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Title:Messianic Bible Prophecy Fulfilled: Isaiah 9:1-7 "A child will be born"
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Body:Bible Prophecy Fulfilled: Isaiah 9:1-7 Messiah is Born

Midrashic triple prophecy of Isaiah 9:1-7:


A. The Midrashic triple prophecy of Isaiah 9:1-7:

1. Hezekiah partially fulfilled Isa 9:1-7

2. John the Baptist partially fulfilled Isa 9:1-7

3. Jesus fully fulfilled Isa 9:1-7

B. The historical and chronological setting of Isaiah 9:1-7 which was written in 734 BC:

1. Historical echoes and types:

a. 1184 BC: Isa 9:1-7 points back to when Gideon defeated the Midianites in Judges 6-9. Gideon only judged a single year in 1184 BC when he defeated 185,000 Midianites and the Amalekites with his army of 300.

b. 734 BC: Isa 9:1-7 points back two years earlier to the liberation promised in Isa 7:1-14 (734 BC) where the two kings Israel dreaded were prophesied to be killed (Rezin and Pekah died in in 732 BC).

2. 753 BC: Hezekiah is born

3. 734 BC: Isa writes Isa 7:1-14

4. 733 BC: Isaiah's wife conceives and gives birth to a son partially fulfilling the prophecy of Isa 7:14: Isa 8:1-8

5. 732 BC: Ahaz paid tribute to Tiglath-pileser III (aka Pul) for protection against Rezin, king of Damascus. Rezin is killed by the Assyrian king. The same year Pekah is killed: 2 Kings 16:5-18; 2 Chron 28:19-27. Ahaz made a model of the pagan altar in Damascus in the temple in Jerusalem and worshipped the Aramean pagan gods.

6. 732 BC: Isaiah writes Isa 9:1-7 when Hezekiah is 21 years old. This is the same year Isa 7:1-14 was partially fulfilled when Rezin and Pekah were killed.

7. 728 BC: Hezekiah becomes coregent with his father, Ahaz, king of Judah at the age of 12. Manasseh also became coregent at age 12 because this was the beginning of manhood in ancient Israel

8. 715 BC: Ahaz died, and Hezekiah ascends the throne as sole ruler of Judah for 29 years (dated from sole regency) at age 25.

9. 696 BC: Manasseh becomes coregent with Hezekiah because of Hezekiah's terminal illness (boils).

10. 686 BC: Hezekiah died at the age of 67, and Manasseh becomes sole regent as king of Judah.

C. Translation: All names refer to the messianic king to be born not Hezekiah alone or God.

1. The Septuagint (282 BC): "Because a child was born to us; a son was given to us whose leadership came upon his shoulder; and his name is called "Messenger of the Great Council," for I will bring peace upon the rulers and health to him." (Isaiah 9:6)

2. The Great Isaiah Scroll (50 BC): "For a child is born to us, a son is given to us. The government will be on his shoulders. He is called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, the Prince of Peace. His government will expand, and peace will be endless for the throne of David and his kingdom, to establish it and to sustain it with justice and righteousness from now on and forevermore. The zeal of the LORD of hosts will do this." (Isa 9:6-7, Great Isaiah Dead Sea Scroll: 50 BC, translated by Peter Flint and Eugene Ulrich)

3. Targum of Isaiah 9:6-7 (AD 10-200): "For to us a child is born, to us a son is given; and [he will accept the law] upon [himself to keep it], and his name will be called [before the] Wonderful Counselor, [the] Mighty God, existing forever, "[The Messiah in whose days] peace [will increase upon us]." [Great pride will belong to those who perform the law], and for [those who keep] peace there will be no end, upon the throne of David and upon his kingdom, to establish it and to build it with judgment and with virtue from this time forth and forever." (The Aramaic Bible, Volume 11: The Isaiah Targum, Bruce Chilton, p20, 1990 AD)

a. The words in italics and square brackets are added by the translators and are not in the original text of the Targum. The original manuscript of the Targum of Isaiah assigned the names to the king to be born, who was the Messiah not Hezekiah. Modern Jewish translators have modified the meaning to reflect modern Jewish thought as witnessed in the text in [italics]. However, it is important that the modern Jewish translators also believed the Targum of Isaiah 9:6-7 was messianic.

b. Dating the Targum of Isaiah to AD 10-200: "By taking into consideration the interpretative levels (and strata within those levels) which have been described, the rabbinic ascriptions of authorship, the language of the Targum, its allusions to various historical circumstances, and recent critical discussion, it is possible to arrive at a consistent picture of how the Targum took shape. During the Tannaitic [AD 10-200] and Amoraic periods [AD 160-200], it would appear, rabbis developed an interpretative translation of Isaiah." (The Aramaic Bible, Volume 11: The Isaiah Targum, Bruce Chilton, pxxiv, 1990 AD)

