David's New Spiritual Order
(Temple worship, Priesthood, Army)

King David in Jerusalem 33 years
(37-70 years old)
2 Samuel 6-7; 1 Chron 13-17-22

 “All this,” said David,
“the LORD made me understand in writing by His hand upon me,
all the details of this pattern.” (1 Chronicles 28:19)

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David's New Spiritual Order: The Temple


1.                This is document is part 5 in the series on Saul and David:

a.      Part 1: Saul before David

b.      Part 2: David in Saul's Palace: Saul, the psychotic king who drove himself insane

c.       Part 3: Saul hunts David four years

d.      Part 4: David's Civil war in Jerusalem

2.                After 7.5 years in Hebron, David captures Jerusalem and builds a palace.

a.      Three huge problems for David have disappeared:

                                                              i.      Saul is dead.

                                                            ii.      David wins the civil war with Ish-bosheth

                                                          iii.      The Philistines are defeated and expelled from central Judah.

b.      David suddenly experiences a period of peace for the first time.

c.       With no military threats to distract him, David immediately begins to build a new Spiritual order for Israel.

                                                              i.      David reorganizes the priesthood into 24 units.

                                                            ii.      David begins to design and prepare the temple which Solomon will build after his death.

                                                            iii.   While the tabernacle of David housed and Ark, and David starts to plan for the Temple, the selection of the final location of the temple on the threshing floor of Ornan (present day Temple Mount) is still a future event.

3.                The setting:

a.       Saul finally died and David is now able to finally take control of the kingdom as its sole monarch. However one son of Saul named Ish-bosheth, is proclaimed king and for two years ruled everywhere except Judah while David was king in Judah. Now that Ish-bosheth is dead, and the Philistines are defeated and repelled out of central Judea, David can now be at peace and focus on spiritual things.

b.      The Ark of covenant is moved from Kiriath-jearim to the house of Obed-edom and then to Jerusalem. The Tabernacle of Moses remains at Gibeon until Solomon finishes the temple. Once the temple of Solomon is built, the Tabernacle of Moses is decommissioned and stored in a room in the temple and then lost forever in history.

4.                 Timeline and chronology:

a.      In 1082 BC, Saul is born.

b.      In Jonathan is likely born around 1067 BC since he is Saul’s oldest son.

c.       In 1052 BC, Samuel was 52 years old when he anointed Saul at age 30 year old as king. 1 Sam 13:1

d.      In 1040 BC, David is born when Jonathan is about 27 years old and Saul is 42.

e.      In 1025 BC, David kills Goliath. Saul had been king for 27 years but had failed to obey God twice and is told another will replace him. (David)

f.        1025- 1018 BC: David’s time in the Saul’s palace at Gibeah of Benjamin: 7 years

g.      1018-1014 BC: David’s time on the run: 4 years.

h.      In 1014 Samuel dies an old man, likely 90 years old. 1 Sam 25:1. For about 4 years, Samuel can look down from Ramah where he lives and see the Tabernacle between 1018-1014 BC.

i.        In 1010 BC Saul and Jonathan die.

j.        Saul was 72 years old when he died

k.       Jonathan was 57 years old when he died.

l.        David was 30 when he began to reign as king in Hebron between 1010-1003 BC

m.    In 1005 BC Ish-bosheth, Saul's son, is made king by Abner, who has been out of job as army commander ever since Saul died 5 years earlier. This is the beginning of the divided kingdom period for two years when David ruled Judah and Ish-bosheth ruled the other 11 tribes.

n.      In 1005 BC Abner and Ish-bosheth are killed, David then captures Jerusalem and begins his reign at age 37. He reigns in Jerusalem for 33 years.

o.      In 999 BC, Solomon is born.

A.    David moves the Ark of the Covenant to Jerusalem: 2 Samuel 6; 1 Chron 13

1.       Ever since the death of Eli, the Ark of the Covenant has been at Kiriath-jearim for 92 years after the Philistines captured and returned it to Israel.

2.       Now that David has his first period of peace, his first action is to unite the Ark and the Mosaic tabernacle in a new Temple in Jerusalem.
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3.       Ignoring the clear instructions for how the Kohathites should carry the ark with poles (Num 4:4-12; 7:7-9), and following the innovation of the Philistines 92 years earlier (1 Samuel 6:7), David prepares a new ox cart drawn by four oxen. When Uzzah puts his hand out to keep the Ark from falling off the ox cart, God strikes him dead for touching the ark.

a.       Gershonite Duties: Moving tabernacle covers, curtains, screens & cords with ox carts: Num 4:24-26; 7:7-8

i.                     The Gershonites used carts and oxen: “So Moses took the carts and the oxen and gave them to the Levites. Two carts and four oxen he gave to the sons of Gershon, according to their service, and four carts and eight oxen he gave to the sons of Merari, according to their service, under the direction of Ithamar the son of Aaron the priest. But he did not give any to the sons of Kohath because theirs was the service of the holy objects, which they carried on the shoulder.” (Numbers 7:6–9)

b.      Kohathite Duties: Moving Ark & holy furniture with poles: Num 4:4-12; 7:7-9

c.       Merarite Duties: Moving tabernacle poles, boards, sockets, pillars and bars individually by hand: Num 3:36-37; 4:29-33

4.       While carts and oxen were authorized as an approved method to transport the coverings and curtains of the tabernacle of Moses, they were forbidden for the Ark, the bread table and altar of incense, etc.

a.       “This is the work of the descendants of Kohath in the tent of meeting, concerning the most holy things. “When the camp sets out, Aaron and his sons shall go in and they shall take down the veil of the screen and cover the ark of the testimony with it; and they shall lay a covering of porpoise skin on it, and shall spread over it a cloth of pure blue, and shall insert its poles. “Over the table of the bread of the Presence they shall also spread a cloth of blue and put on it the dishes and the pans and the sacrificial bowls and the jars for the drink offering, and the continual bread shall be on it. “They shall spread over them a cloth of scarlet material, and cover the same with a covering of porpoise skin, and they shall insert its poles. “Then they shall take a blue cloth and cover the lampstand for the light, along with its lamps and its snuffers, and its trays and all its oil vessels, by which they serve it; and they shall put it and all its utensils in a covering of porpoise skin, and shall put it on the carrying bars. “Over the golden altar they shall spread a blue cloth and cover it with a covering of porpoise skin, and shall insert its poles; and they shall take all the utensils of service, with which they serve in the sanctuary, and put them in a blue cloth and cover them with a covering of porpoise skin, and put them on the carrying bars.” (Numbers 4:4–12)

