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Title:Historical overview of Psychiatry: 1550 BC - 2010 AD
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Body:Historical overview of Psychiatry: 1550 BC - 2013 AD This sequential overview of Psychiatry provides a brief, one paragraph summary of the views of over 100 historic figures.

Encyclopedia of psychiatric history

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Click to View See also: History of Psychiatry homepage

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History of Psychiatry 1550 BC - 2013 AD

(Snake Oil? Yes! and its still that bad)

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See also: Church ministers were first psychiatrists: Historically, the very first psychiatrists (lit: "doctors of the soul") were church ministers until a secular takeover by chemical psychiatrists forced Christians out of their God given role as councilors of people with behaviour problems using the Bible as their guide.

The Main Exhibit: History of Psychiatry: 1550 BC - 2013 AD:

1. In 1550 BC, the Egyptians wrote a book of medicine. It is likely a copy of a much older book, but it is quite fascinating to realize just how much the ancients knew about the human body and various diseases. While the cures were no better than a witches brew with "eye of newt", they did understand the various diseases. The only reference to anything coming close to psychiatry is in the section on the heart where anger and sadness are discussed. Biopsychiatrists love to quote the papyrus as proof that the Egyptians believed depression was caused by bodily diseases. But this is simply untrue. In fact the opposite is true. The Egyptians understood that anger and sadness caused body diseases in the heart. The papyrus reads: "When his Heart is afflicted and has tasted sadness, behold his Heart is closed in and darkness is in his body because of anger which is eating up his Heart." (The Egyptian Medical Ebers Papyrus: 1550 BC)

Jumping forward 3000 years...

In 1558 AD, William Bullein stated that rejection in love, coveting and greed are causes of madness, and he clearly rejects madness as having a physical cause. We all understand that "love sick" or "spring fever" are not bodily diseases, but a spiritual choices of emotions we feel. Bullein says that "talking" is the only hope a cure for insanity, not drugs: "The syckenes of the body must have medicine, the passions of the mind, must have good counsel. What pleasure hath a condemned man in music, or a dead man in phisicke? Nothing at all God knoweth. 'how many men have been caste away by thought, and most for loss of estimation, and some of other affections of the mind, as inordinate love, or coveting things that they can not gain, or obtaining those things that they can not keep, or ire of men's prosperity or good happy." (William Bullein, A new book entitled the government of health, 1558 AD) Click to View

In 1584 AD, Thomas Cogan viewed man as having both a body and a soul. He stated that the mind was not connected with the body, but the soul. However, he took the view that the mind can cause the body to get sick if a student studies endlessly in the night. This is exactly what the Bible says: "But beyond this, my son, be warned: the writing of many books is endless, and excessive devotion to books is wearying to the body." Ecclesiastes 12:12. He outlines that physical exercise is for the body and study is exercise of the mind. He warns that that the mind will be harmed by laziness and lack of use. "As man doeth consist of two partes, that is of bodie, and soule, so exercise is of two sortes, that is to say of the bodie and of the minde. Hitherto I have spoken of exercise of the bodie, nowe I will entreat of exercise of the minde, which is Study. ... The activity of the mind is never still. Idlenesse therefore is not onely against nature, but also dulleth the minde, as Ovid woorthily writeth: In addition the mind grows dull when harmed by long inactivity, and its ability is much less than it was before." So Cogan clearly believes that over use or under use of the mind can lead to physical illness. While this is not true, the fact remains that Thomas rejected the idea that insanity was something the body does to the mind. (The haven of health, Thomas Cogan, 1584 AD, p 12)

In 1586 AD, Timothy Bright, doctor and priest, viewed that the spirit could make the body sick and the body could make the mind delusional. He focuses on how the mind causes the body to become melancholy and forbids the taking medicines as a cure. Instead Bright recommends only counsel to be the cure. "The dayly experience of phrensies, madnesse, lunasies, and melancholy cured by .. . art in that kinde, hath caused some to judge more basely of the soule... I have layd open howe the bodie, and corporall things affect the soule, & how the body is affected of it againe : what the difference is betwixt natural melancholie, and that heavy hande of God upon the afflicted conscience, tormented with remorse of sinne, & feare of his judgement. ... The mad man, of what kinde soever he be of, as truly concludeth of that which fantasie ministreth of conceit, as the wisest : onely therein lieth the abuse and defect, that the organicall parts which are ordained embassadours, & notaries unto the mind in these cases, falsisie the report, and deliver corrupt recordes. This is to be helped, as it shall be declared more at large hereafter, by counsell only sincerely ministred, which is free from the corruptions of those officers, and delivereth truth unto the mind, wherby it putteth in practise contrary to these importunate and furious sollicitors. ... Here it first proceedeth from the mindes apprehension: there from the humour, which deluding the organicall actions, abuseth the minde, and draweth it into erronious judgement, through false testimony of the outward reporte. Here no medicine, no purgation, no cordiall, no tryacle or balme are able to assure the afflicted soule and trembling heart, now panting under the terrors of God : there in melancholy the vain opened, neesing powder or bearefoote ministred, cordialls of pearle, Saphires, and rubies, with such like, recomforte the heart throwne downe, & appaled with fantasticall feare. In this affliction, the perill is not of body, and corporall actions, or decay of servile, and temporall uses, but of the whole nature soule and body cut of from the life of God, and from the sweet influence of his favour, the fountaine of all happines and eternall felicity." (A treatise of melancholie, Timothy Bright, 1586 AD)

In 1603, William Shakespeare wrote a series of plays that depicted insanity. In many of Shakespeare's plays, insanity plays a central role. Shakespeare always provides a clear reason for the insanity in each play: Lady Macbeth from guilt of murder. King Lear goes mad because he is betrayed by his two daughters: "Blow, winds, and crack your cheeks; rage, blow. You cataracts and hurricanoes, spout Till you have drench'd our steeples, drown'd the cocks.". Hamlet goes insane after learning that his mother murdered his father. It is never given a biologic cause and the insane are not dragged off against their will to a mad house, because that was not the practice of the day, and insanity was not viewed as something medical doctors could treat. Shakespeare therefore, gives us a perfect window into history in 1600 AD and understands that the only hope of cure for the insane rests solely within themselves. Guilt from murder causes Lady Macbeth to go insane, hallucinate blood on her hands that she cannot clean and suffer insomnia: MACBETH: "Will all great Neptune's ocean wash this blood Clean from my hand? No, this my hand will rather the multitudinous seas incarnadine [flesh-colored], making the green one red." (Macbeth: Act 2, Scene 2, 1603 AD) Later Macbeth calls for a doctor to cure his wife of her insanity: MACBETH: "How does your patient, doctor?" Doctor: "Not so sick, my lord, As she is troubled with thick coming fancies, That keep her from her rest." MACBETH: "Cure her of that. Canst thou not minister to a mind diseased, Pluck from the memory a rooted sorrow, Raze out the written troubles of the brain And with some sweet oblivious antidote Cleanse the stuff'd bosom of that perilous stuff Which weighs upon the heart?" Doctor: "Therein the patient must minister to himself." MACBETH: "Throw physic [medical treatments] to the dogs; I'll none of it." (Macbeth: Act 5, Scene 3, 1603 AD) Notice that the doctor understood insanity was not a bodily illness, refused to treat her, stated only she can cure herself, and left her to live her life freely, though insane. This is exactly opposite to what would happen today when the psychiatrist would claim only he can treat her, lock her up in a mental hospital and treat her even it if was against her will. Notice MacBeth demanded some "potion", but the doctor knew non existed... exactly the same it true today. Click to View

In 1605 AD, Francis Bacon believed that medical science was not helpful in understanding insanity. However Bacon did believe that the body could affect thinking and that the mind could affect the body: "Medicine is a Science, which hath been (as we have said) more professed, than labored, & yet more labored, than advanced; the labor having been, in my judgement, rather in circle, than in progression." He believed that insanity was something that occurred in the mind "affection" alone: "So in medicining of the Mind, after knowledge of the divers Characters of mens natures, it followeth in order to know the diseases and infirmities of the mind, which are no other then the perturbations & distempers of the affections ... Now Come we to those points which are within our own command and have force and operation upon the mind to affect the will & Appetite & to alter Manners: wherein they ought to have handled Custom, Exercise, Habit, Education, example, Imitation, Emulation, Company, Friends, praise, Reproof, exhortation, fame, laws, Books, studies : these as they have determinate use, in moralities, from these the mind suffereth, and of these are such receipts & Regiments compounded & described, as may seem to recover or preserve the health and Good estate of the mind, as far as pertaineth to humane Medycine." ... "So this league of mind and body, hath these two parts, How the one discloseth the other, and how the one worketh upon the other". (Advancement of Learning, Francis Bacon, 1605 AD)

In 1608 AD, William Perkins believed that the Devil caused madness in people who were in a physically weakened melancholy state. The resulting actions that manifested madness were delusion, self deception, "conceits, and imaginary fancies". Insanity was caused partly from the devil's temptations and partly from the choices of the persons themselves. This was not demon possession, but demonic temptation that weak people yielded to. He stressed that madness was not caused by physical diseases, but spiritual choices. "This man hath a crazie braine, and is troubled with melancholy ... Witches of our times (say they) are aged persons, of weake braines, and troubled with abundance of melancholie, and the devill taketh advauntage of the humor, and so deludes them, perswading that they have made a league with him, when they have not, and consequently mooving them to imagine, that they doe, and may doe strange things, which indeed are done by himselfe, and not by them." (A discourse of the damned art of witchcraft, William Perkins, 1608 AD)

In 1609 AD, John Downame describes how anger, being a "disease of the mind", has both a physiological effect on the body (red face, high blood pressure, hair standing on end) but a spiritual effect on the mind (loss of reason, wits). There are many case stories of people driven to raving madness because of unchecked anger. Ephesians 4:26 says, "Be angry, but to not sin; do not let the sun go down on your anger." He states that the behaviour and effects of shorts bursts of anger are identical to madness, except for the length of time. His solution to anger to be silent or speak softly, is taken straight from the Bible: "A gentle answer turns away wrath, But a harsh word stirs up anger." Proverbs 15:1 "Like charcoal to hot embers and wood to fire, So is a contentious man to kindle strife." Proverbs 26:21. The final solution is to gently warn and rebuke the person about the dangers anger will bring on his soul. Downame clearly understood that anger had its origin in the mind, but that it affected both mind and body. This was true. The Bible says that sin will make you sick. (A treatise of Anger, John Downame, 1609 AD) Click to View

In 1621 AD, Robert Burton wrote a book called The Anatomy Of Melancholy which described mental illness as caused by the mind which then in turn affects the brain, heart and other organs. He notes that different people handle common everyday life events in vastly different ways. The melancholy are unable to deal with these common life events without anxiety and loss of sleep: "In Disposition, is that transitory Melancholy, which goes and comes upon every small occasion of sorrow, need, sickness, trouble, fear, grief, passion, or perturbation of the Mind, or any manner of care, discontent, or thought, which causeth anguish and vexation of the Spirits, any ways opposite to pleasure, mirth, joy, delight, or causing frowardnesse in us, or a dislike. ... For that which is but as a flea-biting to one, cause unsufferable torment to another, and that which one by his singular moderation, and well-composed carriage can happily overcome, a second is no whit able to sustain : but upon every small occasion of grief, disgrace, loss, cross, rumor, &c. yields so far to passion, that his complexion is altered, his digestion hindred, his sleep gone, his spirits obscured, and his heart heavy, his Hypocondries missaffected, wind, crudity on a sudden overtake him, and he himself overcome with Melancholy." Burton shows that madness is caused by the mind, not the body: "but forasmuch as this malady is caused by precedent Imagination, and the Appetite, to whom Spirits obey, are subject to those principall parts, the Braine must needs be primarily misaffected, as the seate of Reason, and then the Heart, as the seate of Affection". Burton believed that the devil began deceiving the mind of those who were predisposed to melancholy and affected both mind and body. Burton correctly rejects the concept of demon possession causing insanity, but his view of the devil being like a "lion seeking someone to devour" is clearly biblical. This is quite different from demon possession. "Many think he can worke upon the body, but not upon the minde. But experience pronounceth otherwise, that he can work both upon body and mind . . . He begins first with the phantasie, and moves that so strongly that no reason is able to resist. Now the Phantasie he moves by mediation of humors : Although many Physitians are of opinion that the Devil can alter the minde, and produce this disease of himselfe .. . Agrippa and Lavater are perswaded that this humour invites the Divell to it, wheresoever it is in extremity, and of all other Melancholy persons are most subject to diabolical temptations, and illusions, and most apt to entertain them and the Devil best able to work upon them." Burton further states that mental illness happens in family groups and is hereditary. He notes that it is not the physical body that transmits the disease, but the manner, personality, temperament of the mind. It is clear that through all ages mental illness runs in families. But so does religion. Just as religion can be learned so too mental illness: "it being an hereditary disease : for as he justices . . . Such as the temperature of the father is, such is the sons; and look what disease the father had when he begot him, such his son will have after him . . . Now this doth not so much appear in the composition of the Body . . . but in manners and conditions of the Mind". Burton shows that the etiology of mental illness is upbringing. If parents are too harsh "Fathers, do not exasperate your children, so that they will not lose heart" Col 3:21 or mothers who are too permissive "He who withholds his rod hates his son, But he who loves him disciplines him diligently." Proverbs 13:24. "Education of these accidental causes of melancholy, may justly challenge the next place : for if a man escape a bad Nurse, he may be undone by evil bringing up. Jason Pratensis, puts this of Education for a principal cause, bad parents, step-mothers, Tutors, Masters, Teachers, too rigorous and too severe, Of too remiss or indulgent on the other side, are often fountains and furthers of this disease. Parents and such as have the tuition and oversight of children, offend many times in that they are too stern, alway threatning, chiding, brawling, whipping, or striking; by meanes of which their poore children are so disheartned & cowed that they never after have any courage, or a merry houre in their lives, or take pleasure in any thing .. Others againe in that other extreame doe as much harme . . . Too much indulgence causeth the like, many fond mothers especially, dote so much upon their children like Aesops ape, till in the end they crush them to death." Remarkably, Burton identifies hypochondria and paranoia as two key indicators of mental illness. "Some are afraid that they shall have every fearefull disease they see others have, heare of, or read. If they see one possessed, bewitch't, or an Epileptick Paroxisme, a man shaking with the palsy, or giddy-headed, reeling, or standing in a dangerous place &c. for many dayes after it runs in their mindes, they are afraid they shal be so too, they are in the like danger .. . they applie all they see, heare, read, to themselves . . . and will be sick, and apply all symptomes they find related of others, to their owne persons" ... Paranoia: "If two talke together and whisper, or jest, or tell a tale in generall, he thinks presently they meane him, applies all to himselfe . . . Or if they talk with him, he is ready to misconstrue every word they speak, and interpret it to the worst . . . He thinks they laugh or point at him, or doe it in disgrace of him, circumvent him, condemn him" It is easy to see why Burton's book was a standard text that was widely distributed over two centuries. (The Anatomy Of Melancholy, Robert Burton, 1621 AD)

In 1633 AD, John Hawkins wrote a book called Hypochondriac Melancholy where he identified anxiety, panic attacks and sleeplessness in Queen Elizabeth of Bohemia that had no biological cause. To Hawkins, it was all in the mind... and he was right! Neither the queen or modern chemical psychiatrists would be amused! (Hypochondriac Melancholy, John Hawkins, 1633 AD)

In 1636 AD, Richard Sibbs was a preacher whose views were typical of his day, that mental illness was a spiritual problem that needed a spiritual solution: "a diseases of the soul". The very title of the book says it all! Sibbs viewed that insanity was caused by an inner conflict and cured only by faith in Christ! He recognizes the conflict between good and bad conduct and how the conscience can bring turmoil to the spirit and also physical illness to the body. He echos the battle between the spirit and the flesh in Romans 7:24. "Now the reason why imagination workes so upon the soule, is, because it stirres up the affections answerable to the good or ill which it apprehends, and our affections stir the humors of the body, so that oftentimes both our souls and bodies are troubled hereby." He shows how insanity affects those with bad conscience because of sinful conduct and how a Christian is better equipped to work through common problems without become mad. This is the comfort of a holy man, that though he be troubled with himself, yet by reason of the spirit in him which is his better self, he works out by degrees, what ever is contrary . . . Hee that is at peace in himself, will be peaceable to others, peaceable in his family, peaceable in the Church, peaceable in the State; The soul of a wicked man is in perpetual) sedition; being always troubled in it self, it is no wonder if it be troublesome to others. Unity in our selves is before unity with others." Sibbs gives an exact etiology of one kind of mental illness where cognitive dissonance (bad conscience form sinful conduct) affects first the mind, then the body. "Things work upon the soul in this order. 1. Some object is presented. 2. Then it is apprehended by imagination as good and pleasing, or as evil and hurtful. 3. If good, the desire is carried to it with delight : if evil, it is rejected with distant, and so our affections are stirred up suitably to our apprehension of the object. 4. Affections stir up the spirits. 5. The spirits raise the humours, and so the whole man becomes moved and oftentimes distempered; this falleth out by reason of the Sympathy between the soul and body, whereby what offendeth one redoundeth to the hurt of the other." He also says that hypochondria is beyond dispute because of how clear it was that people became insane over the mere worry of contracting and dying from the plague, which was seen as a judgement of God upon people's sins. "I need bring no Examples for proof: for in every place I hear living witnesses of such as died of the Plague, stricken only with the fear of it". (The Souls Conflict, Richard Sibbs, 1635 AD)

In 1640 AD, Edward Reynolds, a preacher for a church, correctly rejected the quack medical opinions and practices of his day: that mental illness was of physical origin. He correctly saw that "melancholy blood" did not cause mental illness. Today chemical psychiatrists continue this deception by prescribing drugs to the mentally ill because of a "chemical imbalance" in the brain. Doctors of the 17th century and the chemical psychiatrists of today are both wrong in saying the body makes one insane. Instead, they should listen to Edward Reynolds, who correctly showed the etiology of insanity to be entirely the result of spiritual choices and how the guilt from sinful conduct affected both the mind and the body. He illustrates in several ways how a man must exercise self control to keep his sex drive and other passions under control. This has nothing in common with Freud, since Reynolds believed that the conscious freewill of a man choosing to overcome sin, is the best way to cure mental illness. "as Husbandmen use to do those Trees which are crooked . . . or else it is done, by scattering and distracting of them; and that not only by the power of Reason, but sometimes also by a cautelous admixture of Passions amongst themselves, thereby interrupting their free current". To Reynolds, a man who is mentally ill is like a crooked tree that needs to be corrected by pruning and staking of the farmer. Of course the primary one to do this staking and pruning was the person themselves, to themselves! To Reynolds, the Bible command to "flee fornication" was achieved by power of will and self control. He also recommended people avoid such sinful sexual activity and to replace such thoughts with positive wholesome things as a kind of "minds decoy" to get your thoughts off of sex. When your mother told you to take cold shower and read the Bible because you were "horny", this is exactly the kind of thing Reynolds would advise. (A Treatise of the Passions and Faculties of the Soul of Man, Edward Reynolds, 1640 AD)

In 1649 AD, William Harvey discovered the blood circulatory system of the body. He notes that the mind, spirit and emotion cause physical changes in the body, sometimes causing death. "And what indeed is more deserving of attention than the fact that in almost every affection, appetite, hope or fear, our body suffers, the countenance changes, and the blood appears to course hither and thither. In anger the eyes are fiery and pupils contracted; in modesty the cheeks are suffused with blushes; in fear, and under a sense of infamy and of shame, the face is pale, but the ears burn as if for the evil they heard or were to hear; in lust how quickly is the member [penis] distended with blood and erected!" He gives a case story of a man who overcome with anger, hate and revenge, died: "I was acquainted with another strong man, who having received an injury and affront from one more powerful than himself, and upon whom he could not have his revenge, was so overcome with hatred and spite and passion, which he yet communicated to no one, that at last he fell into a strange distemper, suffering from extreme oppression and pain of the heart and breast, and . . . in the course of a few years . . . became tabid and died". Of course this is nothing new. Modern science recognizes how stress can cause heart attacks and drive one to insanity. However, the doctor contributed to the myth of hysteria by blaming the uterus for inducing insanity. Modern psychiatry retained hysteria until it was replaced in the first edition of the DSM-I in 1952 with "conversion reaction" and "somatization disorder." Here we have it's beginning stages of development by the myth that human females, like animals, go insane if they do not get sex when they need it: "All animals, indeed, grow savage when in heat, and unless they are suffered to enjoy one another, become changed in disposition. In like manner women occasionally become insane through ungratified desire, and to such a height does the malady reach in some, that they are believed to be poisoned, or moonstruck, or possessed by a devil." Equally quaky, is the idea that a woman who is suffering from "hysteria" needs to do "Hymeneal Exercises", whatever that is, or just get a husband to get enough sex to cure her mental illness: "That this Maid having remained a great while in the Hospital without being cured, Dr. Harvey, out of Curiosity, visited her sometimes; and suspecting her strange Distemper to be chiefly Uterine, and curable only by Hymeneal Exercises, he advised her Parents (who sent her not thither out of poverty) to take her home, and provide her a Husband, by whom, in effect, she was according to his Prognostic, and to many Men's wonder, cured of that strange Disease." (Blood Circulation in the body (Exercitatio anatomica de circulatione sanguinis), William Harvey, 1649 AD)

In 1650 AD, Rene Descartes described the body as a machine that was inhabited by a spirit, where intelligence, memory and personality originate. "Cartesian Dualism" is Christian theology. Chemical psychiatry, including the DSM-IV like to mislead the untaught by suggesting first, that this idea was something new, and second, that Descartes thought the pineal gland was the soul. In fact, Descartes' view was standard Judeo-Christian theology 101. Eccl 12:7 shows that the body returns to dust and the spirit returns to God who gave it. Jesus story of the Rich man and Lazarus in Luke 16:21 clearly show that personality, memory, thoughts, feelings etc, consciously survive the death of the body while awaiting the second coming and resurrection. When this is pointed out, psychiatrists will then come clean (a bit) and say that Plato thought the same thing. They almost always fail to point out that "Cartesian Dualism" is really a primary Hebrew and Christian theology. Even worse, Chemical psychiatry fails to note that every historic culture on earth believed in "Cartesian Dualism" including the ancient Egyptians, Semites, Chinese and all world religions including Buddhism, Hinduism and that late-bloomer, Islam. It is important to note that Descartes did not say that the pineal gland was the soul, just that the soul used the pineal gland as its physical connection to the body. "That there is a little kernell in the brain wherein the soul exercises her functions more peculiarly than in the other parts ... all the other parts of our brain are paired ... but there is no other place in the body where they can be so united, unless it be granted that they are in this kernel ... Let us then conceive that the Soul holds her principal seat in that little kernel in the midst of the brain, from whence she diffuseth her beams into all the rest of the body" Chemical psychiatry laughs at the idea that the pineal gland IS THE SOUL and mockingly asks Christians, "where does the soul go when the brain is destroyed?" Apart from being stupid, it is a deliberate misrepresentation of what Descartes said. Further, since Christian know that the spirit uses the brain as a way of connecting with the body, perhaps scientists should devote a bit of research money to this hypothesis. While the soul might use the pineal gland alone, as its interface connection with the body, we reject this, however, and feel that the soul uses the entire brain as its connection device/port with the body. fMRI imaging shows that the entire brain is used in thoughts and emotions. When the body dies and the brain is destroyed, the soul detaches from the brain, which then turns to dust. Death is the separation of the body from the soul in the Bible. Descartes was in fact, voicing the majority view for his time. It was not until the 1900's that psychiatry rejected Christianity for the idea that man is nothing but a pile of chemicals. (The passions of the soul, Rene Descartes, 1650 AD)