4. NASB (AD 1995): "For a child will be born to us, a son will be given to us; And the government will rest on His shoulders; And His name will be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Eternal Father, Prince of Peace. There will be no end to the increase of His government or of peace, On the throne of David and over his kingdom, To establish it and to uphold it with justice and righteousness From then on and forevermore. The zeal of the LORD of hosts will accomplish this." (Isaiah 9:6-7)

5. Recently, Jews have applied the names to God not the Messiah or the king (Hezekiah).

a. Jewish NJPSV translation of the Tanach (1985 AD): "For a child has been born to us, A son has been given us. And authority has settled on his shoulders. He has been named "The Mighty God is planning grace; The Eternal Father, a peaceable ruler"- In token of abundant authority And of peace without limit Upon David's throne and kingdom, That it may be firmly established In justice and in equity Now and evermore. The zeal of the LORD of Hosts Shall bring this to pass." (Isaiah 9:5-6)

b. "The most imaginative translation is that of the NJPSV, rendering the whole name as a sentence: "The Mighty God is planning grace; The Eternal Father, a peaceable ruler." This would be similar to-but substantially longer than-the name of Isaiah's son in Isaiah 8:1-4, "Maher-Shalal-Hash-Baz," which means "hasten prey, speed plunder." The problems with the rendering of the NJPSV are: (1) This is the very first time in the recorded history of the translation and interpretation of Isaiah that anyone has ever come up with this rendering. If the NJPSV is right, that would mean that in more than twenty-five hundred years of reading and studying the text, no one else ever got it right. From the viewpoint of Jewish tradition, that would be almost unfathomable, since traditional Jews believe that the ancient rabbis were far closer to the original meaning of the biblical text, passing down their traditions and interpretations to the later generations who were more removed from the original. How then could a traditional Jew believe that the Targum was wrong, the Talmud was wrong, the medieval commentaries were wrong, all other Jewish interpreters and translators were wrong, while a translation composed in the last third of the twentieth century was right? (2) It [the NJPSV wording] eliminates the possibility of these four pairs of names being throne names, similar to the custom in ancient Egypt in which the new pharaoh would receive four royal names at his coronation-something many scholars believe to be the case here. (3) The length of the name for the child seems completely unwieldy, even compared to the name Maher-Shalal-Hash-Baz in the next chapter. For all these reasons, the rendering of the NJPSV should also be rejected, despite its ingenuity, whereas there is no good reason to reject the rendering found in many Christian translations, which gives four double names to the royal child." (Answering Jewish Objections to Jesus: Messianic Prophecy Objections, Michael L. Brown, Isaiah 9:6, p33, 2003 AD)

D. Four throne names follow the pattern of Pharaonic throne names of Egypt:

1. In ancient Egypt a crown prince was named at birth, and he was assigned 4 additional throne names at the time of his coronation.

a. "A full pharaonic titulary (nḫbt) consisted of the five great names (rn wr) that a person assumed on the day he became a Pharaoh of Egypt. These names followed the traditional Middle Kingdom format and for nearly 3000 years the pharaohs of Egypt received one name at birth and four additional names at their ascension." (Could Taharqa Have Been Called to the Battle of Eltekeh?: A Response to William H. Shea, Robert D. Bates, Near East Archaeological Society Bulletin 46, p51, 2001 AD)

2. Isaiah 9:6 lists the four pairs of names:

a. Wonderful Counselor: Hezekiah counseled the priests and the people and Jesus counseled us on salvation.

b. Mighty God

c. Eternal Father

d. Prince of Peace

3. This could apply to Hezekiah and Jesus. While it is not certain that Hezekiah was a partial fulfillment of Isaiah 9, there is nothing prohibiting this conclusion. Hezekiah could be seen as "Mighty God" by Sennacherib when his army of 185,000 men were miraculously killed. Jesus was the Son of God, not the Father, and he came as a representative of the Eternal Father. Emmanuel (Isa 7:14; Mt 1:23) is the same as Mighty God and can be viewed as a statement that the Messiah IS GOD or that God is with the Messiah. Only in the New Testament, do we learn that it meant BOTH since Jesus is the creator (Jn 1:1-5; Col 1:16; Heb 1:10-12) and "if you have seen Me you have seen the Father". (Jn 14:9)

Birth name



Name 1

Wonderful Counselor: 2 Chro 30:5-10, 22; 32:6-8

Wonderful Counselor: Mt 7:28-29; 13:54; Mk 11:18; Jn 7:46; age 12 in the temple: Lk 2:47

Name 2

Mighty God: 2 Kings 18:7,22; 2 Chro 32:8; Isa 37:33-35

Mighty God, Emmanuel "God with us": Isa 10:21

Name 3

Eternal Father

Eternal Father: Jn 14:9 (Like Father)

