeed, besides all this, it is the third day since these things happened." (Luke 24:21)

b.      Here were Jesus own disciples talking to the risen Christ, on the third day, the day of His resurrection, who told Jesus they were expecting Jesus to rise from the dead.

c.       The irony and humour is noted.

d.      "Then beginning with Moses and with all the prophets, He explained to them the things concerning Himself in all the Scriptures." (Luke 24:27)

 

C. The “three day pattern” of the Old Testament:

1.              "So the chief cupbearer told his dream to Joseph, and said to him, “In my dream, behold, there was a vine in front of me; and on the vine were three branches. And as it was budding, its blossoms came out, and its clusters produced ripe grapes. “Now Pharaoh’s cup was in my hand; so I took the grapes and squeezed them into Pharaoh’s cup, and I put the cup into Pharaoh’s hand.” Then Joseph said to him, “This is the interpretation of it: the three branches are three days; within three more days Pharaoh will lift up your head and restore you to your office; and you will put Pharaoh’s cup into his hand according to your former custom when you were his cupbearer. “Only keep me in mind when it goes well with you, and please do me a kindness by mentioning me to Pharaoh and get me out of this house. “For I was in fact kidnapped from the land of the Hebrews, and even here I have done nothing that they should have put me into the dungeon.” When the chief baker saw that he had interpreted favorably, he said to Joseph, “I also saw in my dream, and behold, there were three baskets of white bread on my head; and in the top basket there were some of all sorts of baked food for Pharaoh, and the birds were eating them out of the basket on my head.” Then Joseph answered and said, “This is its interpretation: the three baskets are three days; within three more days Pharaoh will lift up your head from you and will hang you on a tree, and the birds will eat your flesh off you.” Thus it came about on the third day, which was Pharaoh’s birthday, that he made a feast for all his servants; and he lifted up the head of the chief cupbearer and the head of the chief baker among his servants. He restored the chief cupbearer to his office, and he put the cup into Pharaoh’s hand; but he hanged the chief baker, just as Joseph had interpreted to them." (Genesis 40:9–22)

a.       Notice the baker was “hung on a tree” just like Jesus.

b.      "Christ redeemed us from the curse of the Law, having become a curse for us—for it is written, “Cursed is everyone who hangs on a tree(Galatians 3:13)

c.       "“The God of our fathers raised up Jesus, whom you had put to death by hanging Him on a cross [literally “wood”]." (Acts 5:30)

2.              In 1446 BC during the Exodus, Darkness fell upon Egypt for three days: Exodus 10:22

3.              "The Lord also said to Moses, “Go to the people and consecrate them today and tomorrow, and let them wash their garments; and let them be ready for the third day, for on the third day the Lord will come down on Mount Sinai in the sight of all the people." (Exodus 19:10–14)

a.       The day of Pentecost was THE THIRD DAY, when God delivered the law to his people through Moses.

b.      They left on Nisan 14 and crossed the Red Sea on day 25, then arrived at Sinai 15 days later on a Friday, then rested on their second Sabbath which was day 42 of Pentecost. Moses brings water from rock then then Israel had to consecrate themselves for three days (Friday – Sunday) and be ready on the third day – Pentecost Sunday – Day 50.

c.       In this way the very important history of Moses giving law on Pentecost after three days of preparation (Friday, Saturday, Sunday) directly mirrored the crucifixion.

d.      Even more incredible is that while Jesus was crucified on Nissan 14, the apostle baptized 3000 people on the day of Pentecost 10 days after Jesus ascended from the Mount of Olives to heaven.

e.      In both cases of Moses and the apostles, a new law was given.

4.              "“Go, assemble all the Jews who are found in Susa, and fast for me; do not eat or drink for three days, night or day. I and my maidens also will fast in the same way. And thus I will go in to the king, which is not according to the law; and if I perish, I perish.” So Mordecai went away and did just as Esther had commanded him." (Esther 4:16–17)

a.       "Now it came about on the third day that Esther put on her royal robes and stood in the inner court of the king’s palace in front of the king’s rooms, and the king was sitting on his royal throne in the throne room, opposite the entrance to the palace." (Esther 5:1)

b.      After three days of prayers and fasting Esther became the saviour of the Jewish people.

c.       The parallel to Jesus is obvious.

d.      Just as the physical temple was finished on the third day so too was Jesus spiritual temple completed on the third day of Resurrection.