In 1656 AD, Henry More described those who hear voices as self deluded with their own conceited imaginations. If alive today, he would never attribute the cause of such schizophrenia to a malfunctioning brain with some mythical chemical imbalance. Neuroscience has proven through fMRI imaging, that when people "hear voices" that the talking sections of the brain "Broca's area" light up, not the hearing. Henry More correctly understood that the spirit and its imaginations were the etiology of delusion, not the body! Hearing the voice of God or an angel was known right up to the 19th century as "Enthusiasm" "For Enthusiasm is nothing else but a misconceit of being inspired ... The Origin of such peremptory delusions as mankind are obnoxious to, is the enormous strength and vigour of the Imagination". More believed in the inspiration of the Bible and that God, angels and the devil talk to men, but he was able to easily know the difference between the real thing and self delusion. Notice the key words he uses over again: conceit (narcissism and selfishness), fooled, deceived, imagination, believing a lie, carnal reasoning, delusions. "And a further instance may be in mad or Melancholy men, who have confidently affirmed that they have met with the Devil, or conversed with Angels, when it has been nothing but an encounter with their own fancy. Wherefore it is the enormous strength of Imagination . . . that thus peremptorily engages a man to believe a lie." More correctly understood that schizophrenics were in their own created fantasy world that blurred with the real world. Even dreams while sleeping became reality. "for he takes his dreams for true Histories and real Transactions ... We shall now enquire into the Causes of this Distemper, how it comes to passe that man should be thus be fooled in his own conceit ... she has quite lost her own judgement and freedom, and can neither keep out nor distinguish betwixt her own fancies and real truths." More understood that these self deluded people, prided their own judgement to be superior to all outside rational thinking. "as in the case immediately before named, does naturally bear down the Soul into a belief of the truth and existence of what she thus vigorously apprehend; and being so wholly and entirely immersed in this conceit, and so vehemently touched therewith, she has either not the patience to consider any thing alledged against it, or if she do consider and find her self intangled, she will look upon it as a piece of humane sophistry, and prefer her own infallibility or the infallibility of the Spirit before all carnall reasonings whatsoever". More viewed these people as self deluded in their spirits not physically sick in their bodies. (Discourse of the Nature, Causes, Kinds, and Cure, of Enthusiasm (Enthusiasmus triumphatus), Henry More, 1656 AD) Click to View

In 1660 AD, Jeremy Taylor, Bishop, used the term "scruples" to describe people who were insane. He rejected the idea that the body was the etiology and placed the origin squarely and firmly in the mind: "A scruple is a great trouble of mind proceeding from a little motive, and a great indisposition, by which the conscience though sufficiently determined by proper arguments, dares not proceed to action, or if it doe, it cannot rest . . . That it is a great trouble, is a daily experiment and a sad sight : Some persons dare not eat for fear of gluttony, they fear that they shall sleep too much, and that keeps them waking, and troubles their heads more, and then their scruples increase. If they be single persons, they fear that every temptation is a . . . burning which the Apostle so carefully would have us to avoid, and then that it is better to marry then to suffer it; and if they think to marry, they dare not for fear they be accounted neglecters of the glory of God which they think is better promoted by not touching a woman." He clearly identified this as a conflict of conscious whose origin is the mind not the body. They also confess to sins in order to be told they are ok. This is an common attention getting advice like when you put yourself down in order to get a compliment. Basically, it is a narcissistic way of getting others to praise and take notice of how spiritual you are! "They repent when they have not sinned, and accuse themselves without form or matter". This often occurs in Christians who secretly sin, then attempt to make up for it with good works. Generally people who behave this way have indeed committed some secret sin (usually sexual) and their conscience is rightly bothering them. "After a great tumbling of thoughts and sorrows he begins to believe that this scrupulousness of conscience is a temptation, and a punishment of his sins, and then he heaps up all that ever he did, and all that he did not, and all that he might have done, and seeking for remedy grows infinitely worse, till God at last pitying the innocence and trouble of the man made the evil to sink down with its own weight, and like a sorrow that breaks the sleep, at last growing big, loads the spirits, and bringing back the sleep that it had driven away, cures it self by the greatness of its own affliction." Rather than just stop sinning and repenting openly, they chose to continue sinning thus incurring the pains of cognitive dissonance. Taylor understood the solution was in the mind, not the body! (The Rule of Conscience (Ductor dubitantium), Jeremy Taylor, 1660 AD)

In 1665 AD, Dr. William Drage concluded that he had witnessed several cases of demon possession in a couple of women. In fact, Mary Hall was faking the whole thing (hysteria) for attention because she did not like the way she was being treated by her father. However, Drage correctly notes that this is not a bodily illness, but a spiritual one: "A Disease of Witchcraft is a Sickness that arises from strange and preternatural Causes . . . afflicting with strange and unaccustomed Symptoms, and commonly preternaturally violent, very seldom or not at all curable by Ordinary and Natural Remedies." It is best to view this as a comedy act put on by Mary Hall who was supposed possessed by two demons. Only then, do you realize how much fun she was having putting on her show and getting all kinds of attention. Typical of hysterics, the curtain rises on Act 1, and Mary Hall starts "the old shaking foot trick"! "It took her first in one foot with a trembling shaking and Convulsive motion, afterwards it possessed both; she would sit stamping very much; she had sometimes like Epileptick, sometimes like Convulsive sits, and strange ejaculations". When that was enough to convince them to call in the excorcist, (Doctor Woodhouse) Mary Hall had to start writing some new material quickly... and she should be awarded a Grammy award posthumously. "were heard in her [Mary Hall] strange noises, like mewing of Cats, barking of Dogs, roaring of Bears, &c. at last a Voice spoke in her, "Pus Cat, what a Cat? nothing but me!" ... Mary later told revealed the true reason Mary Hall was unhappy: She wanted to Choke her father! This was all about a daughter's anger and/or rebellion against her father! He may have been unfair to her, or perhaps it was just a bit of teenage rebellion! The curtain open in Act 2: "We are only two little Imps, Goodwife' Harods, and Youngs; sometimes we are in the shape of Serpents, sometimes of Flies, sometimes of Rats or Mice; and Gfe Harod sent us to choke this Maid, Mary Hall; but we should have choked Goodman Hall, but of him we had no Power, and so possessed his daughter; we came down the Chimney, riding on a stick, and went first to Mary's foot, whereupon her foot trembled first of all her distemper." Click to View The obvious tip off is that demons do not ride on broom sticks, being a 17th century concept alone. Demons are supernatural beings. Acts 3: "Sometimes she would beat her self, sometimes with one, sometimes both hands, chiefly on the Breast. Sometimes her legs would go, fast and violently, kicking of the ground, and the Spirits would say, Come, Mary, Dance; and then they would make a tune, and make her feet to Dance it; sometimes they would say, Mary, make a mouth; and then they convulsed her mouth." Doctor Woodhouse, and two other doctors were deceived by Mary Hall's new found acting career and concluded she was demon possessed: "he really thought she was possessed". Had Woodhouse merely broken out in laughter, he would have likely cured Mary Hall instantly of her "demon possession". It is crystal clear that it was Mary, not the demon, who wanted to "choke Goodman Hall", her father. Mary Hall was spanking her father through the demon. There are countless examples of this sad, but typical case of faking insanity today. The story of Sybil is yet a modern case of a bored woman, trying to get her acting career off the ground! Perhaps she knew about Mary Hall. We refer you to the case of "Joe", the jail house demoniac who fooled all the psychiatrists, but not the church preacher! (Daimonomageia. A small treatise of sicknesses and diseases from witchcraft, William Drage, 1665 AD)

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Here is a video of Mary Audrey with her "left Leg anointing" like Mary Hall's demon possessed left foot. John Arnott, a Pentecostal, stands beside his ministry director, Mary Audrey, who has the "Left Leg Anointing". When she kicks up her left leg, and says, "More Jesus", people are slain in the Spirit in the direction of her kick.

In 1667 AD, Thomas Willis clearly understood that madness was a spiritual problem to be cured with torture. His statement says it all: "Wherefore, Furious Mad-men are sooner, and more certainly cured by punishments, and hard usage, in a strait room, than by Physick or Medicines." If insanity was really a chemical imbalance, these "moral treatments" would have no effect: "Therefore let the diet be slender and not delicate, their clothing course, their beds hard, and their handling severe and rigid. ... The first Indication, viz. Curatory, requires threatening, bonds, or strokes, as well as Physick. For the Mad-man being placed in a House for the business, must be so handled both by the Physician, and also by the Servants that are prudent, that he may be in some manner kept in, either by warnings, chiding, or punishments inflicted on him, to his duty, or his behaviour, or manners. And indeed for the curing of Mad people, there is nothing more effectual or necessary than their reverence or standing in awe of such as they think their Tormentors. For by this means, the Corporeal Soul being in some measure depressed and restrained, is compell'd to remit its pride and fierceness; and so afterwards by degrees grows more mild, and returns in order: Wherefore, Furious Mad-men are sooner, and more certainly cured by punishments, and hard usage, in a strait room, than by Physick or Medicines." Willis is one of the earliest doctors connected with Bedlam, to recommend torture as a cure for insanity. Willis saw the main cause of madness as being rooted in the mind not the body and his cures reflected that view: "Therefore, for the healing of the Spirits, first of all it is to be procured that the Soul should be withdrawn from all troublesome and restraining passion, viz. from mad Love, Jealousy, Sorrow, Pity, Hatred, Fear, and the like, and composed to cheerfulness or joy: pleasant talk, or jesting, Singing, Music, Pictures, Dancing, Hunting, Fishing and other pleasant Exercises are to be used. They who are not for Sports or Pleasures (for to some Melancholicks they are always ungrateful) are to be roused up by employing them in more light business; sometimes Mathematical or Chemical Studies, also Travelling, do very much help; moreover, it is often expedient to change the places of habitation, in their native soil. Those who will still stay at home, are to be warned, that they take care of their Household affairs" However, Willis one of the first to understand the nervous system. He therefore believed that moral choices could have an effect upon the nervous system, which in turn caused insanity. The idea that the mind could make the body sick and induce madness was not a new idea. But his etiology of madness rooted in the nervous system was new. His theory that bad moral choices caused bad nerves in the brain became the dominant view in the Bedlam mental hospital in England. 100 years later, William Battie, for example, induced vomiting in the insane in order to physically shock the nerves as a cure! Today we know Willis and Battie were quacks, since that nerves and brain tissue of schizophrenics are in perfect working order. Today, chemical psychiatrists still cling to a vestigial root of Willis' quacky ideas. It is seen in the modern mythical concept that chemical imbalances in the brain cause mental illness. Today, it appears very scientific to suggest insanity is caused by chemical imbalances, but like Willis' bad nerves, there is no scientific proof of either! While Willis correctly rejected the common idea of his day, that a woman's uterus caused hysteria, he made the mistake of blaming the brain instead! Interesting that Willis diagnosed both men and women with "hysteria" the same way men are diagnosed with postpartum depression today. Its all pure junk science! "Having weighed these, and other Reasons, we doubt not to assert, the Passions commonly called Hysterical, to arise most often, from that the animal spirits, possessing the beginning of the Nerves within the head, are infected with some taint." (Pathology of the Brain and Nervous Stock, Soul of Brutes, Thomas Willis, 1667 AD) Click to View Click to View

In 1670 AD, Richard Baxter, Church Minister, took the view that insanity and depression were caused by life circumstances, moral choices and sins of an individual, that induced bad "melancholy blood". Although his etiology is humoral, it important to realize that he believed that sin and emotion actually were the foundational cause of melancholy blood, which then caused insanity! 1. sin. 2. bad blood. 3 insanity. "Root and Foundation, is usually a Depravation of the Mass of Blood, which is the Vehicle of the Spirits, and that is usually accompanied with some Diseases of the Stomach, Spleen, Liver" First on his list of causes of melancholy was: "SINFUL Impatience, Discontents and Cares, proceeding from a Sinful Love of some bodily Interest, and from want of sufficient Submission to the will of God, and Trust in him, and taking Heaven for a satisfying Portion. This is one of the most common Causes". He then goes on to list things like: "when they are in Debt to others", "the secret Root or Cause of all this, is the worst Part of the Sin, which is too much Love to the Body and this World". He also identifies high self esteem and a lack of contentment as a cause: "not sufficiently humbled for our Sin, or else we should be thankful for the lowest State, as being much better than that which we deserved". He also identifies cognitive dissonance (bad conscience) as a trigger of insanity: "great Cause is the Guilt of some great and wilful Sin, when Conscience is convinced, and yet the Soul is not converted". His cure of insanity was to repent: "repent, to love God and your Neighbour, to live soberly, righteously and godly, to pray at all; here you must strive, and not excuse it by any Backwardness; for it is that which must needs be done, or you are lost". Although he believed typical Hypocrites junk medicine, he attributed depression and mental illness to freewill choices as the primary cause, which in turn cause the blood to become melancholy. So the real problem lay in fixing the mind, not the body! Repentance, he believed, would correct the melancholy blood and restore the person to normal. (The Signs and Causes of Melancholy, Richard Baxter, 1670 AD) Click to View

In 1691 AD, Timothy Rogers, a minister for a church, describes depression (melancholy) as caused by a sin problem: "A sense of Sin, and great sorrow for it", "a sense of the Wrath of God, and a fear of Hell", "terrors of the soul", "trouble of Conscience", "terrors of Conscience", "Anxieties of Soul", "sinking and guilty Fears", "sense of Tormenting", "Racking Pain, the immediate prospect of Death, and together with this, an apprehension of God's Displeasure, and the fear of being cast out of his Glorious Presence for ever", "anguish and vexation", "Raging Fever", "want of sleep", "Real Misery that they are tormented with", "fears and terrors that overwhelm our Souls", "fills them with anguish and tribulation". He describes how the mind can make the body sick: "If a Man, saith he, that is troubled in Conscience, come to a Minister, it may be, he will look all to the Soul, and nothing to the Body; if he come to a Physician, he considereth the Body, and neglecteth the Soul: for my part, I would never have the Physician's Counsel despised, nor the Labour of the Minister neglected; because the Soul and Body dwelling together, it is convenient, that as the Soul should be cured, by the Word, by Prayer, by Fasting, or by Comforting; so the Body must be brought into some temperature, by Physick, and Diet, by harmless Diversions, and such like ways." Rogers cautions not to blame the devil for this depression: "Do not attribute the effects of mere Disease, to the Devil". (A Discourse Concerning Trouble of Mind and the Disease of Melancholly, Timothy Rogers, 1691 AD)

In 1691 AD, Robert Boyle (inventor of Boyle's Law of the relationship between pressure and volume of gas), believed that the mind, not the body caused insanity. Boyle gave two case histories of hypochondria which he correctly labels as "emotional shock". He clearly shows that the cause is purely of mind affecting the body: "Instances I have met with, that shew the great Power which sudden Passions of the mind may have upon the Body". One was the case of a woman who became immediately paralyzed when her son drowned in a river while under her supervision. She "was struck with so much horror upon the sudden accident that tore from her a favorite Son, that among other mischiefs, she fell into a Dead Palsy of her right Arm and Hand, which continu'd with her in spight of what she had done to remove it, till the time she complain'd of it to me, who had not opportunity to know what became of her afterwards" (Experimenta & Observationes Physicae, Robert Boyle, 1691 AD)

In 1692 AD, John Moore, a church minister, preached a sermon to the queen about sin induced depression among Christians who have a "sincere love of God" and who experience that "which makes them fear". He correctly understands that depression is caused by sin: "dread of those Punishments, which he hath threatened to inflict on unrelenting sinners". However, he is inconsistent in his view, stating that the depression is caused by the body rather than the mind, "to judge them to be Distempers of the Body, rather than Faults of the Mind" and like chemical psychiatrists today, he actually excuses the sinful conduct as being outside the person's personal control. "they [bad thoughts] continue with you much against your consent". He even excuses their sinful conduct before God on Judgement day: "God . . . no where hath said, That Men shall be condemned for their ungovernable Thoughts, over which they have no dominion". Moore then contradicts himself and says that the cure is self control of the mind, not some drug for the body: [thoughts] "engaged in a good Matter" and he orders people to not quit their jobs: "I exhort you not to quit your employment". He goes on to advice that the cure is through keeping your mind calm with gentle thoughts: "It is not therefore a furious combat with melancholy thoughts, which will but weaken and sink the body, and to make the case worse, but a gentle application of such comfortable things as restore the strength, and recruit the languishing spirit that must quash and disperse these disorderly tumults in the head." Notice he sees the problem as "languishing spirit and tumults in the mind". This is not a bodily disease at all! This mishmash of contradictory concepts from a minister of a church may indicate he was trying to water down the message of the Bible in the audience of the Queen to save his own head! Perhaps the Queen suffered from depression and Moore did not want to offend her by blaming her depression on her own sin. (Religious Melancholy, John Moore, 1692 AD) Click to View

In 1694 AD, Franciscus Mercurius van Helmont reported a method of water torture used by his father, Johann Baptista van Helmont to cure insanity. This was later improved upon by Patrick Blair in 1725 AD. Most important, was the fact that Helmont believed "raging madness" was a disease caused by the human spirit and will. It was a form of water torture and its success in curing the insane. The insane were suspended by their feet above a large tub of water and lowered, head first up to their waist to the point of asphyxiation. Some died, some survived, some were cured. Helmont wisely, advises to get the court's permission to do this in case they actually drown. It was practiced upon the worthless and lazy that were "of no use in the Common wealth" to make them pull their own weight in society, as well as the "Raving mad". Many cures of insanity were boasted, "did cure several distracted Persons this way, there are many in Holland that can verify" ... "several Cases [of raging madness] be cured by casting the Patients into the Water". The success of this method prove that a mad man with "raging madness" can control and change his conduct. Whether he was faking it or not, he was able to stop acting like a madman and become a productive worker in society. Houdini performed a stunt of escape from a water tank that exactly simulated Helmont's water torture. Today, Water Boarding is called the "enhanced interrogation technique" used by the US army against Muslim Terrorists to gain valuable information about future and past terrorist attacks. The CIA use it because it work! In Waterboarding, a person is strapped to a board and ice water is dripped on his head with a cloth covering his face. A combination of the cold and the fear of drowning changes the will of the person to comply. Water-boarding has its origin in part, with Helmont. Not only do we feel it should be used the US government, we would like to see it the "out of control" insane who are locked up in mental hospitals also waterboarded. It would save us a lot of tax dollars in a large number of cures! (The Spirit of Disease; or Diseases From the Spirit, Franciscus Mercurius van Helmont, 1694 AD) Click to View Click to View

In 1695 AD, Thomas Tryon correctly understood that madness was a spiritual problem, not a bodily illness caused by chemical imbalances as it believed today. He identified a cause of insanity as being, "bitter envious fierce wrathful proud Spirit" Anger, selfishness, pride, narcissism are all triggers for madness. "The truth is, Madness and Phrensie do generally, and for the most part (for some other few particular causes we shall give an account of by and by) arise and proceed from various Passions and extream Inclinations, as Love, Hate, Grief, Covetousness, Despair, and the like, which do . . . break forth, violate and destroy the give inward Senses of the Soul, whence the outward Senses do arise; So that the Soul loseth its distinguishing property, and then the Imaginative property and Soul's Power becomes rampant, unbounded, or as it were without a Guide, and consequently such a Soul is unchained, or set at liberty from the dark Confinements of the grosser Senses and Reason, even as men in Dreams." Tryon had observed that religious people were affected with madness and noted that the prime cause was anger, pride and narcissism: "some who have seemed very Religious, and soberly inclined, as long as they retain'd their Senses and outward Reason, as soon as they become deprived thereof, the bitter envious fierce wrathful proud Spirit appears in its own form, and has its operation without let or hindrance." He rejected drugs, bloodletting and vomits as effective cures of madness. "As to the Cure of Madness in general, the Schools commonly prescribe Blood-letting, and Sleep procuring Medicines, but with how much success daily experience witnesseth, they mistake the Cause, and therefore blindly combat with the Effect" He also criticized the practice at Bedlam of allowing the general public to pay admission to mental hospitals to mock the patients and ridicule them for their own personal entertainment. "I must acknowledge that Gallant Structure of New Bethlam to be one of the Prime Ornaments of the City of London, and a Noble Monument of Charity, so I would with all Humility beg the Honorable and worthy Governours thereof, that they would be pleased to use some Effectual means, for restraining their inferior Officers, from admitting such Swarms of People, of all Ages and Degrees, for only a little paltry Profit to come in there, and with their noise, and vain questions to disturb the poor Souls" (A treatise of dreams & visions, Thomas Tryon, 1695 AD)

In 1701 AD, John Freind, doctor, related a case of contagious hysteria known as "the barking girls". Two related families of young girls were having a grand old time putting on a classic show of hysteria. In 1787 AD, William St. Clare noted in his "An Epidemic Of Hysterics" the following: "barking and howling like dogs . . . accompanied by violent rhythmic movements of the head and contortions of the face . . . when their breath failed they would one by one fall into a paroxysm like an epileptic fit". (Uncommon Kind of Convulsions, John Freind, The philosophical Transactions, vol 5, 1701 AD) Click to View

In 1705 AD, Thomas Fallowes, doctor and mad house owner, claimed he cured insanity with "blisters". This was a common procedure of the day, that produced clear fluid blisters, when sulfuric acid was applied to the scalp. (Oleum Cephalicum). It is like the blister that forms under a bubble of skin when you burn yourself with oil or hot water. This practice continued for hundreds of years until the end of the humoral medicine in 1858 AD. The idea was that vapours from bad melancholy blood needed to vent out of the scalp to cure the insane! In his own words, "I have discovered a noble Medicine proper to it, being the Incomparable Oleum Cephalicum, a Composition so very curious, and which I have known the Use and Benefit of in so many Instances, that I can venture to assure it to be the Best Medicine in the World, in all the Kinds of Lunacy I have met with. It is of an excellent and most pleasant Smell; and by raising small Pustules upon the Head, which I always anoint with it, opens the Parts which are condens'd, and made almost insensible, by the black Vapours fix'd upon the Brain; it confirms the Texture of the Brain, strengthens the Vessels, and gives a Freedom to the Blood and Spirits inclos'd in them: Being given at first beginning of Disorder, it removes the Cloudiness of the Mind, makes the Patient chearful, lively and active, and when apply'd after the greatest Fury and Passion, it never fails to allay the Orgasm of the Animal Spirits, and sweetly compose 'em. It removes the Terror of the Mind, scatters the Vapours that are the Cause of Enormous Dreams, to which Distracted Persons are almost constantly subject; and procures quiet easy and natural Sleep, to which when the Patient can be brought, without the use of Opiates, he cannot miss of an entire Cure; the Distemper will soon be discharg'd, and I have known it frequently to produce a Cure in the Space of one Month." Note that Fallowes believed that blistering truly cured insanity and was his treatment of choice because he got tangible results: "I can venture to assure it to be the Best Medicine in the World, in all the Kinds of Lunacy I have met with". The real question is how chemically burning the scalp cures insanity! The long and wide use of this quacky treatment only underscores that insanity is a spiritual, not bodily problem. Obviously nothing changed in the body, but perhaps placebo or just the enduring torturous pain was enough for those misbehaving to cure themselves! They had to make a decision. Stop being insane or continue to endure the pains and discomforts of treatment. (Incomparable Oleum Cephalicum: The best method for the cure of lunaticks, Thomas Fallowes, 1705 AD) Click to View

In 1707 AD, John Purcell, a doctor of medicine, was confused and clueless about the causes and cures of mental illness. His local church minister understood the cause of insanity better than he! Purcell wrongly viewed epilepsy and hysteria ("Fits of the Mother") as two different degrees of the same disease. He describes epileptic fits in great detail and gives great warnings about burying living epileptics alive. To make sure they are dead he advises: "hold a very little fine Carded Wool, a Feather, or burnt Paper before their Mouths". He also believes that Fits of the Mother (hysteria) are caused by the uterus sending vapors up to the head and making one sick. He also viewed hysteria as being transmitted from mother to daughter: "Another Question to be ask'd, is, if she were Born of Parents subject to Hystericks ; for Vapours as well as other Diseases, are transmitted to us from our Fathers and Mothers." John Purcell was a quack who could have learned much from his local church minister for they were way ahead of him. (A treatise of vapours or hysterick fits, John Purcell, 1707 AD)