Name 4

Prince of Peace: 2 Ki 20:19

Prince of Peace: Rom 5:1; Eph 2:14; Col 3:15; Phil 4:7

E. Historical development of Hezekiah as the child born for partial fulfillment of Isa 9:6-7

1. Jews at Zippori in AD 160, as recorded in the Babylonian Talmud (AD 500), proposed that Hezekiah fulfilled Isa 9:6-7 based upon the false idea that both Hezekiah and Sennacherib had 8 names:

a. Abba Arikha (AD 160-200) commented: "Said the Holy One, blessed be he, "Let Hezekiah come, who has eight names, and exact punishment from Sennacherib, who has eight names." As to Hezekiah, it is written, "For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given, and the government shall be upon his shoulder, and his name shall be called wonderful, counsellor, mighty, judge, everlasting, father, prince, and peace" (Is. 9:5). And there is yet the name "Hezekiah" too? [Hezekiah] means "Whom God has strengthened." Another matter: it is Hezekiah, for he strengthened Israel for their father in heaven. As to Sennacherib, it is written, "Tiglath-pileser" (2 Kgs. 15:29), "Pilneser" (1 Chr. 5:26), "Shalmeneser" (2 Kgs. 17:3), "Pul" (2 Kgs. 15:29), "Sargon" (Is. 20:1), "Asnapper" (Ezra 4:10), "Rabba" (Ezra 4:10), and "Yaqqira" (Ezra 4:10). And there is yet the name "Sennacherib" too." (Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin 94A/11.1, I.54 C-I., 500 AD)

b. Of course, Tiglath-Pilesar, Shalmaneser, Sargon, and Sennacherib are all well-attested DIFFERENT Assyrian kings. Pul was the nickname of Tiglath-Pilesar, Asnapper = Ashurbanipal. Rabba and Yaqqira are fictional names of non-existent Assyrian kings fabricated by the Rabbincial Jews in AD 160 and recorded in the Babylonian Talmud in AD 500.

2. Jews at Zippori in AD 160, as recorded in the Babylonian Talmud (AD 500), challenged and disagreed with the idea that Hezekiah fulfilled Isa 9:6-7 as the Messiah and that Sennacherib, the Assyrian king was Gog and Magog:

a. "Of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no end" (Is. 9:6): R. Tanhum said, "In Sepphoris [i.e. Zippori], Bar Qappara expounded this verse as follows: " 'On what account is every M in the middle of a word open, but the one in the word "increase" is closed? " 'The Holy One, blessed be he, proposed to make Hezekiah Messiah, and Sennacherib into Gog and Magog. " 'The attribute of justice said before the Holy One, blessed be he, "Lord of the world, Now if David, king of Israel, who recited how many songs and praises before you, you did not make Messiah, Hezekiah, for whom you have done all these miracles, and who did not recite a song before you, surely should not be made Messiah." (Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin 94A/11.1, I.50 A-E., 500 AD)

b. "What is even more remarkable is the tradition (b. Sanh. 94a) expounded by the third-century Bar Kappara, the student of the great patriarch (nāśîʾ) Judah the Prince, that God himself wished to appoint Hezekiah as the Messiah and the Assyrian monarch Sennacherib as Gog and Magog, whereupon the Attribute of Justice complained that if God did not make King David, who uttered so many hymns and psalms, the Messiah, it was not fair to appoint Hezekiah, who, despite all the miracles performed in his behalf, did not compose any hymns or psalms. A similar statement (b. Sanh. 99a) is recorded by the third-century Hillel II, who, as the grandson of the famous patriarch (nāśîʾ) Judah the Prince, was in a position of great importance in the Palestinian Jewish community, that there will be no Messiah for Israel because they have already enjoyed him in the days of Hezekiah. Indeed, the eight names that are ascribed to Hezekiah (b. Sanh. 94a) are those ascribed by the prophet Isaiah to the Messiah (Isa 9:5). To be sure, to this clear implication that King Hezekiah was the long-awaited Messiah, his contemporary, Rabbi Joseph, responded, "May God forgive him. And yet there is reason to think that Josephus did not share this lofty view of Hezekiah. One measure of the amount of interest that a given personality has for Josephus may be seen in the sheer amount of space that he devotes to him." (Josephus's Portrait of Hezekiah, Louis H. Feldman, Journal of Biblical Literature 111, p598, 1992)

3. In AD 400 Jerome was aware the Jews viewed Hezekiah as the child/king to be born to the exclusion of Jesus, but he rejected this:

a. "And a throne will be prepared in mercy, and on it will sit in truth, in the tabernacle of David, one who judges and seeks judgment and quickly renders what is just." The Hebrews (i.e., Jews in AD 400) interpret this to mean that Hezekiah, a just man, after having expelled the Assyrians, will retain the throne of David and rule Judah, adjudging the people of God to be subject to himself in truth. Others understand that it is about Christ. (Jerome, commentary on Isaiah 9:6, 400 AD)

