A Treatise of the Passions and Faculties of the Soul of Man
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A Treatise of the Passions and Faculties of the Soul of Man, Edward Reynolds, 1640 AD
Edward Reynolds (1599-1676)
M A, D D Oxon, King's Chaplain, Bishop of Norwich, Warden of Merton College, Oxford
A treatise of the passions and faculties of the soule of man. With the severall dignities and corruptions thereunto belonging, 1640 London, Bostock pp. 31-2, 35, 52-5
Reissued six times by 1658
PASSIONS OR INSTINCTS
Passions are nothing else, but those natural, perfective, and unstrained motions of the Creatures unto that advancement of their Natures, which they are by the Wisdom, Power, and Providence of their Creator, in their own several Spheres, and according to the proportion of their Capacities, ordained to receive, by a regular inclination to those objects, whose goodness beareth a natural convenience or virtue of satisfaction unto them; or by an antipathy and aversion from those, which bearing a contrariety to the good they desire, must needs be noxious and destructive, and by consequent, odious to their natures ...
Now, this natural Passion which I speak of, is called by sundry Names amongst Philosophers, the Law, the Equity, the Weight, the Instinct, the Bond, the Love, the Covenant and League of natural things in order, to the conservation of themselves, propagation of their kind, perfection, and order of the Universe, service of Man, and glory of the Creator; which are the alone ends of all natural Agents ...
We wil here a little observe, what course may be taken for the allaying of this vehemencie of our Affections, whereby they disturb the quiet, and darken the serenity of mans Mind. And this is done, either by opposing contrary Passions to contrary; which is Aristotles rule, who adviseth, in the bringing of Passions from an extreame to a mediocritie, to incline & bend them towards the other extreame, as Husbandmen use to doe those Trees which are crooked . . . or else it is done, by scattering and distracting of them; and that not only by the power of Reason, but sometimes also by a cautelous admixture of Passions amongst themselves, thereby interrupting their free current : For, as usually the Affections of the Mind are bred one of another . . . as Griefe by Anger . . . and Fear by Love . . . and Desire by Fear . . . So likewise are some Passions stopped, or at least bridled & moderated by others; Amor foras mittit timorem, Perfect Love casteth out Feare ... Thus, as we see in the Body Military . . . That one tumult is the cure of another; and in the Body Naturall, some Diseases are expelled by others : so likewise in the Mind, Passions, as they mutually generate, so they mutually weaken each other. It often falleth out, that the voluntarie admission of one loss, is the prevention of a greater : as when a Merchant casteth out his ware, to prevent a shipwreck; and in a public Fire, men pull down some houses untoucht, to prevent the spreading of the flame: Thus is it in the Passions of the Mind; when any of them are excessive, the way to remit them, is by admitting of some further perturbation from others, and so distracting the forces of the former : Whether the Passions we admit, be contrarie; as when a dead Palsie is cured with a burning Feaver, and Souldiers suppresse the feare of Death, by the shame of Basenesse .. .
Or whether they be Passions of a different, but not of a repugnant nature; and then the effect is wrought, by revoking some of the spirits, which were otherwise all imployed in the service of one Passion, to attend on them; and by that meanes also, by diverting the intention of the Mind from one deep Channell into many crosse and broken Streames ; as men are wont to stop one flux of blood, by making of another; and to use frictions to the feet, to call away and divert the humours which pain the head.
Which dissipation and scattering of Passion, as it is wrought principally by this mutuall confounding of them amongst themselves, so in some particular cases likewise, two other ways ; namely, by communion in diverse subjects, and extension on diverse objects. For the first, we see in matter of Griefe, the Mind doth receive (as it were) some lightnesse and comfort, when it finds it self generative unto others, and produces sympathie in them : For hereby it is (as it were) disburthened, and cannot but find that easier, to the sustaining whereof, it hath the assistance of anothers shoulders.
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