5.       David's reaction to the death of Uzzah is to get angry with God for no good reason: “David and all the house of Israel were celebrating before the LORD with all kinds of instruments made of fir wood, and with lyres, harps, tambourines, castanets and cymbals.” (2 Samuel 6:5)

a.       Twice Jonah was angry and wanted to die: First when God told him to preach to Nineveh, and second when the gourd shriveled up and he lost his shade: Jonah 4:1-11

b.      Cain was angry when God rejected his sacrifice and killed his brother Able: Gen 4:5-8

c.       Pharaoh was angry with Moses after the 9th plague: Exodus 10:28

d.      Baalam was angry with the donkey who saved his life: Numbers 22:27

e.      Naaman at Elisha when he was told dip 7 times in the Jordan: 2 Kings 5:12

f.        Haman was angry because Mordecai refused to bow down: Esth. 3:5

g.       Asa was furious with Hanani the prophet and threw him in jail because he was rebuked buy God: 2 Chron 16:10

h.      Herod was so angry at the Maji, that he slaughtered all the children: Matt. 2:16

6.       The joyful worship and celebration of David and Israel was rejected by God because of disobedience.

a.       This is an important lesson for us in the church today. A church that appears to be "full of the spirit" with beautiful music and joy filled, spiritually uplifting atmosphere may, through moral or doctrinal error, actually be under the curse of God.

b.      David was morally upright, but it was his doctrine that was wrong and cost the life of a man.

c.       Nadab and Ahihu made the simple mistake of lighting their incense pans from the wrong source of fire and were killed by God: Lev 10.

d.      “They hate him who reproves in the gate, And they abhor him who speaks with integrity. Therefore because you impose heavy rent on the poor And exact a tribute of grain from them, Though you have built houses of well-hewn stone, Yet you will not live in them; You have planted pleasant vineyards, yet you will not drink their wine. For I know your transgressions are many and your sins are great, You who distress the righteous and accept bribes And turn aside the poor in the gate. Therefore at such a time the prudent person keeps silent, for it is an evil time. Seek good and not evil, that you may live; … Alas, you who are longing for the day of the Lord, For what purpose will the day of the Lord be to you? It will be darkness and not light; As when a man flees from a lion And a bear meets him, Or goes home, leans his hand against the wall And a snake bites him. Will not the day of the Lord be darkness instead of light, Even gloom with no brightness in it? “I hate, I reject your festivals, Nor do I delight in your solemn assemblies. “Even though you offer up to Me burnt offerings and your grain offerings, I will not accept them; And I will not even look at the peace offerings of your fatlings. “Take away from Me the noise of your songs; I will not even listen to the sound of your harps.” (Amos 5:10–23)

e.      Here are people who sincerely thought they were prophesying and doing miracles but were condemned to hell: ““Not everyone who says to Me, ‘Lord, Lord,’ will enter the kingdom of heaven, but he who does the will of My Father who is in heaven will enter. “Many will say to Me on that day, ‘Lord, Lord, did we not prophesy in Your name, and in Your name cast out demons, and in Your name perform many miracles?’ “And then I will declare to them, ‘I never knew you; DEPART FROM ME, YOU WHO PRACTICE LAWLESSNESS.’” (Matthew 7:21–23)

7.       The Ark was taken to the house of Obed-edom the Gittite (resident of Gath-rimmon) for three months and then, with proper council, David moves the Ark into the Tabernacle of David in Jerusalem using poles!

a.       Notice the Tabernacle of Moses in Gibeon, continues to function without the Ark of the Covenant which is moved into the Tabernacle of David.

b.      Tabernacle of Moses in Gibeon and the Tabernacle of David in Jerusalem exist at the same time and they are distinct.

c.       Few have noticed that, prophetically, the church is likened unto the Tabernacle of David (not Moses) in Amos 9:11 + Isaiah 16:5 = Acts 15:16-18, and there is a difference. In fact the Tabernacle of David morphs into the New Testament church, whereas the Tabernacle of Moses goes extinct once the temple is built.

8.       Obed-edom the Gittite (resident of Gath-rimmon, just north of Joppa) was a Levitical priest.

a.       There are two Obed-edom's in the Bible.

b.      One Obed-edom lived during the time of David and served a triple function. We are never told who this man's father was, but we are told he was Merarite:

i.                     who kept the ark of the Covenant after Uzzah was killed in the first attempt to move it to Jerusalem from Kiriath Jearim: “So David did not take the ark with him to the city of David, but took it aside to the house of Obed-edom the Gittite. Thus the ark of God remained with the family of Obed-edom in his house three months; and the LORD blessed the family of Obed-edom with all that he had.” (1 Chronicles 13:13–14)

ii.                   who was also a gate keeper for David: “So the Levites appointed Heman the son of Joel, and from his relatives, Asaph the son of Berechiah; and from the sons of Merari their relatives, Ethan the son of Kushaiah, and with them their relatives of the second rank, Zechariah, Ben, Jaaziel, Shemiramoth, Jehiel, Unni, Eliab, Benaiah, Maaseiah, Mattithiah, Eliphelehu, Mikneiah, Obed-edom and Jeiel, the gatekeepers.” (1 Chronicles 15:17-18)

iii.                  a musician for David: “Asaph the chief, and second to him Zechariah, then Jeiel, Shemiramoth, Jehiel, Mattithiah, Eliab, Benaiah, Obed-edom and Jeiel, with musical instruments, harps, lyres; also Asaph played loud-sounding cymbals,” (1 Chronicles 16:5)

c.       A different Obed-edom, lived during the time of Amaziah: 2 Chronicles 25:24

9.       This time, the joy and dancing of David and Israel is in harmony with the blessings of God, since they are following the pattern revealed in scripture correctly.

a.       Michal, David's wife and Saul's daughter, scorns David and is struck barren by God for her lack of spirituality. We are not actually told if she is struck barren by God because of this incident, or if God purposed for her to be barren so David need not have a grandson of Saul as a competing bloodline in the new dynasty.

b.      Like some who go to church for the wrong reason, she was more concerned with how she outwardly looked to others, than inwardly to God.