In 1715 AD, Herman Boerhaave, Doctor, believed that insanity was caused entirely by "the Blood become thick, black, fat and earthy ... malignancy of the Blood and Humors, which the Ancients have called Black choler ... Atrabiliar Humor, or Melancholy Juice ... thick oil of the Blood ... nervous Juices from the Brain ... Liquids of the Brain and Nerves" Boerhaave believed that it was easy to cure if you followed his instructions: "the Cure doth also occur easie enough from these Principles". The cure involved: "repeated letting of Blood and strong Purges between each Bleeding, and afterwards when you have lay'd his fury, and have brought him to his Senses, then give him Cordials and Opiates." These became standard cures at Bedlam. But he also recommended water boarding which was clearly a moral treatment since it was to be done by surprise and would strike terror into the person: "Patient unwarily into the Sea, and to keep him under Water as long as he can possibly bear without being quite stifled." Boerhaave was either a bad discector or he invented his observastions about how the brains of mad were different in appearance: "by Anatomical Inspection it has been made evident, that the Brain of those is dry, hard, friable, and yellow in its Cortex; but the Vefleis turgid, varicous and distended with black and very tough Blood." (Aphorisms, Herman Boerhaave, 1715 AD)

In 1716 AD, Samuel Clifford, minister of the Gospel posthumously compiled a collection of writings of Richard Baxter, preacher for a church. As noted above, Baxter viewed madness as a spiritual problem, not a bodily or physical one. He correctly viewed the cause of madness as sin and "wounds of the conscience". He correctly charged the insane as being "guilty of voluntary active Self-pollution" who willfully sinned, then suffered the pains of their conscience. Baxter notes that cognitive dissonance from unrepented sin, can lead to delusion, paranoia, depression and laziness. "I would warn all young Persons to live modestly, and keep at a sufficient distance from Objects that tempt them to carnal Lust . . . For I can tell them by the sad Experience of many, that venerous Crimes leave deep wounds in the Conscience; and that those that were never guilty of Fornication, are oft cast into long and lamentable Troubles, by letting Satan once into their Phantasies . . . especially when they are guilty of voluntary active Self-pollution". Baxter notes the symptoms as self condemnation due to personal sinful conduct, paranoia that others are constantly talking about them and laziness. "Melancholy Persons are commonly exceeding fearful . . . Their Fantasie most erreth in aggravating their Sin, or Dangers or Unhappiness... They are continual Self-Accusers, turning all into matter of Accusation against themselves ... They are still apprehending themselves forsaken of God . . . and that it is now too late to repent or find Mercy ... suspicious of every Body that they see whispering ... given to Idleness, either to lie in Beds, or to sit unprofitably by themselves". Baxter's cure is as puzzling as it is opposite to what is needed. Having already stated that personal sin is the cause of madness, he suggests diversion from consciousness of sin and lots of personal attention, rather than repentance and social isolation as mandated in Matthew 18. "A great part of their Cure lieth in pleasing them, and avoiding all displeasing Things, as far as lawfully can be done ... divert them from the Thoughts which are their Trouble ... Suffer them not to be long alone, get sit Company to them". As a preacher, Baxter should have known better than to suggest this. When someone is in sin, it justifiably makes them feel bad and under the condemnation of hell. The only cure is repentance and forgiveness from God. Baxter's cure for a fornicator who feels condemned by God, for example, would be to have the sinner think about fields of flowers and sunsets rather than his sin. This is equivalent to what is done today in chemical psychiatry where drugs are used to take away bad feelings of the conscious. Baxter also suggests that the sinner should be given lots of undue attention and never left alone. This is opposite to what Jesus said in Matthew 18, where the unrepentant sinner is to be socially isolated. Baxter's system of "diversion and love bombing" does work on the melancholy, but it achieves this in a manner opposite to what the Bible commands. It is like giving a screaming, disobedient and rebellious child who refuses to obey the parent, a candy, in order to shut them up, rather than a good spanking. We are commanded to repent of sin, not ignore it and think of flowers and rainbows. When the sinner sees those around him engage in coddling and reassurance, without discipline, it is like giving that candy to the rebellious child. When many people spend time with a melancholy sinner it sends the message: "Don't feel bad about your sin, we are all here spending time with you in order to remove your bad feelings without repenting." This obvious truth is what Baxter understood 300 years ago! (The signs and causes of melancholy, Richard Baxter, 1716 AD)

In 1718 AD, Andrew Snape is the first preacher to diverge from the widely held view that insanity was caused by solely by sin. Snape marks the beginning of Chemical psychiatry. Having said this, Snape highlighted that there were three causes of madness: sin, ignorance, overloaded brain wiring: "But besides Sin and Ignorance, there is a third Sort of Blindness incident to Human Minds". But it was the new concept that deep and intense thought could cause the brain nerves to overload and cause madness, that marks the beginning of the "chemical imbalance myth" we see today. Snape describes an absurd etiology to insanity. His view is that the spirit drives the "machine of the human brain" too hard and it is unable to withstand the pressure. Like burst water hoses, the "brain fibres" are unable to kept thoughts separate and they begin to mix inside the brain causing madness: "Whilst the aspiring Soul is pursuing some lofty and elevated Conception, soaring to an uncommon Pitch, and teeming with some grand Discovery; the Ferment proves too strong for the feeble Brain to support, the Intenseness of Thought disconcerts the slender Fibres; the thin Partitions and Enclosures, that keep the Ideas separate, and rang'd in a beautiful Order, are burst in sunder by the Force of the labouring Imagination, and the whole Magazine of Notions and Images lye jumbled together in a common Heap, and mingled in wild Confusion." Snape's view of insanity was not particularly clever or novel. It was utter quackery in hindsight. This is where the idea of the "mad scientist" or the "insane genius" came from. Just as a body builder will snap a bone or tendon from too much load, so too the genius overloads his fleshly brain. Of course, the Christian knows from Luke 16:21ff, that memory and computation are a function of the spirit, not the brain or the body. Snape worked at Bedlam and suggested that institutionalized care could cure it: "there is need of Art and Skill, of proper Remedies, and a strict Confinement of the Person so afflicted ... Physick and Diet, and other Management" It is noteworthy that in 1758, William Battie rejected sin as a cause of insanity and adopted the "brain wiring" etiology pioneered in part by a local church minister! Christians today know that thinking hard and deep thought do not cause insanity, since these happen in the spirit not the physical brain. The brain is the physical medium the spirit uses to illuminate the body. (Spital Sermon, Andrew Snape, 1718 AD) Click to View

About 1720 AD, marks the rise of private mad houses for profit. Three events between 1725-1728 AD mark the beginning of the transition from privately owned non-profit mad houses run by church ministers to profit oriented mad houses run by non-Christians. Additionally, 1720 marks a sudden multiplication and proliferation of the number of mad houses. A new industry is born! The three markers are: 1. Patrick Blair in 1925, 2. Eliza Haywood in 1926, 3. Daniel Defoe in 1928. These three witnesses of history also show a new trend of sane wives been thrown into mad houses to either punish them for disobedience or to gain access to their family money. Click to View

In 1725 AD, Patrick Blair, Doctor, perfected a system of torture that cured the insane that he learned of from Franciscus Helmont in 1694. Waterboarding continued to be used in prisons in 1858, and is used today by the CIA on Muslim terrorists. Whereas Helmont lowered a bound mad man, head first into a large tank of water, Blair dropping large volumes of water on the head of a mad man seated and bound in a chair. Most important is that both Helmont and Blair viewed the cause of insanity to be spiritual choices of men rather than bodily diseases. For this reason, water torture was an effective way of convincing the mad man to stop his insane behaviour. Blair and Helmont boast that this method indeed cured the insane! Blair would blind fold people before the procedure as a way of further inducing terror of death. Whereas Helmont reported many downed from his cure, Blair never lost a patient! His final device included a large pump that elevated 18,000 gallons of water 35 feet in the air above the person strapped to a chair below. Additionally, he even sprayed water up into the face for a more complete effect. He used this final version to cure a woman who was, "mad, neglected every thing, ... kept her room, would converse with nobody but kept spitting continually" and refused to have sex with her husband. For 7 weeks before water treatment, she had "frequent bleedings, violent Emeticks, strong purgatives and potent Sudorificks and Narcoticks were not wanting". This brought about a partial cure: "gave all signs of recovery except that of the dislike to her husband". She he strapped her naked into the chair which, "put her in an unexpressable terrour especially when the water was let down. I kept her under the fall 30 minutes, stopping the pipe now and then and enquiring whether she would take to her husband but she still obstinately deny'd till at last being much fatigu'd with the pressure of the water she promised she would do what I desired". But the next day she refused. So he water tortured her in this way two more times. But when she recovered, again she refused. So Blair, "I threatned her with the fourth Tryal, took her out of bed, had her stript, blindfolded and ready to be put in the Chair, when being terrify'd with what she was to undergo she kneeled submissively that I would spare her and she would become a Loving obedient and dutiful Wife for ever thereafter. I granted her request provided she would go to bed with her husband that night, which she did with great chearfullness ... About 1 month afterwards I went to pay her a visit, saw every thing in good order". Blair proclaimed her cured! Whether you view this as a genuinely insane woman or a stubborn angry wife putting on the act of a mad man, either way it corrected the bad behavior! Blair claimed his water treatment by the "fall of water" was, "the safest method of curing mad people ... and sink the patients spirits even to a deliquium [melted] without the least hazard of their Lives." (Cure of Mad Persons by the Fall of Water, Patrick Blair, 1725 AD) Click to View

In 1726 AD, Eliza Haywood wrote a play called, "The distress'd orphan" or, "Love in a mad-house", that highlighted a new phenomena of wicked husbands sending their rich and unwanted wives to a private mad house so they could get their wives money and be free to love their new mistress. Haywood shows that it was well known that being thrown into a mad house could actually cause madness since the rich heroine greatly feared going mad herself and "fall indeed into that Disorder of which the was accus'd." This shows that insanity was not a medical condition, but caused by cruel torture and abuse. The mad house is a small building that housed maybe 10 people in "several Apartments", chained naked to the floor on dirty straw with meager food rations. The keepers mocked and beat them into submission. In the play, a rich woman refuses to marry a man who is only after her money, "it was for her Wealth alone that he had seem'd so desirous of engaging her". The woman's "guardians" had likely made a deal with her "new husband" to get a cut of the money. When she refused, the "guardians" threw her into a mad house. While it is important to remember that the play exaggerates a fictional situation, the core of the situation is likely intended to be readily recognized by the audience perhaps as a method of bringing about change through theatre. Being kidnapped from her home, "thrust into the Coach, where the three Keepers immediately crowding in", she finds herself inside the madhouse: "disturb'd with Sounds, which struck so great a Dread into her, that nothing is more strange, than that she did nor die with the Fright, or fall indeed into that Disorder of which the was accus'd. The rattling of Chains, the Shrieks of those severely treated by their barbarous Keepers, mingled with Curses, Oaths, and the most blasphemous Imprecations, did from one quarter of the House shock her tormented Ears while from another, Howlings like that of Dogs, Shoutings, Roarings, Prayers, Preaching, Curses, Singing, Crying, promiscuously join'd to make a Chaos of the most horrible Confusion: but the Violence of this Uproar continued not long, it being only occasion'd by the Entrance of the Keepers into the Cells of those Wretches who were really Lunatick, and had, for the Addition of their Anguish, so much Remains of Sense, as to know what they were to suffer at the Approach of these inhuman Creatures, who never came to bring them fresh Straw, or that poor Pittance of Food allowed for the Support of their miserable Lives ; but they saluted them with Stripes in a manner so cruel, as if they delighted in inflicting Pain, excusing themselves in this Barbarity, by saying that there was a necessity to keep them in awe ; as if Chains, and Nakedness, and the small Portion of wretched Sustenance they suffer'd them to take, was not sufficient to humble their Fellow- Creature. Besides, what is there to be feared from those helpless Objects of Compassion, who being Hand-cuffed, and the Fetters on their Legs fast bolted into the floor, can air no farther than the length of their Chain!" Haywood's play follows Patrick Blair's "cure of madness by the fall of water", in 1725 AD where he actually gives a case of curing a disobedient wife of her madness by water torture. Then in 1728, Daniel Defoe makes a public effort to bring get authorities to stop this injustice to women. (The distress'd orphan or, Love in a mad-house, Eliza Haywood, 1726 AD)

In 1728 AD, Daniel Defoe, author of Robinson Crusoe, believed that a husband could drive his sane wife mad by sending her to a mad house. He believed insanity was caused by life circumstance, not a disease saying, "it is much easier to create than to cure madness". He wrote about a new phenomonea "a practice scarce heard of till of late years" of the rise of private mad houses and the jailing of unwanted rich wives by treacherous husbands in some of these mad houses. Whereas mad houses had been run for altruistic purposes by church ministers, Defoe shows the rise of many new mad houses by non-church ministers for profit by housing the relatives of rich people or their unwanted wives. "the vile practice now so much in vogue among the better sort as they are called, but the worst sort in fact; namely, the sending their wives to madhouses, at every whim or dislike, that they may be more secure and undisturbed in their debaucheries; which wicked custom is got to such a head, that the number of private madhouses in and about London are considerably increased within these few years." Since mad houses were originally started by ministers of churches, this sudden surge in the number of mad houses marks the beginning of the profit motive of running mad houses by non-ministers. There is simply no way that altruistic ministers would jail unwanted wives so their husbands could spend the wive's money on their new mistress. "How many, I say, of beauty, virtue, and fortune, are suddenly torn from their dear innocent babes, from the arms of an unworthy man, whom they love, perhaps, but too well, and who in return for that love, nay probably an ample fortune and a lovely off spring besides, grows weary of the pure streams of chaste love, and thirsting after the puddles of lawless lust, buries his virtuous wife alive, that he may have the greater freedom with his mistresses?" But Defoe also believes that the causes of insanity is life circumstances and not a disease. He notes, "If they are not mad when they go into these cursed houses, they are soon made so by the barbarous usage they there suffer ... Is it not enough to make any one mad to be suddenly clapped up, stripped, whipped, ill-fed, and worse used? To have no reason assigned for such treatment, no crime alleged, or accusers to confront? And what is worse, no soul to appeal to but merciless creatures, who answer but in laughter, surliness, contradiction, and too often stripes ... be not sufficient to drive any soul stark staring mad, though before they were never so much in their right senses" Defoe traces the etiology directly back to the husband as the cause of insanity, not some disease: "When by this means a wicked husband has driven a poor creature mad, and robbed an injured wife of her reason, for it is much easier to create than to cure madness, then has the villain a handle for his roguery; then, perhaps, he will admit her distressed relations to see her, when it is too late to cure the madness he so artfully and barbarously has procured." Another factor is that it was the rich who initially paid for mad houses for the upkeep (or jailing) of their relatives. In this case it was the wife who was rich and the husband who used her money: "and he has not a shilling but what came from her" ... "for if a man is weary of his wife, has spent her fortune, and wants another, it is but sending her to a madhouse and the business is done at once." Defoe calls for all mad houses to be regulated and seeks for new licenced mad houses to be created in various parts of town. "In my humble opinion, all private madhouses should be suppressed at once, and it should be no less than felony to confine any person under pretence of madness without due authority. For the cure of those who are really lunatic, licensed madhouses should be constituted in convenient parts of the town, which houses should be subject to proper visitation and inspection, nor should any person be sent to a madhouse without due reason, inquiry, and authority." Defoe is an important marker in history for he shows the genesis of mad houses run by non-church ministers for rich people. (Augusta Triumphans, Daniel Defoe, 1728 AD) Click to View

In 1728 AD, Francis Hutcheson a naturalistic philosopher, applied Isaac's Newton's scientific laws (ie. F=MA, 1687 AD) to the human mind. Newton's impact on how all nature can be explained by "laws" permeated every area of mankind. Hutcheson viewed madness as the result of chemical processes and fluids inside the body. He wrongly believed that emotions were the result of chemicals floating around the blood stream. When these "fluids" were out of balance, the laws of nature inside the machine (body) were forced to obey. His quacky views are foundational to the beginning of Chemical psychiatry in two regards: First, he views man as a mere pile of chemicals with no spirit that consciously survives death as the Bible clearly teaches. "certain Motions in the Body do accompany every Passion by a fixed Law of Nature; and alternately, that Temperament which is apt to receive or prolong these Motions in the Body, does influence our Passions to heighten or prolong them". Second and more significant, he viewed man as not responsible for his actions: "it appears, that our Passions are not so much in our Power, as some seem to imagine". This dangerous slippery slope was seen in the "insanity defense" 100 years later, and almost daily today. A Church of Christ preacher's wife shoots her husband in the back while he slept and she is not held responsible by psychiatrists! Hutcheson viewed emotions of anger, sorrow, love etc. as "chemical fluids" that affected the mind like a lingering drug. He noted that a happy experience could allow a person to more easily endure a negative experience because the "happy fluids" were still floating around in the body even days after the "happy experience". "We find our selves after a long Fit of Anger or Sorrow, in an uneasy State, even when we are not reflecting on the particular Occasion of our Passion. During this State, every trifle shall be apt to provoke or deject us. On the contrary, after good Success, after strong friendly Passions, or a State of Mirth, some considerable Injuries or Losses, which at other times would have affected us very much, shall be overlooked, or meekly received". So Hutcheson promoted two key foundational concepts adopted by modern Chemical psychiatry today: Insanity is a chemical imbalance and the insanity plea is valid because the chemicals make us commit crimes! He was wrong on both counts as is chemical psychiatry today who believes the mind obeys chemical "Newtonian like" laws of the body! (An essay on the nature and conduct of the passions and affections, Francis Hutcheson, 1728 AD) Click to View Click to View

1729 AD, Nicholas Robinson, doctor and governor of Bedlam the same time James Monro, believed insanity was caused by life choices, sin and thinking too hard, over excitement of emotion, so as to break the nerves of the brain, "all the Decays of the Nerves and Lownesses of the Spirits are mechanically accounted for" ... "Fits had so weakened the Fibres of the Optic Nerves." Its like trying to put too much current through an electrical wire and it either melts or blows a fuse! Robinson does take a biologic view of the etiology of mental illness, but he believes it is a case of the choices, thoughts and emotions of the mind that is ultimately responsible for the damage. He notes how damaged nerves can be caused by sin and guilt: "Hence arise their Difference, Scruples, and Fears, concerning the Sincerity of their Faith and Repentance, as also the Certainty of their Election or Reprobation; which several Points, from the preaching of some hot-headed Gospel-Ministers, are so strongly fix'd on the Minds of silly, weak, unhappy People, as to work them into a State of Despondency. THEN their Sins fly glaringly in their Faces, and are so infinitely great, that no Satisfaction can compensate; then they think of nothing but the fearful Wrath of God just ready to be pour'd out upon them; that the Sentence of Condemnation is already pass'd, and that they certainly shall be damn'd to all Eternity." A few years later the doctors of Bedlam like John Monro, dropped the idea that sin, emotion and life choice and circumstance caused insanity, and focused on correcting the physical problems with treatments that amounted torture. Robinson shows how an atheist is driven to madness through his rejection of God: "take a view of the Atheist ... What Hope, what Refuge ... the Mind was in Despair through Doubt ... Where can he rest his hopeless Hope! where seek for Mercy, when Conscience, Horror, Despair, and all the dismal Scenes of Woe, that can afflict the most obdurate Heart, fly glaringly in his Face, and sting his tortur'd Soul, with Pain and Grief unsufferable to human Nature! Hence spring those frequent Suicides, to which these harden'd Miscreants have Recourse, to rid them of a Life most loathed, wretched, and miserable to endure. So that no Scene of Horror can be more dreadful, than to view an Atheist on his Bed of Sickness, just reviving to a Sense of his being forsaken of God, and all Hopes of his Mercy." Nicholas Robinson believed that mental illness was caused by feelings of sin, hopelessness and condemnation which in turn damaged the brain nerves. In a page out of modern chemcial psychiatry, Robinson believes drugs are the cure: "But of all Medicines in the Spleen, I know none equal or fit to compare with that truly noble Drug we call Opium. It's our Refuge in all Distresses; it gives Ease and Relief in the most torturing Pains, and when all other remedies fail; ... for by relaxing the Fibres of the Brain and Nerves". Gotta love the idea of giving heroin to the insane! It would be much easier if they simply repent Dr. Robinson ... but you already knew this! (A New System of the Spleen, Nicholas Robinson, 1729 AD) Click to View

In 1744 AD, George Berkeley, Bishop of the church at Cloyne, hailed the use of drinking the distilled acid of tar (turpentine) that became known as "Tar Water". It cured almost everything, including of insanity (hysteria). "A cure for foulness of blood, ulceration of bowels, lungs, consumptive coughs, pleurisy peripheumony, erysipelas, asthma, indigestion, cachectic and hysteric cases [insanity], gravel, dropsy, and all inflammations." He learned about this cure from the American Narragansett Indians. You mixed tar with water then after a few days, you skim off the clear liquid and drink several cups per day. Even John Wesley, founder of Methodism, raved about its successes in curing disease. It became so common that you could order "Tar-Water" in the local taverns. By 1830, turpentine was injected into the bladder though an "elastic gum catheter" and the patient was told to hold off as long as possible before peeing it out. "Turpentine pills" were also ingested into the stomach. (Reflections and Inquiries Concerning the Virtues of Tar Water, George Berkeley, 1744 AD) Click to View

In 1747 AD, John Wesley, Preacher, Founder of Methodism, understood that insanity was caused by sin and noted a case of a young 20 year old man who went mad "by hearing a sermon of Mr. Wheatley's, fell into great uneasiness". He went to Bedlam and was treated by Monro who, "blooded him largely, confined him to a dark room, and put a strong blister on each of his arms, with another over all his head. But still he was as 'mad' as before, praying or singing, or giving thanks continually; of which having laboured to cure him for six weeks in vain, though he was now so weak he could not stand alone, his mother dismissed the doctor and apothecary, and let him be 'beside himself' in peace". Another case of madness he understood was triggered by extreme grief of a mother whose son died. Wesley stated that the mind can cause the body to get sick. "From fretting for the death of her son. And what availed medicines while that fretting continued ? Why, then, do not all physicians consider how far bodily disorders are caused or influenced by the mind". Susannah Wesley wrote her son John Wesley about a case where John Monro was treating in Bedlam. She said, "the man is not Lunatick, but rather under strong convictions of sin; and hath much more need of a spiritual, than bodily physician". Most interesting, is her comment that Monro (like most of the largest mad house keepers) believed that religious devotion was actually a sign of mental illness: "he presently condemned himself and said, Lord what sin have I been guilty of, and cry'd to God for mercy, and pardon. This probably may confirm the Dr. in the opinion of his madness but to me tis a proof of his being in a right mind". Susannah rejected this and believed just the opposite and that repentance was the way to cure his madness! But Wesley also a quack when he stated that the cure for "Lunacy" included his electric shock machine, drinking herb tea 4 times a day, rubbing the scalp with vinegar many times a day, drinking vinegar. His cure for "Raging Madness" included water boarding (fall of water pioneered by Blair in 1725 AD) and feeding them nothing but apples for a month or nothing but bread and milk for a month. He is most famous for inventing his electro-shock treatment, which continues even to this day. He believed that this machine would cure "nervous Cases of every Kind", and treated thousands of people in many different locations. He said: "how many Lives saved by this unparalleled Remedy... And yet it is absolutely certain, that in many, very many Cases, it seldom or never fails". While Wesley correctly understood that insanity was a spiritual choice, his treatment of shock therapy was simply a torture device, exactly like water boarding. Strangely, Wesley used his "electric machine" not only to cure insanity, but many other medical conditions. Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) has been used since 1747 AD to cure insanity. The difference is that Wesley did not run electricity through the brain as is done today, but rather up an arm or leg. Wesley's treatment only inflicted pain. Chemical Psychiatrists today use ECT to run electricity through the brain. This causes memory loss and has a stupefying effect. In 2006, psychiatrist Colin A. Ross concluded that "claims in textbooks and review articles that ECT is effective are not consistent with the published data". He also found no difference in the cure rates when he tested using placebos: "real ECT is only marginally more effective than placebo." Today, ECT is viewed as a short term (30 days) distraction from insanity until the physical brain recovers from being shocked. Running electricity through the brain is about as stupid as applying 220 volts directly to your computers CPU. ECT, applied to the brain causes temporary damage. During the repair period of the brain, cognitive functions are degraded not improved. ECT is a way to instantly drop 40 IQ for 30 days. (Primitive Physic: or An Easy and Natural Method of Curing Most Diseases, John Wesley, 1747 AD) Click to View Click to View