I. Gideon as an antitype upon which the prophecy in Isa 9:6-7 finds its foundation

1. Isa 9:4 reaches back to Gideon's defeat of Midian at the rock of Oreb of 135,000 soldiers: Judges 8:10

a. "You shall break the yoke/rod of their oppressor, as at the battle of Midian." (Isaiah 9:4)

b. "The Lord of hosts will arouse a scourge against him like the slaughter of Midian at the rock of Oreb; and His staff will be over the sea and He will lift it up the way He did in Egypt." (Isaiah 10:26)

c. "They captured the two leaders of Midian, Oreb and Zeeb, and they killed Oreb at the rock of Oreb, and they killed Zeeb at the wine press of Zeeb, while they pursued Midian; and they brought the heads of Oreb and Zeeb to Gideon from across the Jordan." (Judges 7:25)

2. Gideon's defeat of Midian at the rock of Oreb:

a. Gideon's army of 300 men ensured that God won the battle miraculously without human help.

b. "When they blew 300 trumpets, the Lord set the sword of one against another even throughout the whole army; and the army fled as far as Beth-shittah toward Zererah, as far as the edge of Abel-meholah, by Tabbath." (Judges 7:22)

c. Gideon defeated an army of 135,000 with God's miraculous help.

3. Isa 9:4 prophesied that the child/king to be born, would miraculously defeat an entire army like Gideon.

a. Hezekiah miraculously defeated the 185,000 Assyrian soldiers: 2 Ki 19:35.

b. John the Baptist did not defeat any known armies.

c. Jesus defeated the armies of Satan through his commander Michael: Rev 12:7-9.

II. Biblical evidence Hezekiah partially fulfilled Isa 9:6-7

1. Both Hezekiah and Jesus were descendants of David:

a. ""And so, because he was a prophet and knew that God had sworn to him with an oath to seat one of his descendants on his throne, he looked ahead and spoke of the resurrection of the Christ, that He was neither abandoned to Hades, nor did His flesh suffer decay. "This Jesus God raised up again, to which we are all witnesses. "Therefore having been exalted to the right hand of God, and having received from the Father the promise of the Holy Spirit, He has poured forth this which you both see and hear. "For it was not David who ascended into heaven, but he himself says: 'The Lord said to my Lord, "Sit at My right hand, Until I make Your enemies a footstool for Your feet." ' "Therefore let all the house of Israel know for certain that God has made Him both Lord and Christ-this Jesus whom you crucified."" (Acts 2:30-36)

2. Hezekiah was a one of a kind king: "He (Hezekiah) trusted in the Lord, the God of Israel; so that after him there was none like him among all the kings of Judah, nor among those who were before him. For he clung to the Lord; he did not depart from following Him, but kept His commandments, which the Lord had commanded Moses." (2 Kings 18:5-6)

3. Isa 9:1: Light upon Zebulun and Naphtali: These two northern tribes in Israel were the first to be attacked by foreign armies. Hezekiah sent the message of spiritual restoration to Zebulun (in which was Nazareth at the time of Jesus) and most mocked Hezekiah, but a remnant came to Jerusalem for the Passover. Jesus was likewise rejected in his home synagogue in Nazareth. (Luke 4:16-21)

a. Humiliation by Assyrians, liberation by Hezekiah:

i. 732 BC: "In the days of Pekah king of Israel, Tiglath-pileser king of Assyria came and captured Ijon and Abel-beth-maacah and Janoah and Kedesh and Hazor and Gilead and Galilee, all the land of Naphtali; and he carried them captive to Assyria. And Hoshea the son of Elah made a conspiracy against Pekah the son of Remaliah, and struck him and put him to death and became king in his place, in the twentieth year of Jotham the son of Uzziah." (2 Kings 15:29-30)

1. Echoes back to Isa 7:16: "For before the boy will know enough to refuse evil and choose good, the land whose two kings (Rezin and Pekah) you dread will be forsaken." (Isaiah 7:16)

2. "So the couriers passed from city to city through the country of Ephraim and Manasseh, and as far as Zebulun, but they laughed them to scorn and mocked them. Nevertheless some men of Asher, Manasseh and Zebulun humbled themselves and came to Jerusalem. The hand of God was also on Judah to give them one heart to do what the king and the princes commanded by the word of the Lord." (2 Chronicles 30:10-12)

b. Humiliation by Romans and sin, liberation by the light of Christ:

i. Jesus fulfilled Isa 9:1-7 at the start of his ministry which began in the region of Zebulun and Naphtali. Prophecy, therefore, identified the Messiah would be from Judah, Bethlehem, the branch from branch-land (Nazarene), Zebulun and Naphtali which is why the most common name for the Messiah in the New Testament is "Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus the Nazarene". "Now when Jesus heard that John had been taken into custody, He withdrew into Galilee; and leaving Nazareth, He came and settled in Capernaum, which is by the sea, in the region of Zebulun and Naphtali. This was to fulfill what was spoken through Isaiah the prophet: "The land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali, By the way of the sea, beyond the Jordan, Galilee of the Gentiles- "The people who were sitting in darkness saw a great Light, And those who were sitting in the land and shadow of death, Upon them a Light dawned." From that time Jesus began to preach and say, "Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand."" (Matthew 4:12-17)

ii. "Then Jesus again spoke to them, saying, "I am the Light of the world; he who follows Me will not walk in the darkness, but will have the Light of life."" (John 8:12)

iii. "There was the true Light which, coming into the world, enlightens every man." (John 1:9)

iv. "Let no one deceive you with empty words, for because of these things the wrath of God comes upon the sons of disobedience. Therefore do not be partakers with them; for you were formerly darkness, but now you are Light in the Lord; walk as children of Light (for the fruit of the Light consists in all goodness and righteousness and truth), trying to learn what is pleasing to the Lord. Do not participate in the unfruitful deeds of darkness, but instead even expose them; for it is disgraceful even to speak of the things which are done by them in secret. But all things become visible when they are exposed by the light, for everything that becomes visible is light. For this reason it says, "Awake, sleeper, And arise from the dead, And Christ will shine on you."" (Ephesians 5:6-14)

v. Zacharias applied Isa 9:2 to his son, John the Baptist, by bringing light to the gentiles as the forerunner of Christ: Luke 1:79

4. Fulfilling Isa 9:3, both Hezekiah and Jesus brought about great joy rejoicing in Jerusalem for 14 days:

a. ""Then Hezekiah spoke encouragingly to all the Levites who showed good insight in the things of the LORD. So they ate for the appointed seven days, sacrificing peace offerings and giving thanks to the LORD God of their fathers. Then the whole assembly decided to celebrate the feast another seven days, so they celebrated the seven days with joy. For Hezekiah king of Judah had contributed to the assembly 1,000 bulls and 7,000 sheep, and the princes had contributed to the assembly 1,000 bulls and 10,000 sheep; and a large number of priests consecrated themselves. All the assembly of Judah rejoiced, with the priests and the Levites and all the assembly that came from Israel, both the sojourners who came from the land of Israel and those living in Judah. So there was great joy in Jerusalem, because there was nothing like this in Jerusalem since the days of Solomon the son of David, king of Israel." (2 Chronicles 30:22-26)

b. Jesus brought much joy and rejoicing: Matthew 2:10; 13:20,44; 21:8-9; 25:23; Lk 6:23; 13:17; 24:52

i. "When they saw the star, they rejoiced exceedingly with great joy." (Matthew 2:10)

ii. ""The one on whom seed was sown on the rocky places, this is the man who hears the word and immediately receives it with joy;" (Matthew 13:20)

iii. ""The kingdom of heaven is like a treasure hidden in the field, which a man found and hid again; and from joy over it he goes and sells all that he has and buys that field." (Matthew 13:44)

iv. "Most of the crowd spread their coats in the road, and others were cutting branches from the trees and spreading them in the road. The crowds going ahead of Him, and those who followed, were shouting, "Hosanna to the Son of David; BLESSED IS HE WHO COMES IN THE NAME OF THE LORD; Hosanna in the highest!"" (Matthew 21:8-9)

v. ""His master said to him, 'Well done, good and faithful slave. You were faithful with a few things, I will put you in charge of many things; enter into the joy of your master.'" (Matthew 25:23)

vi. ""Be glad in that day and leap for joy, for behold, your reward is great in heaven. For in the same way their fathers used to treat the prophets." (Luke 6:23)

vii. "As He said this, all His opponents were being humiliated; and the entire crowd was rejoicing over all the glorious things being done by Him." (Luke 13:17)

viii. "And they, after worshiping Him, returned to Jerusalem with great joy," (Luke 24:52)

5. Both Hezekiah and Jesus cleansed the temple at the start of their reign/ministry during Passover. The first Jewish month is Nisan and Passover is Nisan 14. Hezekiah began cleansing the temple on Nisan 1 and finished on Nisan 16. The temple was not ready for the Passover on Nisan 14, because there were not enough priests who had cleansed themselves to do the work (2 Chron 29:34; 30:3), so following the president of Numbers 9:11, they celebrated the Passover on the 14th of the second month (Iyar 14). (2 Chron 29:3 + Jn 2:13-14)