B.    David reorganizes the priesthood according to the pattern:

1.       Moses followed the pattern God showed him on Mt. Sinai: Ex 25:9,40; 26:30; Acts 7:44; Num 8:4

a.       “According to all that I am going to show you, as the pattern of the tabernacle and the pattern of all its furniture, just so you shall construct it.” (Exodus 25:9)

b.      “See that you make them after the pattern for them, which was shown to you on the mountain.” (Exodus 25:40)

c.       “Then you shall erect the tabernacle according to its plan which you have been shown in the mountain.” (Exodus 26:30)

d.      “Our fathers had the tabernacle of testimony in the wilderness, just as He who spoke to Moses directed him to make it according to the pattern which he had seen.” (Acts 7:44)

e.      “Now this was the workmanship of the lampstand, hammered work of gold; from its base to its flowers it was hammered work; according to the pattern which the LORD had shown Moses, so he made the lampstand.” (Numbers 8:4)

2.       David followed the pattern shown him for the Temple: 1 Chron 28:11-12,19

a.       “Then David gave to his son Solomon the plan of the porch of the temple, its buildings, its storehouses, its upper rooms, its inner rooms and the room for the mercy seat; and the plan of all that he had in mind, for the courts of the house of the LORD, and for all the surrounding rooms, for the storehouses of the house of God and for the storehouses of the dedicated things;” (1 Chronicles 28:11–12)

b.      “All this,” said David, “the LORD made me understand in writing by His hand upon me, all the details of this pattern.” (1 Chronicles 28:19)

3.       The Church must follow the pattern of doctrine and morality shown us in scripture: Heb 8:1-5; Tit 1:9; 2:1; 2 Tim 2:2; Mk 7:6-13; Gal 1:6-9; Mt 24:11; 2 tim 2:24-26; 1 Tim 4:16

a.       “Now the main point in what has been said is this: we have such a high priest, who has taken His seat at the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in the heavens, a minister in the sanctuary and in the true tabernacle, which the Lord pitched, not man. For every high priest is appointed to offer both gifts and sacrifices; so it is necessary that this high priest also have something to offer. Now if He were on earth, He would not be a priest at all, since there are those who offer the gifts according to the Law; who serve a copy and shadow of the heavenly things, just as Moses was warned by God when he was about to erect the tabernacle; for, “SEE,” He says, “THAT YOU MAKE all things ACCORDING TO THE PATTERN WHICH WAS SHOWN YOU ON THE MOUNTAIN.”” (Hebrews 8:1–5)

b.      “holding fast the faithful word which is in accordance with the teaching, so that he will be able both to exhort in sound doctrine and to refute those who contradict.” (Titus 1:9)

c.       “But as for you, speak the things which are fitting for sound doctrine.” (Titus 2:1)

d.      “The things which you have heard from me in the presence of many witnesses, entrust these to faithful men who will be able to teach others also.” (2 Timothy 2:2)

e.      “And He said to them, “Rightly did Isaiah prophesy of you hypocrites, as it is written: ‘THIS PEOPLE HONORS ME WITH THEIR LIPS, BUT THEIR HEART IS FAR AWAY FROM ME. ‘BUT IN VAIN DO THEY WORSHIP ME, TEACHING AS DOCTRINES THE PRECEPTS OF MEN.’ “Neglecting the commandment of God, you hold to the tradition of men.” He was also saying to them, “You are experts at setting aside the commandment of God in order to keep your tradition. “For Moses said, ‘HONOR YOUR FATHER AND YOUR MOTHER’; and, ‘HE WHO SPEAKS EVIL OF FATHER OR MOTHER, IS TO BE PUT TO DEATH’; but you say, ‘If a man says to his father or his mother, whatever I have that would help you is Corban (that is to say, given to God),’ you no longer permit him to do anything for his father or his mother; thus invalidating the word of God by your tradition which you have handed down; and you do many things such as that.”” (Mark 7:6–13)

f.        “I am amazed that you are so quickly deserting Him who called you by the grace of Christ, for a different gospel; which is really not another; only there are some who are disturbing you and want to distort the gospel of Christ. But even if we, or an angel from heaven, should preach to you a gospel contrary to what we have preached to you, he is to be accursed! As we have said before, so I say again now, if any man is preaching to you a gospel contrary to what you received, he is to be accursed!” (Galatians 1:6–9)

g.       “Many false prophets will arise and will mislead many.” (Matthew 24:11)

h.      “The Lord’s bond-servant must not be quarrelsome, but be kind to all, able to teach, patient when wronged, with gentleness correcting those who are in opposition, if perhaps God may grant them repentance leading to the knowledge of the truth, and they may come to their senses and escape from the snare of the devil, having been held captive by him to do his will.” (2 Timothy 2:24–26)

i.         “Pay close attention to yourself and to your teaching; persevere in these things, for as you do this you will ensure salvation both for yourself and for those who hear you.” (1 Timothy 4:16)

C.    The need for David's New Spiritual order:

1.       There was need for a new spiritual order after 450 years of tabernacle worship.

a.       While each of the three sons of Levi were given distinct jobs in moving the Tabernacle, it had in fact, moved very little since it rested at Shiloh for 306 year, then Nob for 76 years and finally Gibeon for 59 years.

b.      Outside the Aaronic line of priests, the other three branches had little to do.

c.       David notes this fact especially since Jerusalem will be the permanent home of Temple till 30 AD when it was spiritually replace by the body of Christ, the church: “For David said, “The LORD God of Israel has given rest to His people, and He dwells in Jerusalem forever. “Also, the Levites will no longer need to carry the tabernacle and all its utensils for its service.” (1 Chronicles 23:25-26)
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2.       Just as the New Testament replaced the Old Testament, because the entire mosaic system was aging and in need of replacement, so too smaller changes needed to happen during the time of David:

a.       “When He said, “A new covenant,” He has made the first obsolete. But whatever is becoming obsolete and growing old is ready to disappear.” (Hebrews 8:13)

3.       When King David was shown the design the temple by God, he had all the stones precut and ready for Solomon to build it without a cutting tool. Making preparations for the temple was a monumental work that continued to the end of David's life.