In 1750 AD, Lewis Southcomb, church minister, departed from a long tradition of his fellow preachers and viewed extreme cases of insanity as a medical problem only doctors could cure like any other disease. However, most of what is viewed as mental illness today would be caused by a guilty conscience from sin and rebellion to God. "Shewing the Distinction between a wounded Conscience, convicted by a Sense of Sin, AND a wounded spirit; proceeding from a disordered Body; PROVING, That the latter is more grievous than the former, and comes not under the Denomination of Conscience, but of Disease, to which all Mankind are liable ; and that, in either Case, the miserably afflicted are neither mad, nor out of their Senses; but only that their animal Spirits are either elated, confused, and hurried, or otherwise oppressed and dejected. Showing, That all Severity's and Confinement are prejudicial; as are all Endeavours that give Pain, or sink the Spirits ; AND THAT, In the former Case, nothing can relieve them but Divines ; and, in the latter, nothing but the judicious Physician, and Apothecaries that will be true both to Physician and Patient." Southcomb clearly rejects all the moral treatments and torture practiced in Bedlam on the residents there. He also rejected that the worst cases of insanity should have any negative stigma attached to them. Like many in chemical psychiatry today, Southcomb did not hold the insane person responsible any more than if he had a fever. "And, if it be no Disgrace to he afflicted with one Disease, why should it be so to be afflicted with another" (Peace of Mind and Health of Body, Lewis Southcomb, 1750 AD)

In 1758 AD, John Monro, doctor at the Bedlam asylum, stated that his cure of choice for insanity: "vomiting is infinitely preferable to any other". Did you catch that? "Vomits Infinitely preferable" Monro openly stated that he had no idea what caused mental illness: "Madness is a distemper of such a nature, that very little of real use can be said concerning it; the immediate causes will ever disappoint our search, and the cure of that disorder depends on management as much as medicine." Entering the Bedlam asylum under Monro was like entering a torture chamber from a horror movie since he was more concerned with controlling the mentally ill by chains, jail cells, and degrading the physical strength of the insane down to idiotism. Under Montro, the general public were permitted to pay a fee and enter Bedlam to mock and ridicule the patients like caged animals. Monro prescribed all the standard humoral treatments of like bloodletting, blistering, cold baths etc. but his treatment of first choice was vomits. Here it is in his own words where he induced vomiting in a man 61 times over 180 days: "the most adequate and constant cure of it is by evacuation ... The evacuation by vomiting is infinitely preferable to any other. ... I lately received from a worthy friend of mine the case of a gentleman, who had laboured under a melancholy for three years; he himself calls it an hypochondriacal, convulsive disorder, from which he was relieved entirely by the use of vomits, and a proper regimen. So very sensible was he of their good effects, that he did not scruple to take sixty-one from the third of October to the second of April following; and for eighteen nights successively one each night; by which means he got rid of a prodigious quantity of phlegm, and obtained a perfect recovery. The first seventeen were composed of one ounce of the yin. ipecacoan. with one grain of emetic tartar, and afterwards he made use of no more than half an ounce of the wine. And those, who are much used to hypochondriacal people, will find them in general less weakened with vomits than purges." The Monros were no friends of Jesus since they viewed earnest religious devotion and strong Bible preaching as actually driving people insane. Under John Monro preachers were forbidden to even enter Bedlam, since he believed ministers of churches drove the patients to further madness. In 1772, under the indirect advice of John Monro, the British Government passed a law that allowed a person to be committed to Bedlam with a single doctor's medical certificate, and suddenly for the first time, church preachers were stripped of any official role in the process. Today, this has gone so far that insurance companies forbid church preachers from even engaging in "counseling their flock", unless they get a certificate from a secular, atheistic institution. (Remarks on Dr Battie's Treatise on Madness, John Monro, 1758 AD) Click to View

In 1758 AD, William Battie, Mad Doctor at Bedlam and then St. Lukes asylum, was caustically hostile to Christianity and religion in general, like modern chemical psychiatry today. His A Treatise on Madness, never mentions the words: soul, spirit, God, Jesus. The only time Christianity is brought into the subject is his rather stupid suggestion that the laziness religious leaders causes madness because their "nerves" were out of shape due to lack of use the same way the lazy man has weak heart. It was a clear slap against religion, or his narrow personal exposure to Christianity. He was one who actually believed that Christians were generally mentally ill. This attitude prevails today in modern psychiatry. To Battie, all mental illness had a physical cause. Battie's etiology of insanity was borrowed from Nicholas Robinson, who in 1729 AD, wrote a book where he stated bad nerves was a cause of madness. "When once these finest Fibres of the Brain, that immediately support the regular Exercise of our Thoughts, have suffered such a fatal Shock; no Operation of the Mind, that is regular, sedate, and uniform, can ever after be expected". Battie's quacky idea of "weakness of nerves" is seen today in quacky products like "Geritol" which are modern versions of 18th century "nerve tonics" to keep you healthy and ward off insanity! He believed the mind, through joy and anger, could induce madness because it over stimulated the nerves. He believed laziness and gluttony induced madness because it clogged up the nerves: "viscera being slopped in such a manner as to compress the many nervous filaments ... stomach, intestines, and uterus, are frequently the real seats of Madness" It is important to realize that as an agnostic who didn't attend church, Battie rejected the idea that anxiety was a spiritual problem. He believed anxiety was common to all humanity, but only those with weak, bad or out of shape nerve fibers would be afflicted with anxiety. This explains why modern chemical psychiatry is in love with him as their hero. William Battie was trained for ten years at Bedlam under John Monro. He left and started St. Luke's mental hospital in England. Bedlam and St. Luke's were the two largest mad houses in London. They correspond to mainstream psychiatry today. But there were many smaller mad houses that continued to view the primary cause of insanity as spiritual and not organic/bodily. Although he made some dramatic changes from what was practiced in Bedlam, almost all of his "innovations" were in print and practice up to 100 years earlier! He strongly criticized John Monro's practice at Bedlam of selling tickets to the public so they could entertain themselves by teasing the patients. "the impertinent curiosity of those, who think it pastime to converse with Madmen and to play upon their passions, ought strictly to be forbidden". He viewed some forms of insanity as untreatable in any way: "Original Madness [incurable] therefore, like most other morbid cases, rejects all general methods: ... bleeding, blisters, caustics, rough cathartics, the gumms and faetid antihysterics, opium, mineral waters, cold bathing, and vomits." Like Monro, Battie believed "consequential madness" was most often cured with "vomits". Battie treated all new patients initially with a kinder, gentler version of the tortures experienced at Bedlam. If that didn't fix them, they were classified as having incurable "original madness", all treatments were stopped and they were put in a separate section of the asylum. Battie notes that after people had been given up as incurable that they suddenly cured themselves. "when given over as incurable, recovered his understanding." Of course this is clear evidence that it was always in the freewill power of the insane to "act normal". When they reached the end of the line, they wanted out of "jail". Battie was every bit a humoralist as Monro. As such, he believed the curing effect of "vomits" was due to the physical shaking of the nerves and brain matter that resulted from the convulsions of act of vomiting. (A Treatise on Madness, William Battie, 1758 AD) Click to View

In 1761 AD, Giovanni Battista Morgagni, doctor, decided that the etiology of madness could be determined by, "dissecting the heads of persons who have been disorder'd in their senses". Morgagni is called the father of modern pathology and he dissected over 700 people of all diseases. In his conclusions for the cause of madness, which he believed to the same as "melancholy", he concluded it as due to, "a considerable hardness in the brain". Wow! That was clever! What a Quack! He cuts open the brain of an insane person and pokes his finger in the dura matter and notices it is harder than normal people! We are reminded that most doctors before the 19th century, had no more training than a typical thirteen year old today who cut open a few raccoons, squirrels and cats on the picnic table in his back yard and the chemistry set he got for Christmas that year! Strangely, we applaud Morgagni for trying. But notice that his quest for the cause of insanity in the brain he speculated by saying, "I suspect the cause": "And I suspect that those corpuscles, which rais'd themselves up here and there from the dura mater". This is exactly what he hear today in modern clinical textbooks of psychiatry when they speculate by saying, "The most promising cause of insanity is a chemical imbalance in the brain and bad DNA." In 1761 AD, Morgagni expected that with the advancements of modern science, that the true etiology of madness could be clearly seen in the brain. However in 2010 AD psychiatrists are still echoing Morgagni in their expectation that "one day... we will see it in the brain". Of course times up! Game over! Mental illness is a spiritual problem, not a physical bodily or brain disorder. The bodies of the insane are physically and chemically identical to those who are normal. (Seats And Causes Of Diseases Investigated By Anatomy, Giovanni Battista Morgagni, 1761 AD) Click to View

In 1766 AD, John Hill, a doctor, was contemporary with William Batty and John Monro of Bedlam. As such, he took the view that Hypochondriasis (depression) was induced by melancholy blood clogging the spleen. "To call the hypochondriasis a fanciful malady, is ignorant and cruel. It is a real, and a sad disease: an obstruction of the spleen by thickened and distempered blood; extending itself often to the liver, and other parts ... this obstruction in the spleen is the true malady" Others viewed the causes as, air, diet, lack of sufficient sleep, too little or too much exercise, constipation, emotions. Hill's primary etiology of a clogged spleen was inactivity of mind and body and a sedentary lifestyle. He targets intellectuals that sat around reading and writing as most at risk: "Fatigue of mind, and great exertion of its powers often give birth to this disease; and always tend to increase it. The finer spirits are wafted by the labour of the brain: the philosopher rises from his study more exhausted than the Peasant leaves his drudgery ... The first and lightest of the signs that shew this illness are a lowness of spirits, an inaptitude to motion ; a disrelish of amusements, a love of solitude and a habit of thinking, even on trifling subjects, with too much steadiness." Typical of the anti-Christian attitudes of John Monro and the institutional psychiatry of the day at Bedlam, Hill takes a pot shot at the clergy: "Among particular persons the most inquiring and contemplative are those who suffer oftenest by this disease; and of all degrees of men I think the clergy. I do not mean the hunting, shooting, drinking clergy, who bear the tables of the great; but the retired and conscientious; such as attend in midnight silence to their duty". The general view of the day was that preachers were lazy and sedentary, and that few were physically active. He described the symptoms similar to a depression. "lowness of spirits, and inaptitude to motion; a disrelish of amusements, a love of solitude, Wild thoughts; a sense of fullness". His cures focused on natural herbs like "Water-Dock" and "Spleen-wort". He outright rejected all drugs: "No acrid medicine must be directed, for that may act too hastily, dissolve the impacted matter at once, and let it loose, to the destruction of the sufferer; no antimonial, no mercurial, no martial preparation must be taken; in short, no chymistry: nature is the shop that heaven has set before us, and we must seek our medicine there". Insanity was viewed as being caused by stomach and digestion problems. Hill, like many of his day, therefore instructed the diet to be soft and easy to digest: "plenty of boiled vegetables, are always right; and give enough variety, raw vegetables are all bad". So essentially Hill was a quack who, apart from avoiding the drugs administered by the mad doctors of his day, he had it all wrong. (Hypochondriasis: A Practical Treatise, John Hill, 1766 AD) Click to View

In 1775 AD, Hugh Farmer, church minister, correctly taught that demon possession never caused insanity. Farmer would not "ascribe madness and epileptic fits to possession, rather than other disorders". The Bible does teach demon possession during the apostolic age, but oddly, he Farmer did not believe the devil or demons even existed. Instead he explained the Devil and demons to be caused by physical diseases like epilepsy or flu viruses. Farmer said, "the New Testament doth not countenance the doctrine of real possessions." Demon possession is real in the New Testament and is always accompanied by supernatural powers and knowledge. It was impossible for demon possessed men to be bound with even chains. They also knew things normal humans did not know. People in need of the N1H1 flue vaccine or epileptics never exhibit supernatural power and knowledge. Demon possession was a real thing in the apostolic age, but did not cause insanity. Farmer believed that Jesus did perform genuine miracles of casting out demons, but equated it with a miracle of healing a simple disease. "From hence it follows, that when we read in the New Testament, that Christ and his apostles cast out demons; this must mean, that they cured demoniacs; and it can mean no more . . . And therefore when we are told, that the demon threw down a man, who is said to have an unclean spirit, and convulsed him, and then came out of him, and hurt him not; the meaning must be 'that his disorder', which was of the kind ascribed to demoniacal possession, returned upon him with great violence." Notice Farmer rejects demon possession and instead calls it a "disorder". Farmer almost stands alone as a church preacher for first equating demon possession with the diseases like common cold, and second for viewing insanity as having a physical/biological cause. It seems he may have been strongly influenced by William Battie and John Monro, who took the same view. What is important to point out, is that he correctly rejected the idea that insanity was caused by supernatural demon possession. In this regard, he was orthodox among his fellow church preachers. Supernatural demon possession is real, but it has never been the cause of insanity. (Essay on the Demoniacs of the New Testament, Hugh Farmer, 1775 AD) Click to View

In 1779 AD, Franz Anton Mesmer, founded "Mesmerism" where a man could transmit animal magnetism to another and bring about an instant cure for "diseases of the nerves". The idea that a person has been "mesmerized" or that something is "mesmerizing" are verbs that owe their origin to this charlatan quack. Mesmer believed he and his disciples, had the ability to transmit a magic power to cure insanity from their body to another. For 70 years, Mesmerism became a prosperous and lucrative trade as forerunners of today's junk science, pop-psychologists who jump on any new thing that the public will pay money for. James Braid put the Mesmerizers out of business in 1843 when he discovered it was mere hypnotism. There are many modern images of mesmerism in today's culture, like the way the Emperor from Star Wars, zapped Luke with electricity coming from his hands. Even today's hypnotists mislead audiences that they possess some inherent power they are able to transmit from their hands to the person being hypnotized. Since hysteria is all in the mind, Mesmer found a deceptive, but effective cure in Mesmerism. The placebo and nocebo effects are well documented forms of simple hypnotism, which is nothing more than the power of suggestion. In Acts 8, Simon the sorcerer was called "the great power of god". However when he saw the apostle Peter lay his hands on a man and impart one of the 9 supernatural powers listed in 1 Cor 12, Simon converted to Christianity and gave up his "Mesmerism". (Propositions Concerning Animal Magnetism, Franz Anton Mesmer, Mesmerism, 1779 AD) Click to View

In 1782 AD, Thomas Arnold, Doctor and Mad house owner of Leicester Lunatic Asylum in Britain, went to great lengths to describe 13 different types of insanity, which he divided into two major groups: Hallucinations and delusions. However, he also noted that, "all these species of Insanity may be variously combined, and frequently interchange, one with another." He described the etilogogy of insanity to "derive its origin from some accidental, and temporary, state . . . or to take its peculiar turn from the prevailing notions, and fashionable prejudices, of the times, or places, in which it occurs". In other words, the insane person was influenced by his environment from the outside, not some problem with brain nerves. (Observations on the Nature, Kinds, Causes, and Prevention of Insanity, Lunacy or Madness, Thomas Arnold, 1782 AD)

In 1787 AD, William St. Clare, doctor, wrote about a classic case of hysteria where, "a girl put a mouse into the breast of another girl who had a great dread of mice. The girl was immediately thrown into a fit, and continued in it with the most violent convulsions for 24 hours". A total 24 girls began to imitate the symptoms and the cotton mill where they all worked was shut down for fear of a plague that entered the factory from a bag of cotton. Clare cured them all instantly with his electric shock machine! Here is an example of how a form of torture, instantly snapped these girls out of their acting. The motive was likely a combination of fun, attention and getting a few days off work. Meric Casaubon had correctly speculated in his "A treatise concerning enthusiasme" (1655) that such events were contagious (learned and imitated), "should be contagious: though not contagious in the same manner, as the Plague, or the Pox is; yet contagious in their kind". In 1701 AD, John Freind noted a case of two related families of what became known, "the barking girls", who "barking and howling like dogs . . . accompanied by violent rhythmic movements of the head and contortions of the face . . . when their breath failed they would one by one fall into a paroxysm like an epileptic fit". These three cases show that "insane behaviour" is often a game and play acting, known also as hysteria. (An Epidemic Of Hysterics, William St. Clare, 1787 AD) Click to View

In 1789 AD, J. C. Lavater trod down the center road of typical psychiatric quackery when he equated a persons personality and aptitude based on the shape for their face. Equally spectacularly stupid was phrenology (Spurzheim and Gall, 1815 AD) that determined a persons personality and aptitude based upon the shape and bumps of the scull cap. (Essays on physiognomy, J. C. Lavater, 1789 AD) Click to View

In 1792 AD, William Pargeter, Doctor and Chaplain, cured the insane by "catching the eye" of the patient. This was not hypnotism, but simple good, caring bedside manner. "He should be well acquainted with the pathology of the disease - should possess great acumen - a discerning and penetrating eye - much humanity and courtesy - an even disposition, and command of temper." He gives several successfully cured cases using this method that utilizes the element of surprise: "the physician's first visit should be by surprise". Pargeter criticized the torture and drugs that was taking place at the other mad houses like Bedlam. He gives this example: "The maniac was locked in a room, raving and exceedingly turbulent. ... I then suddenly unlocked the door - rushed into the room and caught his eye in an instant. The business was then done - he became peaceable in a moment." Of course this proves that insanity is not some chemical imbalance in the brain where a person is unable to control themselves. Rather, the "madness" can be turned on and turned off at the will of the "madman". Benjamin Rush would adopt "catching the eye" as a treatment in 1812. (Observations on Maniacal Disorders, William Pargeter, 1792 AD) Click to View

In 1803 AD, Johann Christian Reil, an anatomist, believed that insanity was caused by the mind and choices people made. He rejected a physical etiology of insanity. He practices all the moral treatments of his era. Reil coined the phrase, "non-injurious torture" with used the shock of fear and terror to cure insanity. Examples of how he induced terror include: seating an unsuspecting patient in a quiet place then firing cannons nearby; dressing up in a ghost costume and waking up soundly sleeping patients; suddenly throwing a patient into a pond who couldn't swim. Typical of all the mad doctors of his day, he used coercion and discipline to gain control over the insane. He would water board, pour hot wax on the body, burn the souls of the feet, surprise baths with live eels, recommend sex with prostitutes to elevate sexual insanity. But he most famous for his Cat piano (Katzenklavier) therapy where cats "be arranged in a row with their tails stretched behind them. And a keyboard outfitted with sharpened nails would be set over them. The struck cats would provide the sound. A fugue played on this instrument-particularly when the ill person is so placed that he cannot miss the expressions on their faces and the play of these animals-must bring Lot's wife herself from her fixed state into prudential awareness". The cat piano was a fictional instrument of folklore. Reil's clever and imaginative use of this instrument was a hyperbole designed to drive his point home that the madman was to be cured by appealing to the will of the individual. While other mad doctors of his day dreamed up treatments to cure insanity by fixing the broken body or brain, Reil's KlinkenKaten as we call it, represented a lightening rod that attracted attention to his method of curing broken souls. The KlinkenKaten was in fact pure satirical genius, because even today, it attracts enormous attention and curiosity. After the marvel, disgust and chortling in defense of the felines has come to an end, the mind is driven to wonder how such a device cured insanity. In this way Reil not only focused on what the cure was, as much as what it was not. We believe every chemical psychiatrist today, should have a KlinkenKaten in his office as a reminder that chemical imbalances are a myth and that it is the soul that needs repair, not the body. (Rhapsodies in the Application of the Psychological Method of Cure in Mental Alienation, Johann Christian Reil, 1803 AD) Click to View

In 1806 AD, Sir Charles Bell, Artist, describes how madness begins in the spirit moves to affect the body, seen in the facial expressions. "to lay a foundation for studying the influence of the mind upon the body" This is rather obvious, but in fact rejected by chemical psychiatry today, which views man as a pile of chemicals and the mind as a non-existent myth. Unlike Lavater (Essays on physiognomy, 1789 AD) who interpreted the bone structure of the face as a roadmap to intelligence and madness, Bell understood that a person whose spirit is continually under anxiety, will show up in the face through muscle and wrinkle patterns. Bell was a forerunner of body language expert, Tonya Reiman. As an artist Bell had visited Bedlam and was surprised to learn that some of his own stereotypes of the insane were wrong, before he visited. The visit gave his a whole new view of insanity. Written to coach painters, Bell's book opens a window into the etiology of madness just before the torture at Bedlam came to an end. He backs up his belief that the spirit has a direct effect upon the body by quoting Dr. James Beattie, "Descartes, and some other philosophers, have endeavoured to explain the physical cause which connects a human passion with its correspondent natural sign. They wanted to show, from the principles of motion, and of the animal economy, why fear, for example, produces trembling and paleness; why laughter attends the perception of incongruity; why anger inflames the blood, contracts the brows, and distends the nostrils; why shame is accompanied with blushing; why despair fixes the teeth together, distorts the joints, and disfigures the features; why scorn shoots out the lip; why sorrow overflows at the eyes ; why envy and jealousy look askance ; and why admiration raises the eyebrows and opens the mouth. Such inquiries may give rise to ingenious observation, but are not in other respects useful, because never attended with success. He who established the union of soul and body knows how and by what intermediate instruments the one operates upon the other. But to man this is a mystery unsearchable. We can only say that tears accompany sorrow, and the other natural signs their respective passions and sentiments, because such is the will of our Creator, and the law of the human constitution." It is important to remember that Bell viewed the facial expressions of emptiness or anger seen in a madman as the result of emotions felt in the spirit. (Essays on the Anatomy of Expression in Painting, Sir Charles Bell, 1806 AD) Click to View