6. Both Hezekiah and Jesus sent messengers throughout all Israel to preach restoration and salvation: 2 Chron 30:6-10 + Lk 10:1

a. "The couriers went throughout all Israel and Judah with the letters from the hand of the king and his princes, even according to the command of the king, saying, "O sons of Israel, return to the LORD God of Abraham, Isaac and Israel, that He may return to those of you who escaped and are left from the hand of the kings of Assyria. "Do not be like your fathers and your brothers, who were unfaithful to the LORD God of their fathers, so that He made them a horror, as you see. "Now do not stiffen your neck like your fathers, but yield to the LORD and enter His sanctuary which He has consecrated forever, and serve the LORD your God, that His burning anger may turn away from you. "For if you return to the LORD, your brothers and your sons will find compassion before those who led them captive and will return to this land. For the LORD your God is gracious and compassionate, and will not turn His face away from you if you return to Him." So the couriers passed from city to city through the country of Ephraim and Manasseh, and as far as Zebulun, but they laughed them to scorn and mocked them." (2 Chro 30:6-10)

b. "Now after this the Lord appointed seventy others, and sent them in pairs ahead of Him to every city and place where He Himself was going to come." (Luke 10:1)

7. Both Hezekiah and Jesus associated with, ate with, and worshipped with sinners who were not purified but who sincerely wanted, as lost sheep, to worship God: 2 Chron 30:18-20; Mt 9:11-13; 11:19; Lk 7:37-50; 15:2-7; Jn 8:11.

a. "For a multitude of the people, even many from Ephraim and Manasseh, Issachar and Zebulun, had not purified themselves, yet they ate the Passover otherwise than prescribed. For Hezekiah prayed for them, saying, "May the good LORD pardon everyone who prepares his heart to seek God, the LORD God of his fathers, though not according to the purification rules of the sanctuary." So the LORD heard Hezekiah and healed the people." (2 Chronicles 30:18-20)

b. "When the Pharisees saw this, they said to His disciples, "Why is your Teacher eating with the tax collectors and sinners?" But when Jesus heard this, He said, "It is not those who are healthy who need a physician, but those who are sick. "But go and learn what this means: 'I DESIRE COMPASSION, AND NOT SACRIFICE,' for I did not come to call the righteous, but sinners."" (Matthew 9:11-13)

c. ""The Son of Man came eating and drinking, and they say, 'Behold, a gluttonous man and a drunkard, a friend of tax collectors and sinners!' Yet wisdom is vindicated by her deeds."" (Matthew 11:19)

d. "And there was a woman in the city who was a sinner; and when she learned that He was reclining at the table in the Pharisee's house, she brought an alabaster vial of perfume, and standing behind Him at His feet, weeping, she began to wet His feet with her tears, and kept wiping them with the hair of her head, and kissing His feet and anointing them with the perfume. Now when the Pharisee who had invited Him saw this, he said to himself, "If this man were a prophet He would know who and what sort of person this woman is who is touching Him, that she is a sinner." And Jesus answered him, "Simon, I have something to say to you." And he replied, "Say it, Teacher." "A moneylender had two debtors: one owed five hundred denarii, and the other fifty. "When they were unable to repay, he graciously forgave them both. So which of them will love him more?" Simon answered and said, "I suppose the one whom he forgave more." And He said to him, "You have judged correctly." Turning toward the woman, He said to Simon, "Do you see this woman? I entered your house; you gave Me no water for My feet, but she has wet My feet with her tears and wiped them with her hair. "You gave Me no kiss; but she, since the time I came in, has not ceased to kiss My feet. "You did not anoint My head with oil, but she anointed My feet with perfume. "For this reason I say to you, her sins, which are many, have been forgiven, for she loved much; but he who is forgiven little, loves little." Then He said to her, "Your sins have been forgiven." Those who were reclining at the table with Him began to say to themselves, "Who is this man who even forgives sins?" And He said to the woman, "Your faith has saved you; go in peace."" (Luke 7:37-50)

e. "Both the Pharisees and the scribes began to grumble, saying, "This man receives sinners and eats with them." So He told them this parable, saying, "What man among you, if he has a hundred sheep and has lost one of them, does not leave the ninety-nine in the open pasture and go after the one which is lost until he finds it? "When he has found it, he lays it on his shoulders, rejoicing. "And when he comes home, he calls together his friends and his neighbors, saying to them, 'Rejoice with me, for I have found my sheep which was lost!' "I tell you that in the same way, there will be more joy in heaven over one sinner who repents than over ninety-nine righteous persons who need no repentance." (Luke 15:2-7)

f. "She said, "No one, Lord." And Jesus said, "I do not condemn you, either. Go. From now on sin no more."" (John 8:11)

8. Fulfilling Isa 9:3, both Hezekiah and Jesus "multiplied the nation", meaning Hezekiah expanded the physical borders by conquering the Philistines: 2 Ki 18:8. Additionally, twice scripture mentions Hezekiah's tunnel which you can walk through today in Israel: 2 Ki 20:20; 2 Chro 32:30.