D.    David's reorganizes the Levitical Priesthood:Heb 8:1-5; tit 1:9; 2:1

1.       Total: 38,000 Levites from all three sons (Gershon, Kohath, and Merari): “The Levites were numbered from thirty years old and upward, and their number by census of men was 38,000. Of these, 24,000 were to oversee the work of the house of the LORD; and 6,000 were officers and judges, and 4,000 were gatekeepers, and 4,000 were praising the LORD with the instruments which David made for giving praise. David divided them into divisions according to the sons of Levi: Gershon, Kohath, and Merari.” (1 Chronicles 23:3-6)

a.       24,000 temple overseers divided into 24 units of 1000. Kohathites: Sons of Moses, Izhar, Hebron and Uzziel. Kohathites: 24 units of the Sons of Aaron: 16 units from Eleazar + 8 units from Ithamar performing the most holy work of temple including incense and sacrifices. Solomon appointed Zadok (replacing Abiathar) as high priest according to prophecy against Eli (1 Sam 2:35)

b.      6,000 officers and judges

c.       4,000 gatekeepers: sons of Korah/Izhar/Kohathite: Obed-edom, Hosah, and Shuppim.

d.      4,000 worship/praising by singing and playing: 24 divisions of 10 each = 288 heads. Heman (Samuel/Korah/Izhar/Kohathite). Asaph (Gershonite)

e.      David used the Gershonites to serve in the temple, guarding the treasury:   "The Levites, their relatives, had charge of the treasures of the house of God and of the treasures of the dedicated gifts. The sons of Ladan, the sons of the Gershonites belonging to Ladan, namely, the Jehielites, were the heads of the fathers' households, belonging to Ladan the Gershonite. The sons of Jehieli, Zetham and Joel his brother, had charge of the treasures of the house of the Lord." (1 Chronicles 26:20-22)

2.       Remember, that many of the duties in the New Temple would make many of the jobs of the Levites extinct:

a.       “Also, the Levites will no longer need to carry the tabernacle and all its utensils for its service.” (1 Chronicles 23:26)

b.      So David reassigned new and exciting and uplifting jobs to do.

E.    David's New Zakokite Priesthood:

1.       David changes the bloodline for the High Priest. David's high priest was Abiathar, but because of insurrection he was replaced by Solomon with Zadok as high priest.

a.       The line of High priests began with Aaron, then Eleazar, then Phinehas. A promise had been made to Phinehas, that his sons would be the high priests forever. However, after Phinehas, the next high priest mentioned in the Bible is Eli, of a different bloodline (Ithamar).

b.      “Phinehas the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron the priest, has turned away My wrath from the sons of Israel in that he was jealous with My jealousy among them, so that I did not destroy the sons of Israel in My jealousy. “Therefore say, ‘Behold, I give him My covenant of peace; and it shall be for him and his descendants after him, a covenant of a perpetual priesthood, because he was jealous for his God and made atonement for the sons of Israel.’ ” (Numbers 25:11–13)

c.       After Eli, four of his sons were High Priest: Eli, Phinehas, Ahitub, Ahimelech, then finally Abiathar.

2.       The change of bloodline from Abiathar to Zadok, fulfilled the prophecy that the priesthood of Eli (Aaron's son Ithamar) would go extinct, first in the death of Eli and his two sons, then second when Saul killed all the priests at Nob when David ate the holy bread of the temple, then finally the defrocking of Abiathar by Solomon, under the advice of David.

a.       "'But I will raise up for Myself a faithful priest who will do according to what is in My heart and in My soul; and I will build him an enduring house, and he will walk before My anointed always. 'Everyone who is left in your house will come and bow down to him for a piece of silver or a loaf of bread and say, "Please assign me to one of the priest's offices so that I may eat a piece of bread." (1 Samuel 2:35-36)

b.      "Then the one who brought the news replied, "Israel has fled before the Philistines and there has also been a great slaughter among the people, and your two sons also, Hophni and Phinehas, are dead, and the ark of God has been taken." When he mentioned the ark of God, Eli fell off the seat backward beside the gate, and his neck was broken and he died, for he was old and heavy. Thus he judged Israel forty years." (1 Samuel 4:17-18)

c.       "Then the king said to Doeg, "You turn around and attack the priests." And Doeg the Edomite turned around and attacked the priests, and he killed that day eighty-five men who wore the linen ephod. And he struck Nob the city of the priests with the edge of the sword, both men and women, children and infants; also oxen, donkeys, and sheep he struck with the edge of the sword." (1 Samuel 22:18-19)

d.      "Then to Abiathar the priest the king said, "Go to Anathoth to your own field, for you deserve to die; but I will not put you to death at this time, because you carried the ark of the Lord God before my father David, and because you were afflicted in everything with which my father was afflicted." So Solomon dismissed Abiathar from being priest to the Lord, in order to fulfill the word of the Lord, which He had spoken concerning the house of Eli in Shiloh." (1 Kings 2:26-27)

e.      "The king (Solomon) appointed Benaiah the son of Jehoiada over the army in his place, and the king appointed Zadok the priest in the place of Abiathar." (1 Kings 2:35)

3.       Zadok, Solomon's high priest, was a descendant of Levi's second son Kohath.

a.       The idea of a formal "Zadok" or Zakokite priesthood is an educated guess.

                                                               i.      From the time of David down to 70 AD it was the descendants of Zadok who were often the high priests.

                                                             ii.      There is, however, little information about the high priests after the return from Babylon.

b.      "Zadok the son of Ahitub and Ahimelech the son of Abiathar were priests, and Seraiah was secretary." (2 Samuel 8:17)

c.       The Sadducees have their origin in about 150 BC.

                                                               i.      The word Sadducee is etymologically linked to Zadok (Kohathite), who was David's priest.

                                                             ii.      The Sadducees controlled the Temple of Herod when Jesus was alive.

4.       David, appointed two high priests at the same time: Zakok, head of the "tribe of Aaron"(1 Chronicles 27:17) and Abiathar as the sitting high priest from the Eli line.

a.       The “Zadok the son of Ahitub and Ahimelech the son of Abiathar were priests, and Seraiah was secretary.” (2 Samuel 8:17).

b.       While technically, Zadok did not replace Abiathar as high priest until the Solomon, the appointment of Zadok cannot be under estimated. Abiathar, the only survivor of Saul's slaughter at Nob, eventually betrayed David on his death bed, by joining Joab in appointing Solomon's brother Adonijah as king. Joab was executed, Abiathar was replaced.

c.       This may be where the Romans conceived the idea of appointing their own high priest in the first century, resulting in the New Testament recording two high priests at the same time: One appointed by the Jews and the other by the Romans.