In 1806 AD, Philippe Pinel, doctor for the Bicetre Asylum in France, gets our gold star of achievement of all the major mad house doctors. Pinel correctly understanding that insanity was a spiritual problem, not an organic/physical problem with the brain. Instead of drugs, he cured insanity by "moral treatments". "My faith in pharmaceutic preparations was gradually lessened, and my scepticism went at length so far, as to induce me never to have recourse to them, until moral remedies had completely failed" His views were in fact what church preachers had understood since before the 1500's. Pinel describes the treatments practiced at Bedlam as a, "depleting system of treatment to a state of extreme debility or absolute idiotism", his views were remarkable correct and chemical psychiatrists of today should learn at his feet. D. D. Davis, stated in the introduction that "The inestimable importance of moral management is the great key note sounded by the present author almost in every subdivision of his treatise ... for subduing the extravagances and arresting the hallucinations of the insane" Pinel's moral treatments cured people in: "chaos and confusion ... gloomy and desponding melancholy ... furious ... perpetual delirium ... violent sallies of maniacal fury ... stupid ideotism and imbecility." He rejects the etiology that brain legions caused insanity and identifies this error as the reason doctors of his time also viewed the insane as incurable. This is exactly what we see today when chemical psychiatrists view insanity as a chemical imbalance in the brain and you labeled for life as a mental biologic misfit. He reveals his "great and invaluable secret in the management of well regulated hospitals" is understanding that insanity is not an incurable organic disease, but a curable condition caused by the human spirit "nervous excitement" which he said affects both body and the way people think: "affects not the system physically by increasing muscular power and action only, but likewise the mind". He describes his "moral treatment" as such: "we trace the happy effects of intimidation, without severity; of oppression, without violence; and of triumph, without outrage. How different from the system of treatment, which is yet adopted in too many hospitals, where the. domestics and keepers are permitted to use any violence that the most wanton caprice, or the most sanguinary cruelty may dictate."... "I saw a great number of maniacs assembled together, and submitted to a regular system of discipline. ... I then discovered, that insanity was curable in many instances, by mildness of treatment and attention to the state of the mind exclusively, and when coercion was indispensible, that it might be very effectually applied without corporal indignity. As a Frenchman, he gives the credit for the "experimental" concept of "moral treatment" to the English: "I Have given a sufficient number of examples to illustrate the importance which I attach to the moral treatment of insanity. The credit of this system of practice has been hitherto almost exclusively awarded to England." Penel was a humoral doctor and did believe a bit of quacky stuff. He rejected phrenology in all cases of insanity "the heads of maniacs are not characterised by any peculiarity of conformation", although he inconclusively wondered if physiognomy might explain "idiots" with diminished brain capacity: "double the ordinary density. From the extraordinary thickness of this skull, it would be easy to calculate how much the internal capacity of the cranium was diminished". Finally, Echoing the fact that even today there are no medical tests that can detect insanity, Pinel notes that there is no real test for insanity back in his day either: "It may be thought astonishing, that in an object of so much importance as that of ascertaining the actual existence of mental derangement, there is yet no definite rule to guide us in so delicate an examination. In fact, there appears no other method than what is adopted in other departments of natural history: that of ascertaining whether the facts which are observed belong to any one of the established varieties of mental derangement, or to any of its complications with other disorders." Philippe Pinel would rise up today and oppose the chemical psychiatrists who believe insanity is a chemical imbalance of the brain, that insanity is incurable. He would object to labeling the insane as biological misfits for life because it unnecessarily robs the soul of all hope. (A Treatise on Insanity, Philippe Pinel, 1806 AD) Pinel's table demonstrates his non-biological etiology of insanity Click to View Click to View

In 1811 AD, Joseph Mason Cox, doctor, popularized a form of torture that cured insanity called "the swing". John Monro, (1758 AD) used "vomits" to cure insanity: "vomiting is infinitely preferable to any other". Cox invented the swing as a way to induce vomiting without the use of drugs (emetics). The swing became a treatment of choice for 100 years in various. Many different machines were invented to spin people into motion sickness so they would vomit. This was a proven method of curing insanity. It worked by making people feel miserable and break down their will to engage in "insane behaviors". Cox described the swing as, "both a moral [discipline] and medical mean in the treatment of maniacs." It was widely used and believed to be the preferred treatment to cure insanity: "Though we cannot accurately explain in what way the best remedies promote relief in madness, yet we have the most unequivocal proofs that those which occasion a degree of vertigo, often contribute to correct the morbid state of the intellect, and no one of them is so well calculated to produce this effect as the swing." The swing spun an insane, uncontrollable and obstinate person in a straitjacket until motion sickness, vomiting, unconsciousness and shock set in. When they began begging to get out of the machine, they would be asked if they would obey orders. The person would then be put to bed and sleep until they recovered. Often the person would become obstinate again and they would be put back in the swing again only to repeat the process until full compliance was attained. Citing a specific case, Cox says, "all his promises were forgotten ... next day the swing was repeated as before ... entreated to be relieved, and repeated his former promise ... [next day] his former mental peculiarities soon after returning, the swing was prepared, and the necessary steps taken for its employment, but rather than repeat the ride in the whirligig, as he termed it, he submitted entirely to my wishes, and, with some occasional returns of obstinacy and disinclination to persist in the remedies I prescribed, I had the pleasure to see him gradually improve till he advanced to perfect reason." Another case of an insane man put in the swing: "I was determined to try the effects of the circulating swing as a last resource, into which he was placed as an inanimate lump, with his eyes shut; after a few circumvolutions one eye was observed to be occasionally opened, and at length both, a degree of alarm seemed next excited, then nausea, and retching to vomit; the motion was then suspended, and he was consulted as to his unwillingness to comply with my requisitions, but he still refusing, the gyrations were renewed, when the former effects were soon obvious, and the motion being increased, full vomiting ensued; he now begged to be liberated, and promised compliance with my wishes; he was taken out, put to bed, and slept for some hours, when food was offered, but, as usual, refused; he was reminded of his promise, and threatened with an immediate repetition of the swing; this succeeded, and for some days the prognosis seemed more favourable, but the reluctance to eating returned, and recourse was again had to the swing, two or three times, with the former success, till at length he yielded entirely to my wishes, and by very simple management, both mind and body were at length perfectly restored, and I have the pleasure of knowing that he continues well, and I am confident owes his life and reason to the swing." Like Patrick Blair's water treatment in 1725 AD, the swing was a similar form of torture that brought about true cures of insanity. What is clear from all this that the cure worked because insanity is not a chemical imbalance in the brain or a bodily disease. It is a spiritual choice made by the person. The chair would cure a good many in today's mental hospitals but civil liberties violations would not allow it. (Practical observations on insanity, Joseph Mason Cox, 1811 AD) Click to View

In 1812 AD, Benjamin Rush, a doctor known as the "father of modern psychiatry", believed that madness was caused by blood vessels in the brain and cured it by threatening to kill the insane if they did not cure themselves! Rush suffers from "scholastic schizophrenia" because he devotes an entire section to, "The causes which induce intellectual derangement, by acting upon the body through the medium of the mind". From an etiological viewpoint, it is clear that Rush believed that the human spirit through emotion, feelings and guilt for sin actually "induced" insanity. So in one breath he says insanity is caused by blood vessels and in the other the human spirit. The only way to cure Rush of his "scholastic schizophrenia" is to suggest that the human spirit affected the blood vessels in the brain, which then caused madness. Of course his medical views were quackery because blood vessels in the brain have nothing to do with insanity. So lets take a closer look at the hero and founder of chemical psychiatry that today believes insanity is caused by mythical chemical imbalances of the brain that are as much quackery as Rush's idea that blood vessels cause madness! Rush believed that voluntary sins like murder, theft, lying and drunkenness, progressed into a disease where the person committed these sins involuntarily the same way a spasm affects a muscle. He concluded that these kinds of sins, became involuntary, they became a disease which needed a medical doctor to treat. Rush therefore believed that insanity was outside a person's will and that they are "not cognizable by law". This is the earliest forms of the insanity laws we see today, where everyday sins are called "diseases of the will". [insanity] acts without a motive, by a kind of involuntary power. Exactly the same thing takes place in this disease of the will, that occurs when the arm or foot is moved convulsively without an act of the will, and even in spite of it ... I have called it MORAL DERANGEMENT. I have selected those two symptoms of this disease (for they are not vices) from its other morbid effects, in order to rescue persons affected with them from the arm of the law, and to render them the subjects of the kind and lenient hand of medicine. But there are several other ways, in which this disease in the will discovers itself, that are not cognizable by law. I shall describe but two of them. These are, LYING and DRINKING. Because the insane were not acting on free will, Rush set up "Sober House", (for drunks) where they could be "held against their will". Incredibly, he reasoned: "Let it not be said, that confining such persons in a hospital would be an infringement upon personal liberty, incompatible with the freedom of our governments." He was fully aware that many viewed insanity as a spiritual problem that affects the body: "I know it has been said in favour of madness being an ideal disease, or being seated primarily in the mind". But he considered all the medical views of madness and rejected them all: "liver, spleen, intestines, nerves, Madness has been placed exclusively in the mind" in favor of, "the cause of madness is seated primarily in the blood-vessels of the brain". From autopsies, he noted that mad people had brains that were "hardness and dryness ... softness ... enlargement or reduction of the skull bone thickness." This echoes the views of Giovanni Morgagni, who in 1761 AD concluded from autopsies, that madness caused "considerable hardness in the brain" Amazing what you can conclude by poking your finger in the brain of dead madmen! Rush notes specific spiritual causes of madness induced by the human spirit: "Intense study", "frequent and rapid transition of the mind from one subject to another", "constant exercises of the imagination in poets", memorization: "undue labour in committing his [clergyman] sermons to memory", "Extravagant joy produced madness", " Charles the Sixth, of France, was deranged from a paroxysm of anger", " Terror has often induced madness in persons who have escaped from fire, earthquakes and shipwreck", " Fear often produced madness", " Distress often produced this disease", " Public humiliation: "A player destroyed himself in Philadelphia, in the year 1803, soon after being hissed off the stage", " Homesickness: "Swiss soldiers sometimes languish and die from that form of madness which is brought on by absence from their native country", " Africans become insane, ... soon after they enter upon the toils of perpetual slavery in the West Indies", " Hundreds have become insane in consequence of unexpected losses of money", " clergyman in Maryland became insane in consequence of having permitted some typographical errors to escape in a sermon which he published upon the death of general Washington", "Several instances of madness, induced by the cruel or unjust conduct of schoolmasters and guardians", "persons who destroyed themselves immediately after drawing high prizes in a lottery", " A conscience burdened with guilt, whether real or imaginary, is a frequent cause of madness", " Intellectual derangement is more common from mental than corporeal causes. Of 113 patients in the Bicetre Hospital in France, at one time, Mr. Pinel tells us 34 were from domestic misfortunes, 24 from disappointments in love, 30 from the distressing events of the French Revolution, and 25 from what he calls fanaticism. Of course all the above proves that Rush was very aware that the choices of the human spirit, guilt, sin and circumstances were the real etiology of madness. He then makes observation as to who is predisposed to insanity: "A predisposition to madness is said to be connected with dark coloured hair", " Women ... are more predisposed to madness than men", " Certain occupations predispose to madness more than others. Pinel says, poets, painters, sculptors and musicians, are most subject to it", " mechanics to be more affected with madness than merchants and members of the learned professions.", " Certain climates predispose to madness. - It is very uncommon in such as are uniformly warm", And last but not least, "Different religions, and different tenets of the same religion, are more or less calculated to induce a predisposition to madness. ... There are certain tenets held by several protestant sects of Christians which predispose the mind to derangement". In a section called, "Remedies of Mania" he spells out his cures and controls for the insane including his famous tranquillzer chair that calmed down the madman and relieved the stress on the blood vessels in his brain: "Confinement by means of a strait waistcoat, or of a chair, which I have called a tranquillzer." The Tranquilizer Chair forced the person to calm down by restricting movement. It indeed worked by bring the unruly into submission the same way Cesar Millan, the Dog Whisperer, pins a violent pit bull to the ground on its side until it surrenders. Rush further suggested: "Privation of their customary pleasant food [no pizza and cigarettes]", "Pouring cold water under the coat sleeves, so that it may descend into the arm pits, and down the trunk of the body. [probably more effective on women who make you roll the windows up on your car and turn the heat up, than men...]" "Low DIET, consisting wholly of vegetables, and those of the least nutritious nature." "Salivation induced by mercury with calomel (teething powder) was seen as a "cure of hypochondriac derangement". "We come next to mention the remedies that are proper to act upon the body through the medium of the mind: absurdity, folly, cruelty ... music ... terror ... fear, accompanied with pain, and a sense of shame" In a spectacular grand finale of cures from the Father of modern psychiatry himself, when all else fails threaten to murder the insane! On page 181 Rush gives this account: "If all these modes of punishment should fail of their intended effects, it will be proper to resort to the fear of death. Mr. Higgins proved the efficacy of this fear, in completely subduing a certain Sarah T , whose profane and indecent conversation and loud vociferations, offended and disturbed the whole hospital. He had attempted in vain by light punishments and threats, to put a stop to them. At length he went to her cell, from whence he conducted her, cursing and swearing as usual, to a large bathing tub, in which he placed her. "Now, (said he) prepare for death. I will give you time enough to say your prayers, after which I intend to drown you, by plunging your head under this water." She immediately uttered a prayer, such as became a dying person. Upon discovering this sign of penitence, Mr. Higgins obtained from her a promise of amendment. From that time no profane or indecent language, nor noises of any kind, were heard in her cell." It is clear that Rush, followed the practice of the day to torture the insane into submission as was currently in practice at Bedlam, for he says, "By the proper application of these mild and terrifying modes of punishment, chains will seldom, and the whip never, be required to govern mad people. I except only from the use of the latter, those cases in which a sudden and unprovoked assault of their physicians or keepers may render a stroke or two of a whip, or of the hand, a necessary measure of self-defense." So although Rush believed madness was caused by brain vessels, we today, know he was wrong. His observations about how the human spirit can induce madness though emotion and his corporal methods of controlling and curing the insane are good and valid. Clearly these effective treatments would never be used today for a long list of obvious reasons, but the fact remains that they did work! Modern chemical psychiatry believes insanity is cause by a chemical imbalance but cannot account for how such "moral treatments" cured the insane. These "moral cures" prove it is not a bodily disease but a spiritual choice of freewill moral agents. So this is the "hero of modern psychiatry" with his Tranquillizer Chair and threats of murder and bloated brain blood vessels! (Medical Inquiries and Observations Upon the Diseases of the Mind, Benjamin Rush 1812 AD) Click to View Click to View Click to View Click to View

In 1813 AD, Samuel Tuke, minister for Quakers, devoted his life to the Retreat for the insane at York. Although he was unsure if the cause of insanity was spiritual/mind, or physical/body, but he strongly leaned towards the spiritual/mind etiology. "If we adopt the opinion, that the disease originates in the mind, applications made immediately to it, are obviously the most natural; and the most likely to be attended with success. If on the contrary, we conceive that mind is incapable of injury or destruction, and that, in all cases of apparent mental derangement, some bodily disease, though unseen and unknown, really exists, we shall still readily admit... In the present imperfect state of our knowledge, of the very interesting branch of the healing art, which relates to the cure of insanity; and unable as we generally are to ascertain its true seat in the complicated labyrinths. He made a powerful disclaimer against those who believed insanity was a physical disease: "We are, however, far from adopting it as a universal maxim, that maniacal symptoms are aggravated by bodily disorder." Most important, he believed the insane never lost their self control or freewill in action. "that madness, in all its forms, is capable of entire control". Unlike the tortures that took place at other mad houses, Tuke's treatments were kind and gentle, like warm baths: "The power of judicious kindness over this unhappy class of society, is much greater than is generally imagined." "The comfort of the patients is therefore considered of the highest importance, in a curative point of view." He highly questioned the standard practices of the day: bleeding, blisters, seatons, evacuants, cold baths, although he did practice them all at times as a lasts resort in isolated cases. He understood the importance of a good nights sleep and recommended lots of food, rather than opium: "difficulty of obtaining sleep for maniacal patients, and the unpleasant effects frequently produced by the use of opium ... however, a liberal supper would perhaps prove the best anodyne." He, like Pinel, used coercion, but much less than the other mad houses. The famous quote that Tuke "never allowed the use of chains" is misleading, since he invented a bed sized strait jacket with leather straps for all limbs, chest and waist to confine out of control people. "At each end is a leather strap one foot long, one inch and a half broad, and a quarter of an inch thick ; with a buckle fastened at the joining of the web and strap". So while Tuke refused to use chains of steel, but invented "chains of leather". In addition to straitjacket and confinement, Tuke used fear and intimidation with rewards and punishments for good and bad behaviour. He also used peer pressure to humiliate the insane into submission. He did not try to change the delusional thinking of the insane, but he expected them to pull their weight and behave like those who were not delusional. This model of functional delusion, is like saying: Let the delusional wives believe what they want as long as they do the dishes... and the delusional men can believe their delusions, as long as they go to work each day to support their families. The fundamental concepts Tuke used in the treatment of the insane were their inherent ability to exercise self control because insanity was a spiritual problem, not bodily disease. He noted that the insane die much younger than the general population: "melancholic patients seldom live long ... many die before thirty or forty". All of Tuke's treatments (attending church, kindness, coercion, warm baths, humiliation) pointed to the fact that he correctly suspected insanity was not a bodily disease, but caused by life choices and circumstances. (Description Of The Retreat For Insane, Samuel Tuke, 1813 AD) Click to View

In May 1814 AD, the case of torture and confinement of William Norris led to the dismissal of the pharmacist and psychiatrist at the Bedlam asylum a year later! "William Norris, aged fifty-five, in the apparatus by which he had been confined for at least ten years (evidence of the exact length of time was conflicting) when he was discovered in May 1814 by Edward Wakefield, MP, and a party of gentlemen in 'one of the cells on the lower gallery' in Bethlem Hospital. Some weeks later he was freed but died in February the following year from 'a very considerable disease of the lungs; a consumption' according to Sir William Lawrence who conducted the autopsy. This etching was made from the original drawing executed on the spot on 7 June 1814 at Wakefield's request and exhibited by him to The Select Committee of the House of Commons appointed to consider of provision being made for the better regulation of madhouses, 1815. The discovery of this horrible example of restraint and neglect roused public feeling and set the machinery in motion which ultimately led to the dismissal of Bethlem Hospital's apothecary and physician." (300 years of Psychiatry, Richard Hunter, 1963, p 695) Click to View Click to View

In 1815 AD, Franz Joseph Gall and Johann Gaspar Spurzheim came up with a new and improved version of the junk-pop psychology theories of Lavater's physiognomy, who taught the shape of a persons skull determined their mental abilities. Phrenology taught that the shape and size of the joints between the 22 bones of the human skull, determined all mental and personality traits. "he [Gall] observed any mechanician, musician, sculptor, draughtsman, mathematician, endowed with such or such faculty from birth, he examined their heads to try whether he might point out a particular development of some cerebral part. In this way, he found in a short time, in musicians and mechanics, the development of particular cerebral parts. ... individuals who from birth were stubborn, proud, courageous, thieves, murderers, religious &c., and if he found that the size of some cerebral part was corresponding to these actions, he called these parts of the brain, organ of pride, of firmness, of courage, of theft, of murder, of religion .. . He [Gall] was also bold enough to speak to every person in whose head he observed any distinct protruberance" Phrenology was later popularized by Samuel Wells in 1891 AD. This tradition of quack psychiatry continues today with the God Helmet in 2002 AD, where magnetic impulses on the side of the are supposed to generate spiritual experiences in the wearer. Poor gullible atheist Richard Dawkins actually tried on the God Helmet. How else could he expect to see God? So the stupid junk science of phrenology has a dark tradition that continues into modern chemical psychiatry. Gall taught that since a person's mental and moral characteristics are determined by the shape of the skull he was born with, criminals really couldn't be blamed for their crimes. This thinking is seen today in the insanity plea and chemical evolutionary psychiatrists. "In criminology he advocated reform by re-education rather than punishment and suggested at a time when the criminal was thought to be made and not born, that there were degrees of responsibility proportionate to innate propensities which could also be determined by craniological examination. In this he anticipated much of Lombroso's work at the end of the century as well as the concept of irresistible impulse and diminished responsibility." (300 years of Psychiatry, Richard Hunter, 1963, p 711) (The Physiognomical System of Franz Joseph Gall Johann Gaspar Spurzheim, phrenologists, phrenology, 1815 AD) Click to View

In 1818 AD, William Saunders Hallaran, Doctor, described the use of the swing in the Lunatic Asylum of Cork, England as "a safe and very effectual remedy for the description of maniacs". He fully credits Joseph Mason Cox, 1811 AD with the invention which induced the vomiting without (emetics). Remember that John Monro raved about vomits as a cure for insanity. "The circulating swing erected in our asylum, appears to be improvement on the model suggested by Doctor Cox. It is worked by a windlass, and capable of being revolved a hundred times in a minute" ... "from repeated trials, I can confidently declare, that its efficacy, to the extent alleged by Doctor Cox, appears to be incontrovertibly ascertained" ... "This method of subduing furious maniacs, has succeeded in an admirable manner". Hallaran was the primary doctor for a major asylum and testified boldly that the swing cured the insane to his surprise! "The advantages to be derived from the swing, in the intermitting form of insanity, cannot be too highly estimated. Several proofs of its superior efficacy have come within my observation, where, immediately on the approach of the paroxysm, the symptoms had nearly subsided on the first effort." The key was to bring those who are out of control, into submission: "I have generally found patients to become at once so subservient to my wishes, as willingly to take any medicine prescribed." ... "inflexible maniacs already referred to; on whom no influence can be exerted sufficient to effect a medical purpose ... I have generally found patients to become at once so subservient to my wishes, as willingly to take any medicine prescribed." The common practice of torture in mad houses of the 18-19th centuries included the swing, bloodletting, vomits, isolation and chains. These methods indeed cured the insane in the same way a spanking fixes the bad behaviour of a two year old. The chair was the new treatment of choice because it induced vomits without drugs. And it worked, proving that mental illness is not a bodily disease, but a moral choice of the madman within his power to control and change. Incurables were those who did not respond to any known treatment, yet the chair cured them! "In several cases of continued insanity of long standing, where the swing had been employed as a last resource, I have been most agreeably surprised at the unexpected alteration which was effected after a few trials. In some who, from their disposition to violence, and who, from necessity, were closely confined to solitary apartments, it had so far succeeded, as not only to render them easy of access, but also to induce kind and gentle manners; effecting in the end, the most willing service in the daily occupations of cleansing, and attendance on the sick." The insane have always been in full control of their own actions and the chair is an effective method of aversion therapy that works! Later, Sir Alexander Morison, 1828 AD, would also adopt the swing which induced motion sickness and brought about compliance from the insane. (Practical Observations on the Causes and Cure of Insanity, William Saunders Hallaran, 1818 AD) Click to View

1818 AD, Urbane Metcalf, a Patient at Bedlam, gives a shocking first hand account of what it was like to be "treated" for insanity at Bedlam. He was a patient before and after Parliament fired the doctors and staff at Bedlam in 1815 AD because he had reported how a keeper named Blackburn murdered a patient named Fowler: "Fowler, who one morning was put in the bath by Blackburn, who ordered a patient then bathing, to hold him down, he did so, and the consequence was the death of Fowler, and though this was known to the then officers it was hushed up; shameful". He describes a keeper named Davis as a, "cruel, unjust and drunken man, and for many years as keeper secretly practised the greatest cruelties to those under his care". He described another keeper named Rodbird, that he is as "an idle, skulking, pilfering scoundrel". He describes how the butcher stole from the patients their portion of food for personal gain: "Mr. Vickery the cutter [butcher], has it in his power to defraud the patients in many instances...". Metcalf stands as the final witness that helped forever change the kinds of brutal physical torture and neglect that existed in the largest English insane asylums for over 100 years. (The Interior Of Bethlem Hospital, Urbane Metcalf, 1818 AD) Click to View