5.              515 AD: "This temple was completed on the third day of the month Adar; it was the sixth year of the reign of King Darius." (Ezra 6:15)

6.              An animal was killed for the salvation of the people, but the body had to be burned on the third day:

e.      "but what is left over from the flesh of the sacrifice on the third day shall be burned with fire. ‘So if any of the flesh of the sacrifice of his peace offerings should ever be eaten on the third day, he who offers it will not be accepted, and it will not be reckoned to his benefit. It shall be an offensive thing, and the person who eats of it will bear his own iniquity." (Leviticus 7:17–18)

f.        "‘It shall be eaten the same day you offer it, and the next day; but what remains until the third day shall be burned with fire. ‘So if it is eaten at all on the third day, it is an offense; it will not be accepted." (Leviticus 19:6–7)

g.       In the same way Jesus was sacrificed for us and his body raised the third day, not needing to be burned!

5.      “Pass through the midst of the camp and command the people, saying, ‘Prepare provisions for yourselves, for within three days you are to cross this Jordan, to go in to possess the land which the Lord your God is giving you, to possess it.’ ”" (Joshua 1:11) "At the end of three days the officers went through the midst of the camp;" (Joshua 3:2)

6.      "The sons of Israel went up against the sons of Benjamin on the third day and arrayed themselves against Gibeah as at other times." (Judges 20:30)

7.      David learned he was king three days after Saul Died: "Now it came about after the death of Saul, when David had returned from the slaughter of the Amalekites, that David remained two days in Ziklag. On the third day, behold, a man came out of the camp from Saul, with his clothes torn and dust on his head. And it came about when he came to David that he fell to the ground and prostrated himself." (2 Samuel 1:1–2)

a.       Just as David learned he was king on the third day, Jesus, “son of David” became the king of the universe on the third day, when he rose from the dead.

8.      "Then Jeroboam and all the people came to Rehoboam on the third day as the king had directed, saying, “Return to me on the third day.”" (1 Kings 12:12)

9.      Palm Sunday and Triumphal entry one week before crucifixion: "And He said to them, “Go and tell that fox, ‘Behold, I cast out demons and perform cures today and tomorrow, and the third day I reach My goal.’" (Luke 13:32)

 

D. Messianic echoes of Hezekiah being healed the third day in Rabbinic tradition: 2 Kings 20:4-13

1.          2 Kings 20:4-13: "Before Isaiah had gone out of the middle court, the word of the Lord came to him, saying, “Return and say to Hezekiah the leader of My people, ‘Thus says the Lord, the God of your father David, “I have heard your prayer, I have seen your tears; behold, I will heal you. On the third day you shall go up to the house of the Lord. “I will add fifteen years to your life, and I will deliver you and this city from the hand of the king of Assyria; and I will defend this city for My own sake and for My servant David’s sake.” ’ ” Then Isaiah said, “Take a cake of figs.” And they took and laid it on the boil, and he recovered. Now Hezekiah said to Isaiah, “What will be the sign that the Lord will heal me, and that I shall go up to the house of the Lord the third day?” Isaiah said, “This shall be the sign to you from the Lord, that the Lord will do the thing that He has spoken: shall the shadow go forward ten steps or go back ten steps?” So Hezekiah answered, “It is easy for the shadow to decline ten steps; no, but let the shadow turn backward ten steps.” Isaiah the prophet cried to the Lord, and He brought the shadow on the stairway back ten steps by which it had gone down on the stairway of Ahaz. At that time Berodach-baladan a son of Baladan, king of Babylon, sent letters and a present to Hezekiah, for he heard that Hezekiah had been sick. Hezekiah listened to them, and showed them all his treasure house, the silver and the gold and the spices and the precious oil and the house of his armor and all that was found in his treasuries. There was nothing in his house nor in all his dominion that Hezekiah did not show them." (2 Kings 20:4-13)

2.          Notice Hezekiah was healed on the third day.

a.       While this is not a direct messianic prophecy, it is one of a collection of passages where God brought healing and deliverance on the THIRD DAY.

b.      This passage becomes part of a broader pattern of “after three days” passages.