F.    David's Spiritual Leaders: Asaph, Heman, Ethan

1.       David relied upon Asaph, the seer, in music and psalms composition:

a.       Asaph was a decendant of Gershon:  "Heman's brother Asaph stood at his right hand, even Asaph the son of Berechiah, the son of Shimea, the son of Michael, the son of Baaseiah, the son of Malchijah, the son of Ethni, the son of Zerah, the son of Adaiah, the son of Ethan, the son of Zimmah, the son of Shimei, the son of Jahath, the son of Gershon, the son of Levi." (1 Chronicles 6:39-43)

b.      Asaph, a Gershonite was a prophet (seer), singer, music composer and he wrote 12 Psalms (50, 73-83)

c.       "Then David spoke to the chiefs of the Levites to appoint their relatives the singers, with instruments of music, harps, lyres, loud-sounding cymbals, to raise sounds of joy. So the Levites appointed Heman the son of Joel, and from his relatives, Asaph the son of Berechiah; and from the sons of Merari their relatives, Ethan the son of Kushaiah," (1 Chronicles 15:16-17)

d.      "Heman's brother Asaph stood at his right hand, even Asaph the son of Berechiah, the son of Shimea, the son of Michael, the son of Baaseiah, the son of Malchijah, the son of Ethni, the son of Zerah, the son of Adaiah, the son of Ethan, the son of Zimmah, the son of Shimei, the son of Jahath, the son of Gershon, the son of Levi." (1 Chronicles 6:39-43)

e.      "Moreover, King Hezekiah and the officials ordered the Levites to sing praises to the Lord with the words of David and Asaph the seer. So they sang praises with joy, and bowed down and worshiped." (2 Chronicles 29:30)

f.        "Then David spoke to the chiefs of the Levites to appoint their relatives the singers, with instruments of music, harps, lyres, loud-sounding cymbals, to raise sounds of joy. So the Levites appointed Heman the son of Joel, and from his relatives, Asaph the son of Berechiah; and from the sons of Merari their relatives, Ethan the son of Kushaiah," (1 Chronicles 15:16-17)

g.       "Moreover, King Hezekiah and the officials ordered the Levites to sing praises to the Lord with the words of David and Asaph the seer. So they sang praises with joy, and bowed down and worshiped." (2 Chronicles 29:30)

h.      "For in the days of David and Asaph, in ancient times, there were leaders of the singers, songs of praise and hymns of thanksgiving to God." (Nehemiah 12:46)

2.       David used Heman (Kohathite) as a wise man, prophet (seer), temple singer, music composer and author of Ps 88:

a.       Heman was a Kohathite through Izhar, Korah (who got killed at Kadesh Barnea for rebellion when the earth opened up and swallowed him), and was the grandson of the prophet Samuel.

                                                               i.      "These are those who served with their sons: From the sons of the Kohathites were Heman the singer, the son of Joel, the son of Samuel," (1 Chronicles 6:33)

                                                             ii.      "The sons of Zerah were Zimri, Ethan, Heman, Calcol and Dara; five of them in all." (1 Chronicles 2:6)

                                                            iii.      "and Uzzi became the father of Zerahiah, and Zerahiah became the father of Meraioth, Meraioth became the father of Amariah, and Amariah became the father of Ahitub, and Ahitub became the father of Zadok, and Zadok became the father of Ahimaaz," (1 Chronicles 6:6-8)

                                                           iv.      Either there are two Hemans or he was descended from two branches of the Koathites who intermarried in the past: Zerahiah (Aaron) and Samuel the prophet via Izhar (Kohath)

b.      Notice that Heman was the second man who came to mind when thinking of the wisest men compared to Solomon! "For he was wiser than all men, than Ethan the Ezrahite, Heman, Calcol and Darda, the sons of Mahol; and his fame was known in all the surrounding nations." (1 Kings 4:31)

c.       Heman was a singer, musician and composer of music:

                                                               i.      "Then David spoke to the chiefs of the Levites to appoint their relatives the singers, with instruments of music, harps, lyres, loud-sounding cymbals, to raise sounds of joy. So the Levites appointed Heman the son of Joel, and from his relatives, Asaph the son of Berechiah; and from the sons of Merari their relatives, Ethan the son of Kushaiah," (1 Chronicles 15:16-17)

                                                             ii.      "With them were Heman and Jeduthun, and the rest who were chosen, who were designated by name, to give thanks to the LORD, because His lovingkindness is everlasting. And with them were Heman and Jeduthun with trumpets and cymbals for those who should sound aloud, and with instruments for the songs of God, and the sons of Jeduthun for the gate. Then all the people departed each to his house, and David returned to bless his household." (1 Chronicles 16:41-43)

                                                            iii.      "Moreover, David and the commanders of the army set apart for the service some of the sons of Asaph and of Heman and of Jeduthun, who were to prophesy with lyres, harps and cymbals; and the number of those who performed their service was: Of the sons of Asaph: Zaccur, Joseph, Nethaniah and Asharelah; the sons of Asaph were under the direction of Asaph, who prophesied under the direction of the king. Of Jeduthun, the sons of Jeduthun: Gedaliah, Zeri, Jeshaiah, Shimei, Hashabiah and Mattithiah, six, under the direction of their father Jeduthun with the harp, who prophesied in giving thanks and praising the LORD. Of Heman, the sons of Heman: Bukkiah, Mattaniah, Uzziel, Shebuel and Jerimoth, Hananiah, Hanani, Eliathah, Giddalti and Romamti-ezer, Joshbekashah, Mallothi, Hothir, Mahazioth. All these were the sons of Heman the king's seer to exalt him according to the words of God, for God gave fourteen sons and three daughters to Heman. All these were under the direction of their father to sing in the house of the LORD, with cymbals, harps and lyres, for the service of the house of God. Asaph, Jeduthun and Heman were under the direction of the king. Their number who were trained in singing to the LORD, with their relatives, all who were skillful, was 288. They cast lots for their duties, all alike, the small as well as the great, the teacher as well as the pupil." (1 Chronicles 25:1-8)

d.      Heman wrote Ps 88: "A Song. A Psalm of the sons of Korah. For the choir director; according to Mahalath Leannoth. A Maskil of Heman the Ezrahite. O Lord, the God of my salvation, I have cried out by day and in the night before You." (Psalm 88:title-1)

3.       David used Ethan, known as the next wisest man after Solomon.

a.       Ethan was a wise man, and also a singer and musician.