a. Prophecy:

i. "You shall multiply the nation, You shall increase their gladness; They will be glad in Your presence As with the gladness of harvest, As men rejoice when they divide the spoil." (Isaiah 9:3)

ii. "You have increased the nation, O Lord, You have increased the nation, You are glorified; You have extended all the borders of the land." (Isaiah 26:15)

b. Hezekiah conquered the Philistines: 2 Chron 28:18; 2 Ki 18:8.

i. Territory lost under Ahaz: "And the Philistines had made raids on the cities in the Shephelah and the Negeb of Judah, and had taken Beth-shemesh, Aijalon, Gederoth, Soco with its villages, Timnah with its villages, and Gimzo with its villages; and they settled there." (2 Chronicles 28:18)

ii. Territory gained by Hezekiah: "Hezekiah defeated the Philistines as far as Gaza and its territory, from watchtower to fortified city." (2 Kings 18:8)

c. New Hezekiah Tunnel inscriptions confirm 2 Ki 18:8 and partially fulfill Isa 9:3. The inscription directly states that Hezekiah "smote the Philistines from Ekron to Gaza", which matches scripture in 2 Ki 18:8.

i. Discovery and translation: Nine new inscriptions with frames have been discovered in situ in side Hezekiah's tunnel and the area of the Pool of Siloam. One of the frames were discovered 1909 by Louis-Hugues Vincent who concluded they were prepared for an inscription that was never carved in the frames. But in AD 2022 the inscription 11 lines, 64 words, and 243 letters reads from translation (Gershon Galil and Eli Shukron)

Line 1: Hezekiah, the son of Ahaz, king of Judah,

Line 2: made the pool and the conduit.

Line 3: In the seventeenth year, in the second (day), in the fourth (month),

Line 4: of king Hezekiah, the king brought

Line 5: the water into the city by a tunnel, the king led

Line 6: the water into the pool. He smote the Philistines

Line 7: from Ekron to Gaza and placed there the OREB unit of

Line 8: the army of Judah. He broke the images and broke in ˹pieces˺ the Nehu˹sh˺tan

Line 9: and he removed the high ˹places and˺ cut down the Asherah. Hezek˹ia˺h, the king,

Line 10: accumulated in all his treasure houses and in the house of YHWH

Line 11: a lot of silver and gold, perfumes and good ointment.

ii. Discussion: "This 'summary inscription' is arranged in literary order, not chronologically, and is divided into five components: title, the water project, the wars against Philistia, the reform and the accumulation of property. It includes scriptures that appear verbatim or with slight changes in the Bible, such as: "Hezekiah son of Ahaz, king of Judah", "Make the pool and the conduit", "brought ... the water into the city", "smote the Philistines ... as far as Gaza", "broke the images and broke in pieces the ... Nehushtan and he removed the high places and cut down the Asherah", "... in all his treasure houses and in the house of YHWH, silver ... and gold, perfumes and good ointment" (see 2 Kings 18: 1, 4, 8; 20: 13, 20). These are actually the earliest manuscripts of the Bible." (Gershon Galil)

iii. Date of Hezekiah's tunnel completion: The newly discovered inscriptions date the completion of the tunnel to the 2nd Tammuz during the 17th year of Hezekiah's reign. Hezekiah (who used accession reckoning) was coregent with his father Ahaz, starting in 728 BC at age 12, and sole regent starting in 715 BC at age 25. Age 12 was when a boy became a man in ancient Israel as seen in the fact that Hezekiah's son, Manasseh also became coregent with Hezekiah at age 12 in 696 BC (2 Chron 33:1). The kings and Chronicles both date events from his sole reign with accession reckoning. If the tunnel was completed in the 17th year from his coregency, it was 711 BC. If the tunnel was completed in the 17th year of his sole regency, it was 698 BC, two years before Hezekiah's illness and three years after the 701 BC invasion of Sennacherib where his army was defeated.

d. Jesus brought salvation to the Gentiles by faith: "Rejoice, barren woman who does not bear; Break forth and shout, you who are not in labor; For more numerous are the children of the desolate (Sarah) than of the one who has a husband (Hagar)."" (Galatians 4:27; Isaiah 54:1)

9. Living water:

a. Hezekiah protected the main water supply of Jerusalem (Gihon Spring) by digging the diversion tunnel and constructing the pool of Siloam: 2 Ki 20:20; 2 Chro 32:30.

b. Jesus is the living water (Jn 4:14).