3.          The Rabbinic Jews speculated that Merodach-baladan came to see Hezekiah specifically because of this miracle of healing on the third day.

a.       It is in accord with that which is written: “At that time Merodach-baladan, son of Baladan, king of Babylonia, sent letters and a present to Hezekiah [for he had heard that he had been sick and recovered]” (Is. 39:1). And merely because Hezekiah was sick and got better, did he sent him letters and a present?! Yes, so as “to inquire of the wonder that was done in the land” (2 Chr. 32:31).” (Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin 11:1, I.76.K–M)

4.          There was an ancient Jewish tradition that Hezekiah WAS the Messiah of prophecy, but this is disputed by other Jews because of messianic prophecy that post dated Hezekiah’s death during the “second temple period” (after the return from Babylon)

a.       R. Hillel says, “Israel will have no Messiah, for they consumed him in the time of Hezekiah.” Said R. Joseph, “May R. Hillel’s master forgive him. When did Hezekiah live? It was in the time of the first Temple. But Zechariah prophesied in the second Temple’s time and said, ‘Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion, shout, O daughter of Jerusalem, behold your king comes to you; he is just and has salvation; lowly and riding upon an ass and upon a colt the foal of an ass’ (Zech. 9:9).” (Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin 11:1, I.112.A-B)

5.          In a refutation that Hezekiah was the messiah, as previously taught by some Jews from an earlier time, they actually quote Isa 9:6 as a messianic prophecy, then to on to say that Hezekiah DID NOT fulfill Isa 9:6.

a.       Of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no end” (Is. 9:6): R. Tanhum said, “In Sepphoris, Bar Qappara expounded this verse as follows: “ ‘On what account is every M in the middle of a word open, but the one in the word “increase” is closed? “ ‘The Holy One, blessed be he, proposed to make Hezekiah Messiah, and Sennacherib into Gog and Magog. “ ‘The attribute of justice said before the Holy One, blessed be he, “Lord of the world, Now if David, king of Israel, who recited how many songs and praises before you, you did not make Messiah, Hezekiah, for whom you have done all these miracles, and who did not recite a song before you, surely should not be made Messiah.” (Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin 11:1, I.50.A–E)

 

E. Conclusion:

1.      There are specific passages of scripture that fortold a special and significant deliverance from sin and salvation on the third day.

2.      There is a broad pattern of “three days” in the Old Testament that was put there by the design of God:

a.       “German scholar, K. Lehmann, wrote an entire volume on the subject of resurrection on the third day, pointing to passages such as Exodus 19:11, 16; Genesis 22:4; 2 Kings 20:5; Esther 5:1; Hosea 6:2 (all cited above) as evidence that the third day was associated with special divine activity, something that caught the attention of the ancient rabbis as well. These insights, coupled with some key verses about restoration, salvation, or rescue from death on the third day, give Paul the right to say that the Messiah rose from the dead on the third day according to the Scriptures. There would have been no day more suitable than this, from the viewpoint of the Word of God." (Answering Jewish objections to Jesus: Messianic prophecy objections, M. L. Brown, Vol 3, p 181, 2003 AD)

b.      The noting of the otherwise insignificant detail of “three days” in so many instances, is evidence of a broad diving antitype fulfilled in the most important event in world history: the Death, burial and resurrection of Jesus the messiah (branch) on the third day.