                                                               i.      "For he was wiser than all men, than Ethan the Ezrahite, Heman, Calcol and Darda, the sons of Mahol; and his fame was known in all the surrounding nations." (1 Kings 4:31)

                                                             ii.      "Then David spoke to the chiefs of the Levites to appoint their relatives the singers, with instruments of music, harps, lyres, loud-sounding cymbals, to raise sounds of joy. So the Levites appointed Heman the son of Joel, and from his relatives, Asaph the son of Berechiah; and from the sons of Merari their relatives, Ethan the son of Kushaiah," (1 Chronicles 15:16-17)

b.      Who was Ethan descended from?

                                                               i.      The son of Marari: "Then David spoke to the chiefs of the Levites to appoint their relatives the singers, with instruments of music, harps, lyres, loud-sounding cymbals, to raise sounds of joy. So the Levites appointed Heman the son of Joel, and from his relatives, Asaph the son of Berechiah; and from the sons of Merari their relatives, Ethan the son of Kushaiah," (1 Chronicles 15:16-17)

                                                             ii.      The descendant of Zerah: "The sons of Zerah were Zimri, Ethan, Heman, Calcol and Dara; five of them in all." (1 Chronicles 2:6)

G. David's unique military command hierarchy:

1.       From the two lists in 2 Samuel 23:8-39 and 1 Chronicles 11:10–47 we arrive at the following master list.

a.       It is important to realize that some on the list may be duplicates with different names. This was common.

b.      There are 56 men listed in the "thirty" which is because the list includes men who either died of natural causes, or more likely died in battle.

c.       The list of 30 in 2 Samuel, begins and ends with two dead members: Asahel killed by Abner and Uriah the Hittite (Bathsheba's husband), killed by David.

2.       This unique military command hierarchy was first created by David between 1018-1005 BC.

a.       We have Asahel brother of Joab and Abishai, son of Zeruiah David's step sister who was killed by Abner at Gibeon while David was in his 5th year as king of Judah at Hebron shortly after Ish-bosheth, son of Saul became king of the northern 11 tribes for two years. Asahel died in 1005 BC which was two years before David became sole monarch of the 12 tribes in Jerusalem in 997 BC.

b.      Uriah the Hittite died in 1001 BC, in the second year of David's reign in Jerusalem, two years before Solomon was born.

c.       In 1018 BC, soon after David fled Saul's palace, when Saul hunted him for four years, David first gained a following of soldiers at the Cave of Adullam: “So David departed from there and escaped to the cave of Adullam; and when his brothers and all his father’s household heard of it, they went down there to him. Everyone who was in distress, and everyone who was in debt, and everyone who was discontented gathered to him; and he became captain over them. Now there were about four hundred men with him.” (1 Samuel 22:1–2)

3.       Moses, David and Christ all had their own civic/military orders:

a.       Moses adopted the advice of Jethro in setting up a system where Moses was head of a new spiritual order, with leaders of 1000, of 100's of 50's and of 10's: “Now listen to me: I will give you counsel, and God be with you. You be the people’s representative before God, and you bring the disputes to God, then teach them the statutes and the laws, and make known to them the way in which they are to walk and the work they are to do. “Furthermore, you shall select out of all the people able men who fear God, men of truth, those who hate dishonest gain; and you shall place these over them as leaders of thousands, of hundreds, of fifties and of tens. “Let them judge the people at all times; and let it be that every major dispute they will bring to you, but every minor dispute they themselves will judge. So it will be easier for you, and they will bear the burden with you.” (Exodus 18:19–22)

b.      David set up a system where he was head of a new spiritual order with the 3 mighty men and the 30 in addition to his other organizations with 24 units of 1000 in the temple service.

c.       Jesus, like David, ushered in a new Spiritual order during his ministry and later with the Church: During Jesus ministry, he, like David had inner circle of three (Mark 9:2; 14:33; ): Peter [head spokeman, lead apostle, given keys of kingdom on Pentecost], James and John [both known as sons of thunder indicating their skills as fierce spiritual warriors], then the rest of the 12 apostles, then the 70 (Lk 10:1).

4.       Special qualities highlighted in David's might men:

a.       Fierce warriors, highly skilled in Battle. The Christian is to likewise be a spiritual soldier for Christ in Eph 6. Our training comes from learning to use the Bible, which is the sword of the Spirit to defeat Satan. Bible study and preparation give us knowledge to fight in battles against false doctrine, materialism and immorality.

b.      Exceptional and rare courage and faith to fight and risk death, when all others flee in fear:

                                                               i.      Two of David's "three" were men who fought singlehandedly when their fellow soldiers had fled as cowards. They loved their life unto death, but won the battle and David crowned them with the honour of "the three mighty men".

                                                             ii.      Christians likewise are to fearlessly fight Satan unto death and we will gain the crown of eternal life: James 1:12, Revelation 2:10.

                                                            iii.      John the Apostle was the only one who did not flee when Jesus was arrested. While Peter cowered in fear, John remained at the cross till Jesus made atonement for sin. So while Peter was the designated leader, John, "whom Jesus loved more than the others" was the true spiritual giant of them all and who was chosen to be translated into heaven to write the book of Revelation (and John, 1,2,3 John).

                                                           iv.      Apostle Paul was also a spiritual giant like John to the gentiles who wrote 13 of the 27 New Testament books, which is half the New Testament.

                                                             v.      “And what more shall I say? For time will fail me if I tell of Gideon, Barak, Samson, Jephthah, of David and Samuel and the prophets, who by faith conquered kingdoms, performed acts of righteousness, obtained promises, shut the mouths of lions, quenched the power of fire, escaped the edge of the sword, from weakness were made strong, became mighty in war, put foreign armies to flight.” (Hebrews 11:32-34)

                                                           vi.      Here we have two areas where mighty men show their power. 1. Through personal suffering for good. 2. By having the courage to stand up beside other fellow mighty warriors under attack by Satan and say, "I am with him". “But remember the former days, when, after being enlightened, you endured a great conflict of sufferings, partly by being made a public spectacle through reproaches and tribulations, and partly by becoming sharers with those who were so treated. For you showed sympathy to the prisoners and accepted joyfully the seizure of your property, knowing that you have for yourselves a better possession and a lasting one. Therefore, do not throw away your confidence, which has a great reward.” (Hebrews 10:32–35)

c.      Example of ultimate self-denial, servant hood and sense of commitment to brethren: Uriah the Hittite. We are not sure if David had Uriah on his list when he killed him, or added him posthumously in reflective hindsight. “Uriah said to David, “The ark and Israel and Judah are staying in temporary shelters, and my lord Joab and the servants of my lord are camping in the open field. Shall I then go to my house to eat and to drink and to lie with my wife? By your life and the life of your soul, I will not do this thing.”” (2 Samuel 11:11) this no doubt sent ripples of guilt up David's spine. Here was a perfect subject of an evil king who was unworthy of such devotion, considering what had happened and what was about to happen.

d.       Will you work to develop the skill and knowledge of the Bible and then exhibit the courage to be one of Jesus' modern "mighty men"?