In 1818 AD, Johann Christian August Heinroth, Doctor and Christian, invented the term "psychosomatic". He clearly stated that insanity was not a bodily illness, but a spiritual choice that violates the conscience that is caused by sin and selfishness: "They [mental illnesses] all have a common starting point, a main principle to which they are subordinated: selfishness". "This presents a difficult problem indeed for the world-man and the Self-man, who, till now, has been accustomed to live and seek his consciousness in these two elements alone. Nevertheless, if the voice of his conscience has indeed come awake, he will have no other choice. He must either live in permanent dissatisfaction, permanently divided against himself and his destiny, or else must obey the demands of his conscience, which is his only means of preserving unity and harmony within himself. His only other course is to deliberately kill his conscience, and thus gain apparent peace of mind bought at the price of self-stupefaction." He then goes on to reject all the humoral the causes that most other doctors believed caused insanity. This is remarkably way ahead of his time for a doctor: "The views held on this subject, from antiquity to our own days, are almost ridiculous: black and yellow bile; the melancholic juices in general; the darkened spirits of life; malignant demons; the moon; excessive elasticity of brain moisture; diseased congestion of the cerebral vessels; sthenia or asthenia (excitement and collapse) of the brain (even though these two ideas are not without importance); each of these has at one or the other time been held to constitute the immediate cause, and the immediate cause was usually confused with the disease itself." Heinroth adopts the Christian view that man has a distinct body and soul: "Our inner being, or our inner I, is our soul, while our external Self is our body." Heinroth openly discusses the fact that many doctors believe that insanity is a bodily illness. He rejects this entirely: "A great controversy centers on the question whether the various forms of morbid conditions of the psyche originate and have their seat in the life of the soul, or in the body, namely, in an overexcited, deranged, decayed, disorganized brain ... there is still a tendency to attribute the cause of mental disturbances to the bodily rather than to the spiritual side. To this we have already answered: the body alone is nothing, it has no significance in itself, but only as related to the soul or to the spirit in the wider meaning of the word, since in this life it is the body which is the carrier, supporter, and tool of the soul and of the spirit. This is most clearly indicated by human consciousness, without which there is no human life; and who would contradict his own consciousness?" Heinroth understood that often, there was nothing physically wrong with the insane. "The complete concept of mental disturbances includes permanent loss of freedom or loss of reason, independent and for itself, even when bodily health is apparently unimpaired, which manifests itself as a disease or a diseased condition, and which comprises the domains of temperament, diseases of spirit and will." Heinroth believes that the insane have brought it on themselves by their own choices: "A man is not an animal ... his consciousness, his reason, lead him towards the Deity. That this so rarely happens is his own fault; and this guilt gives rise to all evils that beset him, including the disturbances of the soul." He places the blame for those who are insane squarely upon themselves, their personal choices and self deception: "Anyone imprisoned by passion is unfree and unhappy. The man who is fettered by passion deceives himself about external objects and about himself. This illusion, and the consequent error, is called madness. Madness is a disease of the reason and not of the soul, but it originates from the passion within the soul." Heinroth understood that the mind can make the body sick and the body can affect the way one feels, he believed that in the majority of cases, insanity was caused by the soul alone. "no longer inquire if the soul disturbances are bodily affections (we fully agree that they cannot take place without a bodily affection, but just as firmly deny that their source is in the body) ... For the same reason, the totality of mental disturbances must not be denoted as diseases of the soul organ, because even though the entire body, which is certainly a soul organ, is able to give rise to mental diseases, in the great majority of cases it is not the body but the soul itself from which mental disturbances directly and primarily originate, and it is these disturbances which then affect the bodily organs indirectly." ... "For if we tentatively assume that the body is the materialized soul which has entered the darkness of corporeality, we firstly facilitate the explanation of the mutual interaction between body and soul: for since the body was born of the soul and thus is a part of it, the soul can act on the body, and the body, which is of the same origin, can react on the soul." He states that sin is the etiology of madness and that being insane is actually a sinful state itself like "living common law". Thus he sees all insane as lost souls to the Devil. It important to remember that he also rejected demon possession as a cause of insanity: "A man who stumbles about, with much pain and vanity, in passion and in madness, leads a foolish life, and folly is the sum total of the activity of passion and madness. However, all action originates from the will, and if this will follows and panders only to the compulsion of passion and to the illusions of madness, while ignoring the voice of the as yet undeveloped reason, that is, the conscience, for the sake of freedom and independence, or the voice of matured reason with its clear consciousness of a life of duty, we have a state of recognized sin, and if it is continued and becomes a constant habit, it is vice. ... All three are states of slavery; but while the birth of passion and madness is not voluntary, vice originates from a free will which has made a free choice against good and which has passed to the opposite side in defiance of the call of conscience. Those living in passion and madness merely fail to conduct their lives according to the rule of good (are godless), but those living actively in vice worship evil (are sons of Satan)." Heinroth realizes that his view (evil causes of insanity and the state of insanity itself is evil) is rejected by his fellow "mad doctors" of his day: "Thus, both the inclination and the stimulus, and their product, must be definitely recognized as evil. This consideration is completely ignored by conventional views on the morbid conditions of the psyche." Heirnroth, as a Christian, sees a loving God calling a rebellious man to himself. When man on the basis of his own free will rejects God, sometimes the result is insanity. This is the foundation of his etiology of madness. It is not the fault of the Creator, Who communicated His nature to us and then left us free, but the fault of the man who voluntarily abandons this nature. ... The man who scorns this repeated summons and is content with and stays only in the non-Divine existence and life will become enslaved by the non-Divine and lose his free will; ... A prey to passions, madness, and vice, the creative processes will be impeded, halted, and forced back in many different ways. Thus, ... we arrive at the concept of a disturbed mental life, or, in short, disturbance of the soul. Heinroth recognizes that not all sinners destined for hell are insane. He describes a group of "lost sinners" who are on their way to insanity, though they still retain free will: "All passions, follies, and vices, all prejudice, all meanness, all malice, all wickedness, all dishonesty of individuals and the masses, and all effects, results, and products of perverted activities, and perverted life in general, are just so many spurs to evil, so many weights imposed on the soul to pull it down into the kingdom of gravity, darkness, and slavery. ... But unless a powerful stimulus gains sway over this sick soul and pulls it into the sphere of an actual disturbance of the soul, only the inclination to evil will persist, and the life of this individual, though joyless, dreary, and oppressed, will not be devoid of consciousness and free will." Heinroth does not believe church preachers should be involved in curing insanity. His logic is this. Since insanity is a states of "unfreedom" the "talking cures" preachers provide are of no use. This is why all his treatments are physical moral treatments and punishments. "The clerics, as the recognized shepherds of the soul, are just as unfit for the tasks". But he also defrocked all the atheistic chemical psychiatrists of today who are absolutely ignorant, or violently opposed to God, Christianity, the Bible and the spiritual outlook of man. "It is the purpose of the doctor of the soul to bring the mentally disturbed, whose inner life is totally darkened, back to light. But how can he do this if he himself does not live in light? It is necessary to sharply emphasize this point of view of the doctor of the soul. Whoever cannot make this point of view his own must give up the name and the power and the business of a doctor of the soul." Heinroth takes the unusual position that although man becomes mad on his own free will choices, once full insanity has set in, the man becomes "unfree" and is no longer to be held responsible for his crimes. This is the earliest concept of the insanity plea in Germany. About 50 years later, the insanity plea was first used in England. "But we must not forget that in a true mental disturbance each of these disorders must occur to an extent equivalent to complete, permanent loss of freedom ... For the moment at which unfreedom makes its appearance and clearly manifests itself by unnatural, i.e., unreasonable, actions, behavior, words, glances, or gestures, that is the moment of this procreation. From this moment on, the man has lost claim to the kingdom of freedom, to the kingdom of the spirits, at least for as long as he remains in this cycle. He is an automaton: his thinking, his sensation, his activity, proceed in a mechanical manner, no matter whether it appears as if they were determined by himself. They are in fact determined by urgent impulses only, if they are controlled at all." He argues that the murderer who is insane cannot be held responsible for reason of insanity: "A murderous or a predatory attack, or a public insult and abuse can set a man entirely beside himself; and this is confusion in the highest degree. ... This condition is unfree, and a man cannot be held responsible for the consequences thereof, except if it can be proved that the condition was self-inflicted, or else that he could have prevented it from arising. ... The state of a compulsive urge occurs if somebody, without being confused, is still unable to resist the urge to commit an illegal action. The urge itself is called compulsive, since it is not voluntary but is guided by a compulsive stimulus. Heinroth states that the mad doctor alone determines if a person is "unfree" and can invoke the insanity plea. "This will be easy for the physician to determine once he has observed the type and the degree of the unfree state." Heinroth has 9 type of insanity, all of which are unfree: "Insanity, Dementia, Rage, Melancholia, Idiocy, Apathy, Insane melancholia, Confusion, Timidity" Finally, Heinroth employs all the forms of "moral treatment" that all the other mad houses were using. He gives great details on how to run an asylum and specifies a building that could be viewed in hind sight as a torture chamber: "A special building must be set aside for the physical treatment of the mentally disturbed. This building should have a special bathing section, with all kinds of baths, showers, douches, and immersion vessels. It must also have a special correction and punishment room with all the necessary equipment, including the Cox swing (or, better, rotating machine), Reil's fly-wheel, pulleys, punishment chair, Langermann's cell, etc." (Textbook of Disturbances of Mental Life and Soul, Johann Heinroth, 1818 AD) Click to View

In 1828 AD, Sir Alexander Morison, doctor, illustrated two torture machines widely used between 1725 AD and 1850 AD to cure the insane: Water treatment and the Swing. The fact they were so widely used and indeed cured the insane, is historic proof that mental illness is not a bodily disease or chemical imbalance in the brain, but a spiritual choice made by the "patient". (Cases of Mental Disease, with Practical Observations, Sir Alexander Morison, 1828 AD) Click to View

In 1835 AD, James Cowles Prichard, Doctor, pioneered , the idea of "moral insanity" (to the detriment of mankind) so that criminals would not pay for their crimes. As the term "moral insanity" infers, a disease of the body causes someone to commit immoral acts (crimes) without any traces of delusion, paranoia or schizophrenia. "I have described a form of mental derangement, under the title of moral insanity, consisting in disorder of the moral affections and propensities, without any symptom of illusion or error impressed on the understanding". In a page out of modern chemical psychiatry, Prichard ascribes as many different kinds of moral insanity as sins listed in the Bible: "the varieties of moral insanity are perhaps as numerous as the modifications of feeling or passion in the human mind" So Prichard has moral insanity varieties like "theft", "murder", "ponzi stock market scheming" etc. Prichard, like psychiatrists today, believed that insane people were forced to commit crimes like mal-adjusted chemical robots: "A propensity to theft is often a feature of moral insanity, and sometimes it is its leading if not the sole characteristic . . . There is reason to believe that this species of insanity has been the real source of moral phenomena of an anomalous and unusual kind, and of certain perversions of natural inclination which excite the greatest disgust and abhorrence" Prichard believes that it is the disease forcing the sinful behaviour upon an otherwise model citizen: "There are instances of insanity in which the whole disease, or at least the whole of its manifestations, has consisted in a liability to violent fits of anger breaking out without cause" He has his eye on murderers who he believes are forced by disease to kill: "Various cases are on record in which homicides and other atrocious acts have been committed by persons of morose and wayward habits, given up to sullen abstraction, or otherwise differing in their propensities and dispositions from the ordinary character of mankind." We do not understand why psychiatrists are always wanting to excuse sinful behaviour on the basis of insanity. "In this form of moral derangement the disordered condition of the mind displays itself in a want of self-government, in continual excitement, an unusual expression of strong feelings, in thoughtless and extravagant conduct". Prichard's primary goal is to promote the insanity plea so that physically sick people driven to criminal activity, are excused: He describes his desire for criminals to be excused: "lessening culpability", "maintain a plea on the ground of insanity in this country, with a view to the removing culpability in a criminal accusation" and "abolishing all capital punishments". We see exactly this today in case after case, like Andrea Yates who drowned her 5 kids because she was diagnosed with postpartum depression. Satan is behind this trend of excusing sinners from the consequences of their sins. (A Treatise on Insanity and Other Disorders Affecting the Mind, James Cowles Prichard, 1835 AD) Click to View Click to View

In 1843 AD, James Braid, doctor, discovered "hypnotism" and coined the word. He believed he could cure many diseases including Epilepsy; Rheumatism; Paralysis and hysteria. His greatest successes were with hysteria: "The most striking cases . . . for illustrating the value of the hypnotic mode of treatment, are cases of hysteric paralysis . . . In such cases, by . . . substituting a salutary idea of vigour . . . the patients are found to have acquired . . . voluntary power over their hitherto paralysed limbs, as if by a magical spell or witchcraft." Obviously hysterics are the only one's who the power of the will can change through hypnotism. Braid was attracted to Franz Anton Mesmer, with his claims of being able to transmit animal magnetism to sick people as a cure. Braid was able to prove that Mesmer's claims at "mesmerizing" people was "a system of collusion or delusion, or of excited imagination, sympathy, or imitation". He correctly understood that Mesmer was merely hypnotizing people, "I still consider the condition of the nervous system induced by both modes to be at least analogous". A lot of people today think that the hypnotist possesses the power to control another's actions at will, but in fact, Braid correctly rejected this claim not only of Mesmer, but of hypnotism: "not at all on the volition, or passes of the operator, throwing out a magnetic fluid, or exciting into activity some mystical universal fluid or medium". In other words, there is no power being transmitted by the hypnotist to the person being hypnotized. Instead, Braid understood, we know today, that people hypnotize themselves. The two key concepts required to hypnotize anyone is the belief that the hypnotist can hypnotize, and a submissive, suggestive personality or disposition at the time. Hypnosis is seen to day with charismatics and pentecostals who are "slain in the spirit" by the "powerful man of God". They falsely believe he is transmitting the power of the Holy Spirit and they therefore fall backwards and "do the dead chicken" on the floor for a couple of minutes. It is learned behaviour and the "slain" are obeying the hypnotist's command! Slain in the spirit has occult origin and is seen in many other non-Christian religions. In the first century the apostles performed true miracles and imparted genuine power of the Holy Spirit through the laying on of their hands. (Acts 8:4-21; 19:1-7) Modern hypnotists know they have not power, but often make the audience believe otherwise. For example, the fabulous hypnotist Reveen, will picture himself with a spell-casting hand as though he is zapping the person being hypnotized with some good old Mesmer magic! (Neurypnology; the Rationale of Nervous Sleep, Hypnotism, Hypnosis, James Braid, 1843 AD) Click to View

In 1853 AD, Robert Brudenell Carter, world renounced ophthalmologist, wrote his first book on hysteria and faking insanity. Having concluded much of insanity was pure faking, he lost interest in psychiatry and specialized in eye surgery. It is a truly remarkable, "must read" book. Most important, Carter recognized that the physical symptoms were caused by the power of the mind: "That emotion is a force adequate to the production of very serious disorders in the human frame, acting upon the muscular, vascular, and secreting organs, and causing various derangements both of their structure and function,-the proclivity to its influence being greatly increased by the operation of all debilitating agents, whether local, or general, and by all circumstances tending to make individual parts the subjects of attention." While psychiatrists in the 1940's actively treated hysterics as insane because of physical problems with their bodies, Carter saw the symptoms as having their origin in the freewill of the human spirit: "in some cases, to a short attack of laughter or sobbing; and in others, producing very energetic involuntary movements, maintained during a considerable time, and occasionally terminating in a period of catalepsy or coma". He also mentions: epileptic type fits, vomiting, drooping eyelids, muteness. For this reason, he would oppose the chemical psychiatrists today who always prescribe drugs that never cure: "Against ... hysteria ... I should regard all medicines to be absolutely useless and inert." It is clear that Carter viewed hysteria as a blatant and deliberate deception where a person acts like they are insane or sick in order to gain sympathy, attention or be excused from life's responsibilities and be catered to. In the case of Sarah W. he noted, "the convulsive movements continued for upwards of two hours without the smallest abatement; and then, becoming gradually less violent, were at last succeeded by a state of perfect catalepsy, which lasted nearly an hour, and yielded in its turn to sleep" Carter viewed both men and women as hysterics, but noted: "greater proclivity of the female sex to hysteria, and also for the absolute rarity of its occurrence in man". Although he is wrong about the sex drive being the etiology of hysteria, "Women of strong [sexual] passions ... are especially liable to hysterical attacks." he correctly identified that much of mental illness was like a cunning stage performance for personal gain. "The subjects of tertiary hysteria may be advantageously divided into two classes, which fade imperceptibly into each other, and yet present a sufficiently marked difference in their respective types. The first will comprise women whose sexual propensities have been disappointed, but whose lot in life may be in all other respects desirable; and the second those in whom some form of envy or discontent is the predominant feeling." Carter describes their motives as being driven by "envy", "discontentment" unhappy with their position in life, "desire for sympathy" ... "an union of selfishness and deceptivity, allied in order to indulge that desire for sympathy" Carter lays "down rules for the detection of malingerers" and describes the mentally ill: "ingenuity of the performer" ... "The motives by which hysterical women are actuated, in the performance of their objectless deceptions and self-imposed penances, are remarkable no less for their strength than for their obliquity". Narcissism is always present, since the mentally ill get all kinds of undue sympathy and attention. "It is scarcely to be doubted, that if a girl who has thought herself neglected and uncared for, becomes the subject of a primary paroxysm, her chief feeling on recovering from it will be one of gratification at the fuss that has been made about her, and at the temporary oblivion to which all other things and persons have been consigned in honour of her illness". This is shockingly opposite to what mental health officials do today when they lie to the public that mental illness is just like a heart attack, which demands no personal accountability or fault and heaps of sympathy. But Carter understood 150 years ago, that people deliberately fake a mental illness: "discovered her own power of producing an attack" ... "an extraordinary development of cunning, by means of which hysterical women often carry out most complicated systems of deception, and succeed in baffling". Since hysterics love attention and to be considered special and unique, Carter has this advice: "destroy the impression, that there is anything remarkable, or singular, in the particular case under consideration, which must always be spoken of as most ordinary and common-place". Carter noted that upstanding women in churches were often targets of sympathy: "Small, or very enthusiastic religious communities, are the most usual victims of this kind of imposture, which is constantly practiced upon the benevolent ladies of a village". Unlike many of the mad doctors before him, Carter openly recommended hysterics attend church as a positive cure: "Whenever, therefore, the kind of religious teaching which is likely to be beneficial, can be obtained, it must be used and appreciated as a most important aid". Carter practiced "moral treatment" which avoided the outright torture of the previous century seen in most mad houses, but specifically targeted the hysteric's personal conduct and thoughts in order to bring them into repentance for their sins. Although he noted that torture did work in some cases, he opposed them at ineffective because the hysteric often had the will to endure in order to escape detection as a faker. "Moral treatment has been put in practice against hysteria in a very large number of cases, by the use of various harsh measures ... in isolated cases, been exceedingly successful; thus showing that some right principle was involved in their application"... "these harsh measures failed more frequently than they succeeded". While he accepted the fact that torture indeed "cured" in some cases, he realized that most hysterics were prepared to endure even torture, to gain the desired sympathy, attention and special privileges associated with "being sick". "that a girl who yielded to a few duckings [cold water baths], and a little discomfort, would have to suffer the disgrace and degradation consequent upon detected imposture; while one who passed safely through the ordeal, would be considered by her friends to be really the victim of disease; and the discerning doctor who subjected her to harsh treatment, would be condemned by them as a monster of ignorance and inhumanity ... that a certain amount of perseverance on her part, will exalt her into a martyr in the eyes of her family, and will enable her to bid defiance to professional denunciations". In other words, by enduring the torture, she got way more sympathy and attention than if she had not been tortured. It also made her look morally better than the very doctors who were fully aware of her fraud. "the system which is about to be described, acts by wearing out the moral endurance of the patient, and also by taking from her all motives for deception, or for the voluntary production of convulsive attacks" In the first stage of treatment, Carter recommends deceiving the deceiver! "indulge her in every trifling bad habit (that of breakfasting in bed for instance) ... some pleasantly-flavored medicine ... completely deceive her as to the nature of the treatment which she has to undergo". Then when she has been observed for some time with her guard down confront and rebuke the hysteric and attempt to bring them into repentance: "commence by a positive assertion that she has nothing at all the matter with her, and is, in reality, in perfectly good health ; her ailments being, one and all, fraudulent imitations of real disease. Such a statement will usually be met by an indignant but still half-frightened denial of its truth ... exhibit violent anger ... obstinate taciturnity [silence] and sullenness ... expressions of anger and wonder, mingled with tears and sobs ... a tempest of indignation, violently repudiates the charges brought against her ... jumps up from her chair, overturns it, and exhibits furious passion ... as the storm of her words has abated for lack of breath, she must be told to sit down, and to conduct herself like a lady ... obstinate, irritable, and frivolous. ... the patient is very ingenious, and practises many devices before yielding ... [they] trust in their sullenness as their most effectual shield". In other words, hit dogs howl. Today, this kind of reaction is to be always expected when treating the mentally ill, when you tell them they do not suffer from a chemical imbalance, there is nothing wrong with their body, and their problems are the result of their own personal and moral choices and they are to be held at least partly personally responsible for their problems. Carter suggests blackmailing the hysteric by "exposing the fraud" unless they quit acting insane. It worked! "he will abstain from exposing her, either to the members of her own family or of his, so long as she manifests a sincere desire for amendment" ... "The dread of losing caste [shame] by such a discovery, would be a strong inducement to a girl who was under treatment in her own home, to hold out to the very last, and would keep alive a motive, which it should be the first object of the medical attendant to destroy. Now and then cases will be met with, in which the patient is heartily weary of, and sorry for, the system of deception which she has commenced, and waits only for the smallest help from a wise and friendly hand, to abandon practices which she would have left off before, had she known how to do so without exciting the suspicions of her friends." He even suggests assisting the faker from shame, by inventing cures that are as false as the disease being faked. This was in order to create the false appearance to the hysterics friends and family that they really were suffering from a bodily disease. "she must be well assured herself that these pretended remedies are perfectly inoperative; and she must be encouraged to exertion by the threat of exposure, if she fails to get rid of each symptom within the specified time". He gives a timeline for the patient to obey, in order to make it appear she is being cured slowly over time: "any self-produced ailments besides the hysteric paroxysms, as vomiting, ptosis [drooping eyelids], aphonia [muteness], or the like, she should be told to leave them off within a certain time, as a week or a fortnight." Carter notes that often hysterics chose to display the wrong symptoms of a disease exposing her "forked tongue" of deception, but others are almost perfect chameleons of deception that only a trained medical doctor can discern. "she will almost inevitably either be unfortunate in her original selection, or inconsistent in her collocation of symptoms, and thus betray the cloven foot; but when a cunning woman, in playing her last stake, simulates a disease which she has had ample opportunities of observing ... her medical attendant will have need of all his discrimination". He stresses that the treatment must "conduce to her humiliation and shame, must be brought fully before her" ... "until ... the patient exhibits signs of contrition and regret ...any sign of penitence". ... "She must be told, at first, that the way in which she is treated will depend entirely upon her own behaviour, and that if she manifests causeless sulkiness or rudeness, she will be left to her own companionship, and to her own resources for amusement and occupation, until she has made proper atonement for her error" Carter notes that godless people will fix themselves because of "The fear of shame and exposure, the fear of the world's opinion, the desire to gain credit for resolution, or self denial, or cleverness, will often produce a change of action in persons with whom the fear of God is an empty sound, and to whom the necessity of doing right, might have been ineffectually preached till doomsday." They may have not listen to God in the Bible, but they are still concerned with self preservation. Many cases of mental illness today would be almost instantly cured if mental health officials stopped telling people its not their fault, that they are not responsible for it, that it is the same as any other medical condition and placed the blame for their own condition squarely upon their own heads. He highlights that mental illness patients are fundamentally liars and deceivers who are clever actors in their own play whom he has caught red handed in the act: "I have often been complained to in the morning, about the severe operation of a purgative, which I had placed in the patient's hands overnight, and which had just before been brought back to me, by a servant who had found it concealed in her bedroom." Carter notes a few problem areas like the friends and family of the hysteric who blindly accept the deceptive act of insanity: He places the blame on the parents of hysterics: "who have been treated with excessive and ill-judged indulgence by their parents, who have perhaps been delicate and sickly in early life, and whose moral training has, on this account, been neglected". These parents have as much trouble accepting responsibility for their children's hysteria as the hysteric themselves! Carter note he often hears from parents: ""My daughter, is a religious, moral, and well-conducted young woman, quite incapable of such practices as those which you impute to her; and from our knowledge of her character, we are satisfied that you are mistaken in her case." The parents will never learn that their darling daughter has already admitted she is faking to the doctor. He notes that hysterics will often write letters and make phone calls to rally up support in one last vain attempt to admit the lies and deception: "she will often endeavour to escape from it, by writing letters to her friends, full of the bitterest complaints and the most doleful lamentations". Often families of the insane are more of a problem than the one mentally ill. Carter states that his system has a 100% success rate over many years and hundreds of cases: "The system of treatment which I have thus endeavoured to describe, has been tested for many years, and in a great number of cases, but always with success" ... "The process is always troublesome, and often difficult, but I have yet to hear of the case, in which it would ultimately fail of success". Like many medical students today who consider a career in psychiatry, see it for the deceptive confusion it really is, then chose to specialize in a real medical career, Carter left psychiatry and became a world class eye surgeon. His book on hysterics should have been the writing on the tombstone that exposed insanity for what it really is and psychiatry as quackery and junk pseudo science. But the Devil was raising to power, two of his demon angels: Sigmund Freud and Charles Darwin's Origin of the Species in 1859 AD. The result is the chemical psychiatry we see today. (On the Pathology and Treatment of Hysteria, Robert Brudenell Carter, 1853 AD)