 

 

Master Conclusion:

1.       When Jesus started his ministry, there was a “state of expectation” that the messiah was about to begin his work:

a.       "Now while the people were in a state of expectation and all were wondering in their hearts about John, as to whether he was the Christ, John answered and said to them all, “As for me, I baptize you with water; but One is coming who is mightier than I, and I am not fit to untie the thong of His sandals; He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and fire." (Luke 3:15–16)

b.       "And he confessed and did not deny, but confessed, “I am not the Christ.” They asked him, “What then? Are you Elijah?” And he said, “I am not.” “Are you the Prophet?” And he answered, “No.” Then they said to him, “Who are you, so that we may give an answer to those who sent us? What do you say about yourself?”" (John 1:20–22)

c.       "“And while John was completing his course, he kept saying, ‘What do you suppose that I am? I am not He. But behold, one is coming after me the sandals of whose feet I am not worthy to untie.’" (Acts 13:25)

d.      "But we were hoping that it was He who was going to redeem Israel. Indeed, besides all this, it is the third day since these things happened." (Luke 24:21)

2.       These two Dead Sea scrolls provide us with a tiny fractional window into the Old Testament (Tanakh) passages the Jews considered to predict the coming of Jesus Christ 100 years before he was born.

g.       Dead Sea Scroll: Testimonia (4Q175-4QTestimonia)

h.      Dead Sea Scroll: Florilegium (4Q174-4QFlorilegium)

3.       Two prophecies were applied to Christ by the Apostles:

e.      Prophecy: "He shall be called a Nazarene" Mt 2:23. "Jesus, the despised Holy branch messiah"

f.        Prophecy: “Jesus would rise the third day” fulfils specific passages that prophecy special deliverance and salvation on the third day and also follows a broader pattern of importance of the third day throughout the Old Testament.

4.       As in the first century, Jews today to reject Jesus as the messianic branch of David and are blindly under a veil:

a.       "But to this day whenever Moses is read, a veil lies over their heart (non-Christian Jews); but whenever a person turns to the Lord, the veil is taken away. Now the Lord is the Spirit, and where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty. But we all, with unveiled face, beholding as in a mirror the glory of the Lord, are being

b.      transformed into the same image from glory to glory, just as from the Lord, the Spirit." (2 Corinthians 3:15–18)

c.       "And they also (non-Christian Jews), if they do not continue in their unbelief, will be grafted in, for God is able to graft them in again." (Romans 11:23)

d.      "Then He said again to them, “I go away, and you will seek Me, and will die in your sin; where I am going, you cannot come.” So the Jews were saying, “Surely He will not kill Himself, will He, since He says, ‘Where I am going, you cannot come’?” And He was saying to them, “You are from below, I am from above; you are of this world, I am not of this world. “Therefore I said to you that you will die in your sins; for unless you believe that I am He, you will die in your sins.” So they were saying to Him, “Who are You?” Jesus said to them, “What have I been saying to you from the beginning? “I have many things to speak and to judge concerning you, but He who sent Me is true; and the things which I heard from Him, these I speak to the world.” They did not realize that He had been speaking to them about the Father. So Jesus said, “When you lift up the Son of Man, then you will know that I am He, and I do nothing on My own initiative, but I speak these things as the Father taught Me. “And He who sent Me is with Me; He has not left Me alone, for I always do the things that are pleasing to Him.” As He spoke these things, many came to believe in Him." (John 8:21–30)

5.      What we read in the book we find in the ground!

a.       While we do not have a complete list of messianic texts used by the Jews at the time of Jesus, these two Dead Sea Scrolls are extremely helpful in giving us insight into exactly which texts they used.

b.      Archeology gives us a deeper understanding of  

6.      Why not attend a Bible believing church in your own home town this Sunday and worship Jesus the Messiah!

Click here to find a Bible church near you.

 

 

 

Quick links inside this document:

·       Introduction

·       Mistaken Jewish ideas of the Messiah at the time of Jesus.

·       Master list of fulfilled messianic prophecies in New Testament

·       Jewish Expectation of the Messiah in 100 BC from the Dead Sea Scrolls

·       Archeological Exhibit #1: Dead Sea Scroll: Testimonia (4Q175-4QTestimonia)

·       Archeological Exhibit #2: Dead Sea Scroll: Florilegium (4Q174-4QFlorilegium)

·       Prophecy: "He shall be called a Nazarene" Mt 2:23

·       Prophecy: “Jesus would rise the third day

 

 

By Steve Rudd: Contact the author for comments, input or corrections.

 

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