Captain of army, later king:




Chief army commander:

Joab the son of Zeruiah, brother to Abishai and Asahel, son of Zeruiah David's step sister.



First Rank: "The Three mighty men":


All three breeched the Philistine camp to retrieve David water from his home town well to satisfy the cravings and desires of their king's request out of their selfless loyalty to him.

1.                   Josheb-Basshebeth/Jashobeam, the Tahchemonite/Hachmonite: "Killed 800 at one time"

2.                   Eleazar son of Dodo/Dodai the Ahohite: Had Jonathan/Davidic faith to "defy the Philistines who gathered to battle when the rest of Israel fled in fear. He struck the Philistines until his hand was weary and clung to the sword, and the LORD brought about a great victory that day; and the cowardly Israelites returned after him only to strip the slain."

3.                   Shammah son of Agee the Hararite: the Philistines tried to steal the lentil (or barley) crop from Israelites who fled. But he "took his stand in the midst of the plot [of land], defended it and struck the Philistines; and the LORD brought about a great victory.” (2 Samuel 23:11–12)



Second Rank: "The Thirty mighty men":

1.                   Abishai, brother of commander Joab, son of Zeruiah. (Joab was not listed among the mighty men.) He most respected among the 30, was revered like the three and was commander of the 30.

2.                   Benaiah son of Jehoiada: had a reputation equal to the three and was highly honoured among the 30. "killed a lion in the middle of a pit on a snowy day" and "killed an Egyptian, an impressive man. Now the Egyptian had a spear in his hand, but he went down to him with a club and snatched the spear from the Egyptian’s hand and killed him with his own spear."

3.                   Asahel brother of army commander Joab, son of Zuruiah (Killed by Abner at Gibeon while David was king in Hebron)

4.                   Elhanan son of Dodo of Bethlehem

5.                   Shammah the Harodite

6.                   Shammoth the Harorite

7.                   Elika the Harodite

8.                   Helez the Paltite

9.                   Ilra son of Ikkesh of Tekoa

10.               Abiezer of Anathoth

11.               Mebunnai the Hushathite

12.               Sibbekai the Hushathite

13.               Zalmon the Ahohite

14.               lai the Ahohite

15.               Mahari the Netophathite

16.               Heleb/Heled son of Baanah the Netophathite

17.               Ithai son of Ribai of Gibeah of Benjamin

18.               Benaiah the Pirathonite

19.               Hiddai of the Ravines of Gaash

20.               Abi-Albon/Abiel the Arbathite

21.               Azmaveth the Barhumite

22.               Eliahba the Shaalbonite

23.               the sons of Jashen

24.               the sons of Hashem the Gizonite

25.               Jonathan son of Shammah the Hararite

26.               Ahiam son of Sharar the Hararite

27.               Eliphelet son of Ahasbai the Maakathite

28.               Eliphal son of Ur

29.               Eliam son of Ahithophel the Gilonite

30.               Hepher the Mekerathite

31.               Ahijah the Pelonite

32.               Hezro the Carmelite

33.               Paarai the Arbite

34.               Igal son of Nathan of Zobah

35.               Zelek the Ammonite

36.               Naharai the Beerothite: armor bearers of commander Joab

37.               Ira the Ithrite

38.               Gareb the Ithrite

39.               Uriah the Hittite

40.               Zabad son of Ahlai

41.               Adina son of Shiza the Reubenite

42.               Hanan son of Maakah

43.               Joshaphat the Mithnite

44.               Uzzia the Ashterathite

45.               Shama son of Hotham the Aroerite

46.               Jeiel son of Hotham the Aroerite

47.               Jedieael son of Shimri

48.               Joha the Tizite

49.               Eliel the Mahavite

50.               Jeribai son of Elnaam

51.               Joshaviah son of Elnaam

52.               Ithma the Moabite Eliel Obed

53.               Jaasiel the Mezobaite

54.               Naarai son of Ezbai

55.               Joel ahi Nathan

56.               Mibhar son of Hagri



H. International and homeland affairs ambassadors: 1 Chronicles 26:29-32

1.       Amazingly, david had another layer of organization that divided the world into three layers: West of the Jordan, Transjordan and outside Israel:

a.       Outside Israel: “As for the Izharites, Chenaniah and his sons were assigned to outside duties for Israel, as officers and judges.

b.      Israel proper: As for the Hebronites, Hashabiah and his relatives, 1,700 capable men, had charge of the affairs of Israel west of the Jordan, for all the work of the LORD and the service of the king.

c.       Transjordan: As for the Hebronites, Jerijah the chief (these Hebronites were investigated according to their genealogies and fathers’ households, in the fortieth year of David’s reign, and men of outstanding capability were found among them at Jazer of Gilead) and his relatives, capable men, were 2,700 in number, heads of fathers’ households. And King David made them overseers of the Reubenites, the Gadites and the half-tribe of the Manassites concerning all the affairs of God and of the king.” (1 Chronicles 26:29-32)

2.       This shows just how forward thinking the Jewish state was, way, way ahead of any of the other nations of the day.

3.       Canada and the USA merely copied this pattern from David.

I. Office of Agriculture, employment and food safety: 1 Chronicles 27:24-31

1.        David had the equivalent to the modern USDA (Unites States Department of Agriculture) which is again quite amazing! “Now Azmaveth the son of Adiel had charge of the king’s storehouses. And Jonathan the son of Uzziah had charge of the storehouses in the country, in the cities, in the villages and in the towers. Ezri the son of Chelub had charge of the agricultural workers who tilled the soil. Shimei the Ramathite had charge of the vineyards; and Zabdi the Shiphmite had charge of the produce of the vineyards stored in the wine cellars. Baal-hanan the Gederite had charge of the olive and sycamore trees in the Shephelah; and Joash had charge of the stores of oil. Shitrai the Sharonite had charge of the cattle which were grazing in Sharon; and Shaphat the son of Adlai had charge of the cattle in the valleys. Obil the Ishmaelite had charge of the camels; and Jehdeiah the Meronothite had charge of the donkeys.” (1 Chronicles 27:25–30)

2.       We see individuals assigned to specific species of plants and animals and their safekeeping. These include every modern area of agriculture, crops and meat production, food safety related to storage, animal protection for work animals, workers rights. However, there are some notable exceptions like sheep and goats. Perhaps sheep were under the overseers of cattle, since both were grazers.