In 1857 AD, Richard Robert Madden observed many historic cases of a kind of mass hysteria. What is interesting about this phenomena, is that it is clearly induced by freewill choices of the minds of a large number of people at the same time. This proves that such mass delusions and hallucinations are not caused by the body, but the mind. Madden understood that if the mind of a single person could induce insanity, so could it happen on a mass scale: "It is with individuals as with nations, they are controlled and restrained by the same influences, or corrupted and perverted by the same wild impulses of passion . . . Hallucinations of various kinds ensue; and imagination dominated by disease will eventually give a being, shape and form, 'a local habitation, and a name', to fixed ideas and chimeras which are the productions of the brain." (Phantasmata or Illusions and Fanaticisms, Richard Robert Madden, 1857 AD) Click to View

In 1857 AD, Alexandre J. F. Brierre De Boismont, doctor, viewed hallucinations as the product of the human mind and cured by cold baths and cold water torture. "hallucinations complicated with mental diseases: Do the hallucinations depend upon the organic changes super-induced by the mental disease? Are they associated with the psycho-cerebral excitement which has produced the insanity? In a word, are they physical or moral? The distinction is often very difficult, yet the nature of the hallucinations and their immediate connection with the cause of the insanity, justify us in thinking that they often arise from moral causes." Suggesting that both insanity and hallucinations are entirely products of the mind and not the body is a stunning contradiction to chemical psychiatry today, but this view was actually the historically majority view. In regard to large numbers of people experiencing the same hallucination, Boismont notes that, "in our opinion, decides the question in favor of moral causes. In fact, epidemic hallucinations, such as vampirism, ecstasy, and the visions observed in the different forms of plague, are not susceptible of any other explanation. In these cases, the hallucinations are transmitted by means of the ideas which exist in society, or have been inculcated by education and by the force of example" Boismont had over 305 cases of hallucinations and concluded that the body was not the cause, but the mind: "clearly prove the influence of moral causes in the production of hallucinations. The following details cannot leave any doubt on this point. Out of 190 cases collected by other writers, or by ourselves in 115, the circumstances which favored the production of the hallucinations were meditations carried to the state of ecstasy, the prevalent notions of the period in regard to religion, philosophy, politics, superstition, &c., imaginative works, concentrations of the thoughts, mental struggles, particular passions, a preoccupied state of mind, troubles, remorse, grief, excessive study, love, hope, jealousy, and anger." In curing hallucinations he practiced: "reasoning with the patient, the use of ridicule or the douche, will succeed in banishing the false sensation" Practicing at the very end of the Humoral medical era, he wrongly attributed part of the success to cooling off the "melancholy blood" of the brain. "The principal physical agents which are used in the treatment of hallucinations, consist of general and local blood-letting, of prolonged general baths, either by themselves or combined with the douche, with the bath of irrigation, or with purgatives; occasionally emetics, narcotics, and anti-spasmodic; and lastly, external revulsions, by means of blisters, moxas, and setons." After almost 150 years of treating the insane with "the fall of water", he was just another witness to how the "douche" cured the mentally ill. "We have substituted for the douche, continued irrigation. The water is allowed to fall, for hours together, in a thin stream, or in a number of streams like those from a watering-pot, on the head of the patient while seated in the bath. The effect produced by this continued sprinkling has, first, the advantage of keeping up a constant cooling effect on the organ which is congested, without causing those injurious results which have been laid to the charge of ice. In the second place, it harasses the patient, so that he will often ask for pardon. What others have stated, as regards the instantaneous action of the douche, we have also observed from the use of continued irrigation. After this treatment has been persevered in for some hours, the patients have begged of us to remove them from the bath, admitting they were previously deranged, that what they had said was nonsense, but that now they were completely cured". Although Boismont's etiology of "melancholy blood" was junk Hippocratic science, he clearly understood that people could be tortured into sanity. In fact, Boismont's methods would clearly "cure" a sizeable number of those currently under psychiatric care. This should not surprise us, since insanity is not a bodily disease, but a conscious choice made by those who are either wanting to escape life responsibility or situation, or gain some material or emotional benefit. His overall assessment of water torture was this: "We have, however, found such beneficial results from the use of irrigation, that we constantly employ it; and the cures we have affected by combining it with baths of considerable duration, have been so numerous and rapid, that we consider we have rendered an important service to the therapeutics of mental diseases in pointing out the circumstances under which this treatment should be pursued. The facts which we have just related can scarcely leave a doubt as to the efficacy of physical agents". He gives an example of a man suffering from hallucinations who just happened to also refused to work. This man was restored to perfect health and his job through water torture. Obviously the man was lazy and simply used the hallucinations as an excuse to receive Obama-welfare and get the handicap parking permits for the Wal-Mart mall. He was water boarded 6 times and started working again! It is important to note that one of the key problems with most mental patients is that they are often very lazy. Amazingly, Datura stramonium, which is a poison that acts as a hallucination, was also claimed to cure insanity when given over days or weeks in increasing doses. "Seven were cured, and three experienced only a temporary amendment. The cures were accomplished in from four to seven days to a month, by means of graduated doses of the sweetened extract of stramonium". The multitude of cures of this poisonous drug, can be none other than the placebo effect in the mind of the insane. This underscores that insanity is not a bodily illness but actions in the control of the mentally ill. Boismont was way ahead of his time because he understood this: "Drugs may sometimes cure hallucinations; not by means of their therapeutic action, but by breaking the chain of ideas which possess the mind of the patient." The drugs prescribed in chemical psychiatry today likewise do not cure insanity. (On hallucinations: a History and Explanation, Alexandre J. F. Brierre De Boismont, 1859 AD) Click to View

In 1890 AD, Charles Arthur Mercier, psychiatrist, insisted that the insane, who are not a physical danger to others, should be kept locked up against their will on the basis of social and behaviour control. "the seclusion of the insane in asylums is necessary and right." This view continues today. However Mercier stated in blunt terms what every psychiatrist knows today, but would never be honest enough to publicly admit. He wants the insane to be locked up in order to protect the public from conduct that is "revolting, shameful, indecent, obscene, disgraceful and filthy". Of course, this is not insane behaviour, it is sinful conduct that the insane have chosen to engage in. He states that the behaviour of the majority of the insane is "more shameless and filthy in their conduct than so many monkeys". Mercier argues that the insane must be protected against themselves: "in order to prevent him from squandering his means and ruining himself and his family". He cleverly argues that the insane will actually thank those who locked him up when he gets out, by preventing him from shaming and humiliating himself in public. "restraining him from performing acts which are not dangerous, but which are disgraceful, and which he himself would, on his recovery, be loudest in blaming his friends for not preventing". But the 300 year history of psychiatry as a parallel penal/legal system and method of behaviour control is clear! "It is not merely that the public must be protected from such conduct as this. They have a right, also, to be prevented from witnessing it, to be protected from the danger of witnessing it; and it is for this reason, more than for any other, that the seclusion of the insane in asylums is necessary and right." (Sanity and Insanity, Charles Arthur Mercier, 1890 AD) Click to View

In 1890 AD, William Booth, church minister and founder of the Salvation Army, was influenced by Heinroth's 1818 AD book and adopted the view that men who chose to sin can slide down a slippery slope into involuntary insanity. "some men of science [Heinroth] hold that persistence in habits tends to convert a man from a being with freedom of action and will into a mere automaton". Both Booth and Heinroth believed that insanity was a robotic state that was entered by freewill choices to engage in sin and that they should be committed to asylums against their will and taken care of at tax payer expense. Although the salvation Army is a church that actually refuses to baptize or partake of the Lord's Supper, they are really not viewed as a religion by the general public, but a type of public charity helping human suffering. It may come as a surprise to many that Booth's view was to "only help them who help themselves" and throw into an asylum, "those who refuse to help themselves": "when all has been done and every chance has been offered, when you have forgiven your brother not only seven times but seventy times seven, when you have fished him up from the mire and put him on firm ground only to see him relapse and again relapse until you have no strength left to pull him out once more, there will still remain a residuum of men and women who have, whether from heredity or custom, or hopeless demoralisation, become reprobates." Booth viewed the insane as a "lost soul on this side of the grave". He understood that laziness was a huge common factor with the insane and recommends involuntary committal to an asylum anyone who refused to work or care for themselves: "There are men so incorrigibly lazy that no inducement that you can offer will tempt them to work; so eaten up by vice that virtue is abhorrent to them, and so inveterately dishonest that theft is to them a master passion. When a human being has reached that stage, there is only one course that can be rationally pursued. Sorrowfully, but remorselessly, it must be recognised that he has become lunatic, morally demented, incapable of self-government, and that upon him, therefore, must be passed the sentence of permanent seclusion from a world in which he is not fit to be at large." He viewed the insane as, "carrying with them the contagion of moral leprosy, and multiplying a progeny doomed before its birth to inherit the vices and diseased cravings of their unhappy parents." It was on this basis that his charitable efforts must cease: "But when they have reached a certain point [of sinfulness] access to their fellow men should be forbidden." ... "after an [insane] individual had suffered a certain number of convictions for crime, drunkenness, or vagrancy, he should forfeit his freedom to roam abroad and curse his fellows. ... I include vagrancy in this list" Booth viewed the insane as condemned sinners engaging in sinful behaviours that the general public should be protected from coming in contact with. (In Darkest England and the Way Out, William Booth 1890 AD)

In 1899 AD, Sigmund Freud popularized psychoanalysis with his book "Interpretation of Dreams". Freud used talk, electric shocks and hypnotism as therapy. His etiology for insanity was similar to Christians in that life events and personal choices rather than biological causes, induced madness. Science fiction writer L. Ron Hubbard, founder of Scientology, created a new non-Christian religion, by inventing fictional histories (space traveler Xenu gets stuck in a volcano 50 million years ago and your mission is to release him) and a dictionary of scientific sounding words (like "clearing" or "Aberrated Wog", Hubbard's term for the unenlightened commoners derangement or insanity. The Scientology cult dictionary, Star Wars lingo, Lord of the Rings lingo, the Manual of Star trek science terms are directly parallel to the scientific sounding mythical words and concepts invented by Sigmund Freud. Freud invented an entire ecosystem of mythical concepts like his confusing "Id, Ego, and Super-Ego". To Freud, early sexual trauma's we experienced while in diapers and in the hands of our mothers, were repressed, but then surfaced later in the form of insanity. Freud contributed little or nothing to the correct understanding of insanity and is today generally irrelevant. "Anyone reading Sigmund Freud's original works might well be seduced by the beauty of his prose, the elegance of his arguments and the acuity of his intuition. But those with a grounding in science will also be shocked by the abandon with which he elaborated his theories on the basis of essentially no empirical evidence. This is one of the main reasons why Freudian-style psychoanalysis has long since fallen out of fashion: its huge expense - treatment can stretch over years - is not balanced by evidence of efficacy." (Editorial, Nature 461, 847, 15 October 2009) The idea of a "Freudian Slip", is a rather commonly understood concept among teenage boys when they "slip" what is really on their mind when talking to a pretty girl, without every studying Fraud. The concept of "repressed memory syndrome" is pure junk pop psychology that has its origin in Freud and has wrongly convicted and harmed thousands of innocent people. The truth is, if you can't remember it, it either never happened or it is not bothering you. Also the myth that we only use 5% of our brain power and capacity is pure Freud, and derives from his science fiction terms: Id, Ego, and Super-Ego. The important thing to note, is that Freud, although an atheist, rejected biological causes of insanity and focused on talking cures like church ministers have been doing for 2000 years. But his impersonal approach, with the couch and the chair arranged so neither could see each other, is exactly opposite to true talking cures that Christians do face to face for each other over a cup of coffee. Freud would have made a more concrete contribution to society had he gone into construction work. Today his ideas are almost universally rejected a wrong except for a few remaining rabid cult followers who view him as their Charles Darwin of psychology. For that matter both Freud and Darwin should have started a construction company together! Psychoanalysis is the price non-Christians pay for not reading their Bible. Freud suffered from oral cancer from smoking and committed suicide through doctor assisted morphine injections. Click to View Click to View

In 1901 AD, Richard Maurice Bucke, psychiatrist, published "Cosmic Consciousness" a year before he died and revealed in great detail his etiology of insanity as purely evolutionary biology and viewed the insane and "mentally ill" as incurable evolutionary misfits, failures in "natural selection" with weak, deformed minds operating at mere animal level: "We know that in some men the intellectual functions are so unstable that as soon as they are established they crumble down-crushed (as it were) by their own weight - like a badly built house ... cases of so-called developmental insanity ... in which the mind falls into ruins as soon as it comes into existence or even before it is fully formed ... running down at once back into chaos. The hopelessness of this class of cases (as regards recovery) is well understood by all alienists [psychiatrists], and it is not difficult to see why such insanities should and must be practically incurable, since their very existence denotes the absence of the elements necessary to form and maintain a normal human mind in the subjects in question.... inevitable that we should meet with constant lapses, omissions, defects, breakdowns. Clinical observation teaches day by day that the above reasoning is solidly grounded." Being deceived by Charles Darwin, he was also deceived by the Haeckel fraud of embryonic recapitulation, practiced eugenics by sterilizing over 109 women Canadian in his last ten years in order to prevent further pollution of the human race with their obviously defective genes. Of course he justified his dark inward "survival of the fittest" motives of cutting out female ovaries with the recently discovered endocrine treatments for hypothyroidism and the current view that insanity was caused by secretions of the sex organs and masturbation. He justified his practice of putting a wire cage over the penis or sewing a suture (stitch) directly onto the prepuce, to prevent further insanity caused by masturbation, but it was more likely that it was a method of birth control within the London Asylum. Like Haeckel, Bucke falsified his "clinical trials" as proof he had discovered the best treatment for insanity. He was a racist who believed African Negroes and Australian Aboriginals operated on the animal level of mere "simple consciousness" which accounted for their much lower rate of insanity that Aryan nations who had developed the higher levels of "Self and Cosmic Consciousness". "members of low races, such as the Bushmen of South Africa and native Australians, who never attain to this faculty [of self-consciousness]... It seems impossible to believe that as a race these creatures are self conscious." White people had evolved their "higher executive faculties" at a fast rate and this made them more susceptible to insanity. Bucke felt that Negros and Aboriginals couldn't go insane, because insanity involved the loss of higher thinking which they did not possess. For Bucke there were three stages of intellectual evolution within humans on earth: 1. low: animal men with mere "simple consciousness". 2. average men with "self-consciousness". 3. the 14 god's with "Cosmic Consciousness" which represented what all men would "evolve into", in the "utopian socialist future". "This new race is in fact of being born from us, and in the near future it will occupy and possess the earth". His book, Cosmic Consciousness was his personal inventory his 14 guru's who represented this future race: Buddha, Jesus, Paul, Plotinus, Mohammed, Dante, Casas, Yepes, Bacon, Behmen, Blake, Balzac, Walt Whitman, Carpenter. (He obviously viewed himself as the 15th) When his idol, mentor and fellow humanist, Walt Whitman died, he proclaimed, "The Christ is dead!" and dedicated his book to Whitman as possessing "The Most Exalted Moral Nature". He was also communist who looked forward to the classic Marxist "utopia" where religion would vanish when in the future every man will be his own god: "all religions known and named today will be melted down ... Each soul will feel and know itself to be immortal". Although the son of a church minister, he had very confused religious views that were a mix of atheism, humanism, Bahai, Buddhism, John Lennon, Shirley Maclaine while firmly parroting (but disbelieving) the Christian doctrine of conscious life after death. Speaking to his deceased son in 1899, he echoes what his father taught him: "Only a little while now and we shall be again together and with us those other noble and well-beloved souls gone before. I am sure I shall meet you and them". The material part of his dichotomous view of man, was that the intellect was physically located in cerebral-spinal nervous system and that the moral nature and emotions are physically located in the sympathetic nervous system. He was the first chief psychiatrist at the Hamilton Asylum for the Insane (later the Hamilton Psychiatric Hospital [HPH] and today St Joseph's Healthcare Hamilton, West 5th Campus) in Ontario Canada for a year, then moved and spent the last 25 years of his life as head of the "London Asylum" in Ontario. He was co-founder of the University of Western Ontario's medical school. Being widely respected and very influential, he is responsible for setting the type of care all Canadians have experienced including insulin shock injections up to 1960 and ECT to the present. In Canada, chemical psychiatry has been the dominant view ever since. Bucke lobbied 350 doctors in Ontario for support of his sterilization treatment for insanity. For the amount of actual influence he had, there wasn't much science he had right, being trained as a humoral doctor and adopting the view of William Battie (1758 AD) and Nicholas Robinson (1729 AD) that insanity was caused by defective nerves and body secretions. His evolutionary view and biologic etiology of the human mind led him to view most cases of insanity as incurable. Just as Darwin conceived his theory of biologic evolution on an incorrect understanding of the geology he observed at Tierra del Fuego, so too Bucke conceived his theory evolution of the mind upon Darwin. As a philosopher, Bucke's views are widely accepted among today's chemical psychiatrists, who are restrained from harming people like Bucke did, only by law. His hostile views against Christianity endure to this very day in the Canadian Mental health industry. Clarence B. Farrar, the first head of the Toronto Psychiatric Hospital (TPH) when it opened in 1925 AD, was a strong advocate of sterilizing the insane and a member of Eugenics Society of Canada (ESC)." (Cosmic Consciousness, Richard Maurice Bucke, 1901 AD) Click to View

In 1902 AD, S. Weir Mitchell, doctor, popularized rest therapy where a hysteric is forced to lay in bed for up to three months at a time. A few years earlier, in his 1894 AD address to the American Medico-Psychological Association, Mitchell decried the deplorable conditions of the asylums as being nothing better than jails. He quotes a woman who visited an asylum for the first time: "Oh, I should go mad here if I were not so when I came. Why can't some one move the furniture about and make it look less sepulchral." In this address he notes that the general public were suspicious and critical of asylums and psychiatry in general: "Of the feeling of distrust concerning the therapeutics of asylums now fast gaining ground in the mind of the general public I have said nothing. This lack of medical confidence is of recent growth. Once we spoke of asylums with respect; it is not so now." Having said this, Mitchell understood that most of the female hysterics were manufacturing symptoms as a way to escape an unhappy home life, daily work and responsibility. He takes a similar view of insanity faking to Robert Brudenell Carter. He identified them as being selfish and lazy, "having a taste for invalidism", "mimic fatigue". He has many such women in his practice: "Nothing is more common in practice than to see a young woman who ... is tired all the time, by and by has a tender spine, and soon or late enacts the whole varied drama of hysteria. As one or other set of symptoms is prominent she gets the appropriate label, and sometimes she continues to exhibit only the single phase of nervous exhaustion or of spinal irritation. Far more often she runs the gauntlet of nerve-doctors, gynecologists, plaster jackets, braces, water- treatment, and all the fantastic variety of other cures." ... Curiously, having a sore back is a common faked complaint: "They acquire tender spines, and furnish the most lamentable examples of all the strange phenomena of hysteria." Mitchell sees these fakers as causing others much harm and trouble: "There is one fatal addition to the weight which tends to destroy women who suffer in the way I have described. It is the self-sacrificing love and over-careful sympathy of a mother, a sister, or some other devoted relative. Nothing is more curious, nothing more sad and pitiful, than these partnerships between the sick and selfish and the sound and over-loving. ... The patient has pain, -a tender spine, for example ; she is urged to give it rest. She cannot read; the self-constituted nurse reads to her. At last light hurts her eyes; the mother or sister remains shut up with her all day in a darkened room. A draught of air is supposed to do harm, and the doors and windows are closed, and the ingenuity of kindness is taxed to imagine new sources of like trouble, until at last, as I have seen more than once, the window-cracks are stuffed with cotton, the chimney is stopped, and even the keyhole guarded. It is easy to see where this all leads to: the nurse falls ill, and a new victim is found. I have seen an hysterical, anemic girl kill in this way three generations of nurses." Typical of the insane, they are insulted when you openly accuse them of being selfish to the needs of others: "If you tell the patient she is basely selfish, she is probably amazed, and wonders at your cruelty. To cure such a case you must morally alter as well as physically amend, and nothing less will answer." Mitchell's solution is to replace the sympathetic relative who is deceived into a slavery of needless service of a faker, with order, discipline and obedience: "The first step needful is to break up the companionship, and to substitute the firm kindness of a well-trained hired nurse." He warns to keep a look out for the faker hysteric who is "always able to do what it pleases her to do, and who is tired by what does not please her". Mitchell's sleep therapy, therefore was a way to turn the tables of control enjoyed by the hysteric. He basically bores them back to activity. It is all about a battle of wills and control: He first describes the kind of life the hysteric enjoyed before they met Mitchell: "To lie abed half the day, and sew a little and read a little, and be interesting as invalids and excite sympathy, is all very well" The he describes his approach in contrast: "but when they are bidden to stay in bed a month, and neither to read, write, nor sew, [or to use the hands in any active way except to clean the teeth] and to have one nurse, who is not a [sympathetic and deceived] relative, then repose becomes for some women a rather bitter medicine, and they are glad enough to accept the order to rise and go about when the doctor issues a mandate which has become pleasantly welcome and eagerly looked for. ... the man who resolves to send any nervous woman to bed must be quite sure that she will obey him when the time comes for her to get up. What is amazing about all this, is that Mitchell understood that laying in bed for 3 months harmed the body. NASA understands weightlessness without exercise is a huge problem. "When we put patients in bed and forbid them to rise or to make use of their muscles, we at once lessen appetite, weaken digestion in many cases, constipate the bowels, and enfeeble circulation. When we put the muscles at absolute rest we create certain difficulties". This proves that sleep therapy had little to do with actual "recharging the body", and everything to do with boring the hysteric back to her home duties and responsibilities. It is a case of reverse psychology: She can either do a few hours of work each day at home and then be free to do what she wants, or she can be sent back to the asylum where she is grounded to her bed for 3 months doing nothing that she wants. (Fat And Blood, treatment of Neurasthenia And Hysteria, S. Weir Mitchell, 1902 AD) Click to View