Kings storehouses

Azmaveth the son of Adiel

Food safety

Civic storehouses

Jonathan the son of Uzziah

Food safety

agricultural workers

Ezri the son of Chelub



Shimei the Ramathite


wine cellars

Zabdi the Shiphmite

Food safety

olive and sycamore trees (fruit) in Judah (Shephelah)

Baal-hanan the Gederite


stores of oil


Food safety

cattle in Sharon

Shitrai the Sharonite


cattle in the valleys

Shaphat the son of Adlai



Obil the Ishmaelite

Work animals


Jehdeiah the Meronothite

Work animals


J. Tribal chiefs: 1 Chronicles 27:16-24

1.       Tribal chiefs were was already in place under Moses and were the patriarchs of the tribe.

2.       David added a new layer of administration for each tribe appointed by the king.

3.       This is similar to how the Romans in the time of Jesus appointed their own high priest, to work beside the Moasic ordained high priest. There were two high priests in the first century, one ordained by Moses, the other by Caesar. There were two tribal heads from the time of David forward: the ancient patriarchal tradition of the eldest living male of the tribe, and the one David appointed to serve beside him.

4.       Brand new is a new head of Aaron's division: Zadok, who eventually became high priest under Solomon. There is no record that Aaron's "tribe" had previously been granted status equal to the other twelve tribes. Remember there were four branches of the priesthood. Levi had three sons, and Aaron was merely a sub sect of one of these three sons. To have him enjoy such a high status as a tribal equal is new under David. The other three branches of the priesthood did not enjoy any appointed leaders in this area.

5.       It is noteworthy that David appointed his brother, Elihu. This may have been the older brother Eliab (different spelling) who chided David for abandoning the sheep at the Goliath battle or it may be another brother different from Eliab, (which is our conclusion).

K. Office of Education and counseling

1.       David appointed a man in charge of educating all of his sons which must have been a large number, given the he had 8 wives and 10 concubines (2 Samuel 15:16).

2.       David had several wise men as his counselors.

3.       “Also Jonathan, David’s uncle, was a counselor, a man of understanding, and a scribe; and Jehiel the son of Hachmoni tutored the king’s sons. Ahithophel was counselor to the king; and Hushai the Archite was the king’s friend. Jehoiada the son of Benaiah, and Abiathar succeeded Ahithophel; and Joab was the commander of the king’s army.” (1 Chronicles 27:32–34)


1.       In 995 BC, David first determined to build a temple in year two years of his reign in Jerusalem and just before he sinned with Bathsheba. With the death of Saul, Ish-bosheth and the defeat of the Philistines, David began to focus on spiritual things. Although David has decided to build the Temple, at this point in history, the selection of the final location of the temple on the threshing floor of Ornan (present day Temple Mount) is still a future event. This will be discussed in the next section where David takes the sinful census of Israel.

2.       With God as his inspired guide, David follows the pattern shown him to build the temple and reorganize the Levitical priesthood. This mirrors how God worked with Moses, and how he expects us to conduct ourselves today in the church in both doctrine and morality.

3.       Historically, there have been three periods of Bible history and four periods of spiritual orders: “God, after He spoke long ago to the fathers [patriarchal age] in the prophets [Mosaic age] in many portions and in many ways, in these last days [the Church] has spoken to us in His Son, whom He appointed heir of all things, through whom also He made the world.” (Hebrews 1:1–2)

a.         Patriarchal age: Adam to Moses

b.         Sinai Mosaic period: Moses to David

c.          David Mosaic period: David to Christ

d.         The church: Christ to second coming

Spiritual Order


Command organization

Civic organization

Legal organizations

Religious organization







40 years

Tribal: 12 blood tribes not faith, (genes)

Moses, 1000/ 100/ 50/ 10's

12 tribal heads

6 cities of refuge, priests as judges

High priest, four divisions of Levites


40 years

Tribal/Faith (David included gentiles who shared his faith.)

David, the three, the thirty + 38,000

6,000 officers and judges, tribal heads, agriculture, employment, foreign ambassadors, counselors, education

6 cities of refuge, priests as judges; 6,000 officers and judges

High priest; 24 units of 1000 (16 units from Eleazar + 8 units from Ithamar); 4,000 gatekeepers; 4,000 worship p+ 24 divisions of 10  = 288 heads


40 years

Faith not blood: Gal 3:26-29

Jesus, the three, the twelve, the 70

Autonomous local churches with plurality of elders, deacons, evangelist 1 Tim 3; Tit 1

Judges are local elders, leaders and spiritual men and women. 1 Cor 6:5 + chapter 5 & 6.

God, Christ (High priest), man (priests)

4.       As Christians, we have inherited a rich historical tradition of mature spirituality in the body of Christ, the church.

5.       While this outline on David's new spiritual order covers the 33 year period he ruled in Jerusalem, it is not dealt with many of the other specific events like, Bathsheba, the sinful enumeration, Absalom's coup that happened within this same period. These events will be discussed in the next outline.

6.      This entirely new spiritual order gradually came into being, starting in In 1012 BC when many men began to join David at the Cave of Adullam (1 Samuel 22:1-2), and did not reach its final form until the year David died: “As for the Hebronites, Jerijah the chief (these Hebronites were investigated according to their genealogies and fathers’ households, in the fortieth year of David’s reign, and men of outstanding capability were found among them at Jazer of Gilead)” (1 Chronicles 26:31)

7.      The 40 year period of David's reign (1004 - 964BC) which ushered in an entirely new spiritual order, mirrors the 40 years (1446-1406 BC) Moses took to create his new spiritual order while in the wilderness and the 40 year period it took to create the new spiritual order in the church (Pentecost to the destruction of Jerusalem: 30-70 AD).

8.      “So David reigned over all Israel; and David administered justice [civic] and righteousness [spiritual] for all his people.” (2 Samuel 8:15)



 By Steve Rudd: Contact the author for comments, input or corrections.


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