In 1920 AD, Carl Gastav Jung, Swiss psychiatrist, (1875-1961 AD) had crystallized his "analytical psychology" (or "Jungian psychology") which rejected the biopsychiatric model of the etiology of insanity. At age 12, Jung fell and struck his head and "At the moment I felt the blow the thought flashed through my mind: "Now you won't have to go to school any more." ... "From then on I began to have fainting spells whenever I had to return to school, and whenever my parents set me to doing my homework. For more than six months I stayed away from school, and for me that was a picnic. I was free, could dream for hours, be anywhere I liked, in the woods or by the water, or draw." He had actually developed the habit of faking fainting spells so that when the time came that he wanted to go back to school that the fainting spells continued, but gradually diminished. We know from neurological studies of the brain, that this is essentially what happens in Tourette's or OCD. The brain actually rewires the voluntary behaviour into a semi-involuntary behaviour. However, Jung set his mind to stop fainting and he over came it entirely by willpower. He commented: "That was when I learned what a neurosis is." He clearly place too much weight on the interpretation of dreams. Like embryonic recapitulation, Jung believed that "archetypal" experiences of evolutionary ancestors was embedded in the unconscious that affected how one behaved and thought in the present. These vestigial archetypal remnants of the past evolutionary forms was to Jung, the cause of insanity and neurosis but was in fact as bizarre as Freud's view that insanity was caused by childhood sexual trauma while breastfeeding. Apart from the anomalies of dream interpretation and ancestral archetypes, Jung's approach to "treating" the insane was to look for a rational cause for behaviours. Jung clearly rejected the idea that insanity was a physical disease. "As a neurosis starts from a fragmentary state of human consciousness, it can only be cured by an approximative totality of the human being. ... Such a cure cannot be effected by pills and injections." Jung also understood that people must be free to chose to commit suicide if that is their choice: "When somebody says, `I am going to commit suicide if' ... I say, 'If that is your intention, I have no objection.'" Jung understood insanity as simple human behaviour that others find different from cultural norms: "To be 'crazy' is a social concept; we use social relationships and definitions in order to distinguish mental disturbances. You can say that a man is peculiar, that he behaves in an unexpected way and has funny ideas, and if he happens to live in a little town in France or Switzerland you would say, 'He is an original fellow, one of the most original inhabitants of that little place'; but if you bring that man into the midst of Harley Street, well, he is plumb crazy." (Memories Dreams Reflections, Carl Gastav Jung, 1961 AD)

In 1927 AD, Manfred J. Sakel, Insulin-induced coma and convulsions, to treat schizophrenia. Insulin had been discovered a few years earlier in 1921 AD, by two Canadians: Charles Best and Frederick Banting. The idea of injecting insulin into the blood stream to bring the sugar level down to almost zero is pure quackery. But this didn't stop psychiatrists from using it on thousands of patients resulting in a 70% improvement in their schizophrenic symptoms. A few controlled studies put insulin shock therapy on the shelf beside bloodletting... which seems to be the place all psychiatric treatments eventually end up. Click to View

In 1935 AD, the lobotomy (leucotomy or psychosurgery) was invented by Egas Moniz. The procedure was crude, destructive and caused direct brain damage. It jammed a butter knife into the eye socket until it hit the orbital bone. Then it was hit with a hammer to punch through the bone into the brain. Then the knife was used to cut brain tissues connecting the left and right frontal lobes. In 1941, James W. Watts, and Walter Freeman performed a lobotomy on Rosemary Kennedy (John F Kennedy's sister) when was 23. Rosemary was asked to sing while the knife cut brain tissue. She continued to sing, so he cut more until suddenly, she stopped singing and never sang again. Rosemary suffered permanent brain damage and was left in a vegetative state until she died natural causes at the age of 86 in 2005. Only chemical psychiatrists would imagine such a treatment would cure insanity because they believe in evolution and reject the Christian doctrine that man has both spirit and body. This forced them to always look to the brain for the cause of mood and behaviour disorders. Like modern neuroleptic drugs, a lobotomy simply disables or damages the brain and changes normal function. It is outlawed in many countries of the world however Japan, Australia, Sweden and India still perform lobotomys as a social control for violent and out of control people. While effective in "dumbing down" these violent people, it might be more humane just to shoot them. Lobotomy is one of the most obvious examples of chemical psychiatry. However, in hindsight, it was one of the more honest and up front treatments for insanity. It was clear to every one of the 100,000 lobotomy patients and their families, that this was a treatment that caused direct brain damage. Modern treatments with drugs and electric shocks are not so easily recognized for what they really are. More detail on Lobotomy. Click to View

In 1938 AD, Ugo Cerletti conceived Electroconvulsive Therapy, (ECT), while he observed how pigs at a slaughter house were shocked into unconsciousness, then killed by slitting the throat. He noted that it was not the shock did not actually killed the pigs. Being a specialist in epilepsy, this is where Cerletti first got the idea of shocking the human brain to cure schizophrenia and the invention of ECT. Using electricity to cure insanity has a long history dating back to Charles Wesley, the founder of Methodism in 1747 AD. With ECT people undergo 5 - 20 shocks over several weeks. The shock is enormous and uses 450 volts DC in pulsed square waves at a current of .9 Amps for 6 seconds. ECT is a form of electric lobotomy. A single ECT treatment passes enough electricity through your brain to light an 84 watt light bulb for 6 seconds or a 500 watt halogen light for 1 second. ECT has been documented to cause death, strokes and tissue damage. "PA-PSRS has received five reports of patients experiencing skin burns or injuries from a fire during electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) treatments. ... in the report of a fire, a bright flash and flames were noted on the right side of the patient's head at the instant that the ECT shock was given. Though the flames were quickly extinguished, the patient experienced first and second-degree burns on one ear and first-degree burns on the forehead above one eye." (Skin Burns and Fires during Electroconvulsive Therapy Treatments, PA-PSRS Pennsylvania Patient Safety Advisory, Vol. 4, No. 1, March 2007) The original theories for ECT treatment were founded on the invalid idea that epileptics were never schizophrenic and that the two conditions were mutually exclusive and could not co-exist. Therefore it was originally thought that inducing epileptic convulsions would cure schizophrenic. Although we know today that this is just another example of psychiatric quackery theory, ECT effectively disables brain function by wiping out memories that make us sad and cause depression. Entire university educations were erased from people's minds. "Memory Loss: ECT is a common cause of severe retrograde amnesia, i.e.. destruction of memories of events prior to an injury. The potency of ECT as an amnestic exceeds that of severe closed head injury with coma. It is surpassed only by prolonged deficiency of thiamine pyrophosphate. bilateral temporal lobectomy, and the accelerated dementias, such as Alzheimer's. After ECT it takes 5 to 10 minutes just to remember who you are. where you are. and what day it is." (Shock Treatment, Brain Damage, and Memory Loss: A Neurological Perspective, John M. Friedberg, Neurosurgeon, American Journal of Psychiatry 134:9, September 1977. p 1010-1013) ECT has been outlawed in many countries and will likely experience a global ban by 2015 AD. New quackery treatments that shock the brain, include Deep brain stimulation, which surgically embeds an two "meat thermometer looking" electrodes 6 inches in the middle of your brain to apply shocks. Vagus Nerve Stimulation wraps an electrode around the vagus nerve in your neck and applies shocks through a surgically embedded "pacemaker of the nerve". Passive brain shocking systems include Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, which uses magnetic induction to shock the brain in an area the size of a quarter, about 2 inches below the skull. Shocking the brain with electricity interferes with the normal electric function of the brain, which normally runs on a voltage of 1/10th of a single volt. ECT applies up to 450 volts, which is about 4500 times higher voltage than what the brain uses. ECT to the brain, is like hooking your 120 volt big screen TV up to 540,000 volts and expecting an improved picture! For more details, read our other book called, "Everything I ever needed to know about how ECT causes brain and tissue damage, I learned in my grade 9 introductory electricity shop class." (Electroconvulsive Therapy, ECT) Click to View Click to View

In 1960 AD, Thomas Szasz rocked the established world of chemical psychiatry with the publishing his book, "The myth of mental illness". Szasz is a psychiatrist and former professor of psychiatry at State University of New York Health Science Center. Click to View The life work of Thomas Szasz rests upon a foundation of three things: First, the fact that science cannot furnish any medical diagnostic tests for depression, anxiety, delusion, schizophrenia or insanity, therefore "mental illness" is not a biological disorder but is a metaphoric myth like "spring fever". Szasz takes the view that schizophrenia (i.e. delusion, paranoia) has no biological etiology but are mere behaviours that have their origin in the consequences of freewill choices and life circumstances. He rejects the theory that insanity is caused by chemical imbalances in brain chemistry or hereditarily through DNA and considers these beliefs to be quackery and a violation of valid, testable science. Second, individuals labeled "insane and schizophrenic" always retain their free will, act how they chose and therefore should always be held responsible for all their conduct. Szasz is opposed to the insanity plea for any reason, under any circumstance as a violation of justice. Third, all non-consensual psychiatric treatment or committal to an asylum is a violation of civil rights in the same way performing needed heart by-pass surgery without consent is illegal. While Szasz is unconvinced that psychiatric drugs provide cures for insanity any more than they could cure chronic lying, he is not opposed to people taking these drugs voluntary, if that is what they choose. Szasz is a champion of personal freedom, who believes a person should be free to even hurt, harm or kill themselves, if that is their personal choice. Consequently he is opposed to anyone being treated or committed to an asylum against their will for any reason, including attempting suicide. Szasz objects to being misrepresented with the label of being part of the "anti-psychiatry" movement, which, although shares some of his views, continues to practice psychiatric coercion. Further, he maintains an active practice in psychiatry helping people recognize their contribution to their own personal problems. "[Question to Szasz:] What do clients find most difficult about the therapeutic process? [Answer:] Assuming responsibility for their contribution to the problem they seek to resolve. ... Liberation from painful, constricting relationships or situations can be achieved only by assuming responsibility for one's own contributions to them and by extricating oneself from them. The only person who can change a person is that person himself. ...being able to help a client set himself free by assuming more, not less, responsibility for his behavior and feelings." (Seven Questions for Thomas Szasz, Psychology Today, 28 Jan 2009) Szasz believes a person should be free to act in any way (dress up like big bird) or believe anything they want (pink elephants talk to them), without interference or labeling or being forced into treatment against their will. However, if a person breaks the law, like habitually disturbing the peace, Szasz believes they should be charged in criminal/civil courts and stand trial before a judge and cast in jail. Szasz has written countless excellent books, but we have selected his testimony in the trial of Darlin Cromer as the best way to hear Szasz views in action in his own words. On February 5, 1980, a white supremacist named Darlin Cromer murdered a 5 year old Negro boy, then boasted about it to police deputy Dorothy Soto, shortly after her arrest, "It is the duty of every white woman to kill a nigger child, "I've already killed mine." Cromer had a 20 year diagnosis as a schizophrenic. At the trial four psychiatric experts testified that she was insane and should be found not guilty for reason of insanity and belonged in a hospital, not a prison. When the prosecution called Szasz to offer his opinion whether Cromer suffered from anything, he answered: "[My] opinion is that she was suffering from the consequences of having lived a life very badly, very stupidly. Very evilly; that from the time of her teens, for reasons which I don't know, she had, whatever she had done, she has done very badly. She was a bad student. There is no evidence that she was a particularly good daughter, sister. She was a bad wife. She was a bad mother. She was a bad employee insofar as she was employable. Then she started to engage [in taking] illegal drugs, then she escalated to illegal assault, and finally she committed this murder. ... Life is a task. You either cope with it or it gets you ... If you do not know how to build, you can always destroy. These are the people that destroy us in society, our society, and other people." (Trial testimony of Thomas Szasz, Darlin June Cromer, November 1980) At this trial, four psychiatrists testified that Cromer was a certified lunatic who should not be punished for her crimes. One of them was Donald Lunde, among the most highly respected forensic psychiatrists in the USA. It was an epic David vs. Goliath battle of four against Szasz in court. On 17 January 1981, Cromer was convicted of first degree murder which started the chemical psychiatry establishment squealing in unison like stuck pigs, demanding a retrial and launching personal attacks on Szasz. They got their wish, but the conviction was upheld at retrial. The stinging humiliation biologic psychiatry suffered with the guilty verdict because of the testimony of Szasz, was enormous and they will likely never forgive him until they are banished into extinction beside phrenology, humoral medicine and those who believed the earth was flat. Within 100 years, Thomas Szasz will be seen as one of the most important psychiatrists in history, who like an artist, will not be recognized for his insights until long after he is gone. Although a self-avowed atheist (and certainty never a Scientologist) Szasz's etiology of insanity is quite similar to that of Christians, who have historically viewed insanity as a collection of sinful actions caused by life choices and circumstances back to 1500 AD. Szasz rejects the Biblical dualism of man possessing a distinct spirit that consciously survives the body after death, but also rejects a material or biological etiology for insanity. Just as atheist Antony Flew followed the scientific evidence and became a believer in God, so too Szasz was able to follow the psychiatric evidence and reject a physical cause for insanity. To be sure, Szasz remains skeptical towards all religion in general and Christianity, but this is what makes Szasz such a powerful visionary, truth seeker and warrior against chemical psychiatry.

In 1985 AD, Anthony Barker, proposed using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) to introduce electricity to the brain for medical treatment. Mark S. George began to apply this new method of shocking the brain to psychiatry in the treatment of depression, OCD and schizophrenia. The brain is an electric organ that runs on 1/10th of a single volt. TMS shocks the brain with 100 times that voltage through magnetic induction coils. "The most obvious and dangerous side effect of rTMS is the induction of epileptic seizures, and experience shows that currently available equipment is powerful enough to produce them readily." (Transcranial magnetic stimulation in clinical psychiatry, Mark S. George, Robert H. Belmaker, 2007 AD, p 31) Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) generates electricity about 2 inches inside the brain with electromagnets and is a milder, gentler form of ECT (Electro-convulsive shock therapy). The entire theory underlying TMS in psychiatry is a form of neo-phrenology, that wrongly believed different parts of the brain can be specifically mapped to single emotions or moods. TMS applies electricity to these "emotion centers" of the brain in an effort to modify those emotions. They use the exact language of phrenology, but in modern scientific terms: "localize functions within the human brain" "activation of selective mood circuits" "investigate brain mechanisms underlying specific emotions" "stimulation at different scalp locations derived largely from best-guess assumptions" They even admit the historical connection with phrenology: "TMS as a neuroscience probe fits within a historical current of attempting to localize functions within the human brain." (Transcranial magnetic stimulation in clinical psychiatry, Mark S. George, Robert H. Belmaker, 2007 AD, p 31) This is pure junk science at its worst, since it was debunked over 200 years ago. Chemical psychiatrists reject the human spirit as a myth and therefore are forced to believe all emotion is the result of physical brain function and speak of "mood circuits". Before phrenology, Lavater's physiognomy, wrongly taught the shape of a persons skull determined their mental abilities. Christians can see the error of this thinking since the Bible says that emotions, will and choices have their origin in the human spirit, not the physical brain. TMS interrupts and disrupts normal brain function. TMS causes "lesions" in specific parts of the brain the size of a quarter (1 inch) which are like pressing the pause button on your music player for the duration of the shock. The procedure is entirely experimental and unproven. Only a few actual studies have been conducted, all of which are small, unscientific and unrepeatable in their conclusions. The therapeutic results are small and well within the error margin of the placebo effect: "Open studies with rTMS in depression have been compelling, but the possibility of placebo response must be kept in mind in interpreting these results, given that smaller effect sizes have generally been observed in controlled, blinded trials." (Transcranial magnetic stimulation in clinical psychiatry, Mark S. George, Robert H. Belmaker, 2007 AD, p 133) If TMS, or any brain shocking psychiatric therapy would be effective, it would be important to be able to map the regions of the brain for individual emotions. This has been tried and tried and tried over and over and over again... and there is no direct correlation between the parts of the brain and emotions, thoughts etc. Changes in blood flow in part of the brain that are shocked have been reported: "neural response to TMS correlated directly to changes in blood flow to the region." (Neural Activity Connected To Blood Flow In New Brain Stimulation Technique, Science Daily, Oct. 11, 2007) However, similar changes in blood flow are reported in you finger, when you stick it in a light socket and get a shock. The idea of blood flow related to the cause and cure of insanity is a throw back to our "hero of modern psychiatry" Benjamin Rush, who taught in 1812 AD that insanity was caused by bloated blood vessels: "the cause of madness is seated primarily in the blood-vessels of the brain". TMS is pure junk-pop psychiatry at its worst and millions of dollars are being wasted in research! Applying electricity to the brain to affect emotion is like hitting the USB cable that connects your computer to the printer with a hammer and expecting some improvements in print quality. (Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, rTMS) Click to View

In 1999 AD, Daniel Amen published his book, "Change Your Brain Change Your Life" which, true to typical junk pop psychology, actually claimed to be able to see insanity and mental illness and depression from simple SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) brain scans: "Using the new imaging technology, these patients and their families we're able to "see" the underlying brain problems that were driving their emotional and behavioral symptoms". Knowing that SPECT measures blood flow in the brain, not thought, mood or emotion, even fellow chemical psychiatrists snorted with indignant protests of junk science! Amen has his own unique and unorthodox way of dividing up the brain "some brain researchers would separate the systems differently than I". In the spirit of Phrenology, he also assigns distinct functions to each of his five parts of the brain: "The deep limbic system, at the center of the brain, is the bonding and mood control center. ... The basal ganglia, large structures deep within the brain, control the body's idling speed. ... The prefrontal cortex, at the front tip of the brain, is your supervisor, the part of the brain that helps you stay focused, make plans, control impulses, and make good (or bad) decisions. ... The cingulate is part of the brain that runs longitudinally through the middle part of the frontal lobes, is the part of the brain I call your "gear shifter." It allows you to shift attention from thought to thought and between behaviors. ... The temporal lobes, underneath the temples and behind the eyes, are involved with memory, understanding language, facial recognition, and temper control." Amen's treatments almost always prescribes psychiatric drugs but also "targeted behavioral, cognitive, medicinal, and nutritional prescriptions to optimize its function" As a psychiatrist licensed in nuclear brain imaging, Amen sees almost 10,000 patients a year which means he is making millions every year. He has also run over 1300 infomercials on PBS selling his DVD's for $50. However, for legal reasons gives the warning that contradicts the central thesis of his income: "an abnormal SPECT scan is not an excuse for bad behavior." Really? I thought you told me my "depression, anxiety problems, aggression, attention deficit disorder, bipolar disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder" behaviours are because of bad brain function and I am in no way responsible? You said "psychological problems are in reality brain problems, and that through new imaging techniques we can see many of them" Doctor Amen, if I can see where my brain is broken with your SPECT scans then my bad behaviors cannot be any more my fault than a flu virus! The foundational thesis of his book, that you can see mood and emotion defects in SPECT scans, had never been tested with real clinical trials. His follow-up book, "Healing the Hardware of the Soul" is just more of the same quackery. As a graduate of Oral Robert's univeristy, Amen should know that choice, mood and emotion all have their origin in the human spirit not the physical body. " (Change Your Brain Change Your Life, Daniel Amen, 1998 AD)

In 2002 AD, Michael Persinger, invented "The God Helmet" that used magnetism applied to the temporal lobes of the brain to induce emotion, and spiritual experiences like God. Junk Pop psychiatrists are always in the market for a new treatment. They have a long list of failed treatments that have been discontinued. "The God helmet", like the claims of historic snake oil salesmen, was advertised to induce a spiritual experience into the brain with magnetism applied to the brain. Even atheist Richard Dawkins embarrassed himself by flying 7000 miles to try it on and experience God for himself! He felt nothing. ... Wait a few decades, Richard, one day you will have a genuine spiritual experience! Michael Persinger, rushed to the patent office and began marketing the Shakti Helmet with the usual snake oil claims that followed from wearing the Shakti Helmet: "Spiritual and personality transformation; Out-of-body experiences, lucid dreaming, bliss and other positive feelings; overcome fear, sadness, and anger; create intense and unique altered states of consciousness; meditation/mood enhancement". The Q-Ray is another quack invention in the same family of snake oil magnetism cures for everything. Click to View Click to View Click to View

In 2005, the FDA approved the use of Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) for depression. This FDA approval could be summarized this way, "We have no idea if VNS works, but since it doesn't kill people, you can experiment on live guinea pigs who are otherwise unresponsive to any other treatment for depression. FDA approval opened the door for a large scale "clinical trial" of an unproven treatment. VNS is a form of ECT that shocks the brain with up to 12 volts through an electrode wrapped around the vagus nerve in the neck. The nervous system is more like a network cable between the body and the brain. Applying random shocks of electricity to the vagus nerve is destructive and interferes with normal brain function. The nervous system runs on a natural voltage of about 1/10th of a volt. VNS shocks the vagus nerve up to 12 volts, which is 120x the normal voltage the brain uses. Experts admit that the procedure is both experimental and unproven: "Not curative (depression)-Physicians should warn patients that VNS Therapy has not been determined to be a cure for depression." (Introduction to the VNS Therapy, Warnings, and Precautions, Cyberonics inc, Dec 2008, p8) Chemical psychiatry has a long and misguided history of looking to the brain as the etiology of insanity and depression. Chemical psychiatrists reject the Bible's teaching that man has a spirit that consciously survives the death of the brain. They wrongly view the emotions of man as a machine-like response to chemicals and neurons in the brain. The theory behind VNS is pure junk science: "The pulses that are delivered to the left vagus nerve are transmitted to the central nervous system, and they go to specific areas in the central nervous system that control mood, motivation, sleep, appetite, and other symptoms that are relevant to depression." (A. John Rush, MD, Vice Chair, Department of Clinical Sciences Professor, Department of Psychiatry University of Texas) The problem with this theory, is that nerves do not control or even communicate mood or motivation. Nerves transmit commands for muscle movement and sensory information like touch, pain etc. While muscle pain transmitted through nerves to the brain can clearly affect the mood of the spirit, they do not create for control mood or motivation. Mood and motivation has its origin in the spirit, not the body. Obviously, when you apply raw electricity to a digital electrical communication system (human nervous system) it is going to damage and interfere with normal function of the body. Sleep apnea, where you stop breathing for a few seconds while sleeping is a known dangerous side effect of this stupid treatment. Other known side effects include: actual a change in tonal speech sound, pharyngitis and shore throats, larengitis-like hoarseness and coughing, Neck pain, Difficulty swallowing, Tingling or prickling of the skin. All the side effects interfere with physical tissues near the location of the shocks to the vagus nerve. This rather interference with normal bodily function is easily predicable. (More: Vagus Nerve Stimulation) Click to View

In 2009, Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was approved by the FDA to treat Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This FDA approval could be summarized this way, "We have no idea if DBS works, but since it doesn't kill people, you can experiment on live guinea pigs who are otherwise unresponsive to any other treatment for OCD. FDA approval opened the door for a large scale "clinical trial" of an unproven treatment. DBS is a form of ECT that shocks the brain with 5-10.5 volts through two 6 inch steel probes, that look like meat thermometers, which are pressed deep into the center of the brain. Although it is called a "Pacemaker of the Brain", such a comparison with an organ like the heart is absurd. A pacemaker keeps the heart beating in timing to the frequency of shocks applied to the heart. The heart naturally responds to such shocks of electricity. The brain, is more like a network cable between the body and the spirit. Applying random shocks of electricity to the brain is destructive and interferes with normal brain function. The brain runs on a natural voltage of about 1/10th of a volt. DBS shocks the brain with up to 10.5 volts, which is 100x the normal voltage the brain uses. Experts admit that the procedure is both experimental and unproven: "The effectiveness of this device (DBS) for this use (ODC) has not been demonstrated." (Neurostimulators for Psychiatric Disorders, Get the Facts, Medtronic inc.) "The long-term safety and effectiveness of brain stimulation therapy for obsessive compulsive disorder has not been established." (DBS Therapy For OCD, Implant manual, Lead Kit For Deep Brain Stimulation, Medtronic inc., 2009 AD, p 13) Since chemical psychiatrists are atheists who belief in evolution, they view man as nothing more than a pile of chemicals and electrons. They openly mock Christians who view the nature of man is dichotomous, having a distinct body and soul. This error has "dead ended" psychiatric research into insanity. They have wrongly look to the physical brain as the etiological cause of insanity for 300 years. Insanity happens in the spirit, not the body. A tiny clinical trial of 26 patients with ODC, demonstrated that the DBS implant actually increased OCD symptoms in 46.2% of the 26 patients. Any reported improvements could easily be accounted for through placebo effect. In 25 years, DBS will be put on the shelf beside all the other failed psychiatric treatments for insanity. (More: Deep brain stimulation) Click to View

2013 AD: Psychiatrists finally discover the biological cause of insanity!

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