10. Fulfilling Isa 9:4, both Hezekiah and Jesus brought release from oppressors like the battle of Midian where Gideon miraculously defeated an army of 135,000 Midianite soldiers (Judges 6-8). Hezekiah miraculously defeated the 185,000 Assyrian soldiers (2 Ki 19:35). Jesus defeated the armies of Satan through his commander Michael (Rev 12:7-9)!

a. "For You shall break the yoke of their burden and the staff on their shoulders, The rod of their oppressor, as at the battle of Midian." (Isaiah 9:4)

i. "The Lord of hosts will arouse a scourge against him like the slaughter of Midian at the rock of Oreb; and His staff will be over the sea and He will lift it up the way He did in Egypt." (Isaiah 10:26)

b. Hezekiah rebelled against Shaleneser, king of Assyria, and was spared, when Israel was deported in 723 BC:

i. "And the Lord was with him; wherever he went he prospered. And he rebelled against the king of Assyria and did not serve him. He defeated the Philistines as far as Gaza and its territory, from watchtower to fortified city. Now in the fourth year of King Hezekiah, which was the seventh year of Hoshea son of Elah king of Israel, Shalmaneser king of Assyria came up against Samaria and besieged it. At the end of three years they captured it; in the sixth year of Hezekiah, which was the ninth year of Hoshea king of Israel, Samaria was captured." (2 Kings 18:7-10)

c. Hezekiah's prayer miraculously defeated the Sennacherib, king of Assyria who oppressed Judah in 701 BC.

d. Jesus defeated Satan at his death in AD 33 (Heb 2:14) and Rome on the day of Pentecost when he established his kingdom, which is the church. (Isa 2:1-4)

11. Both Hezekiah and Jesus were challenged and insulted by enemies about relying on God alone: 2 Chron 32:11-15; Mt 27:39-43; Jn 8:48-49; Lk 6:22-23

a. "'Is not Hezekiah misleading you to give yourselves over to die by hunger and by thirst, saying, "The LORD our God will deliver us from the hand of the king of Assyria"? 'Has not the same Hezekiah taken away His high places and His altars, and said to Judah and Jerusalem, "You shall worship before one altar, and on it you shall burn incense"? 'Do you not know what I and my fathers have done to all the peoples of the lands? Were the gods of the nations of the lands able at all to deliver their land from my hand? 'Who was there among all the gods of those nations which my fathers utterly destroyed who could deliver his people out of my hand, that your God should be able to deliver you from my hand? 'Now therefore, do not let Hezekiah deceive you or mislead you like this, and do not believe him, for no god of any nation or kingdom was able to deliver his people from my hand or from the hand of my fathers. How much less will your God deliver you from my hand?' "" (2 Chronicles 32:11-15)

b. "And those passing by were hurling abuse at Him, wagging their heads and saying, "You who are going to destroy the temple and rebuild it in three days, save Yourself! If You are the Son of God, come down from the cross." In the same way the chief priests also, along with the scribes and elders, were mocking Him and saying, "He saved others; He cannot save Himself. He is the King of Israel; let Him now come down from the cross, and we will believe in Him. "HE TRUSTS IN GOD; LET GOD RESCUE Him now, IF HE DELIGHTS IN HIM; for He said, 'I am the Son of God.' "" (Matthew 27:39-43)

c. "The Jews answered and said to Him, "Do we not say rightly that You are a Samaritan and have a demon?" Jesus answered, "I do not have a demon; but I honor My Father, and you dishonor Me." (John 8:48-49)

d. ""Blessed are you when men hate you, and ostracize you, and insult you, and scorn your name as evil, for the sake of the Son of Man. "Be glad in that day and leap for joy, for behold, your reward is great in heaven. For in the same way their fathers used to treat the prophets." (Luke 6:22-23)

12. Both Hezekiah and Jesus taught the people to rely on God, not human strength: 2 Chro 32:8; Mt 10:28; 26:53; 1 Jn 4:4

a. ""With him is only an arm of flesh, but with us is the LORD our God to help us and to fight our battles." And the people relied on the words of Hezekiah king of Judah." (2 Chronicles 32:8)

b. ""Do not fear those who kill the body but are unable to kill the soul; but rather fear Him who is able to destroy both soul and body in hell." (Matthew 10:28)

c. ""Or do you think that I cannot appeal to My Father, and He will at once put at My disposal more than twelve legions of angels?" (Matthew 26:53)

d. "You are from God, little children, and have overcome them; because greater is He who is in you than he who is in the world." (1 John 4:4)

13. Three years of blessings like the ministry of Christ after the defeat of Sennacherib: "'Then this shall be the sign for you: you will eat this year what grows of itself, in the second year what springs from the same, and in the third year sow, reap, plant vineyards, and eat their fruit." (2 Kings 19:29)

14. Both Hezekiah (701 BC) and Jesus pleaded to God not to die: 2 Ki 20:1-3; Isa 38:3; 2 Chron 32:24-25; Mt 26:39.

a. "In those days Hezekiah became mortally ill. And Isaiah the prophet the son of Amoz came to him and said to him, "Thus says the LORD, 'Set your house in order, for you shall die and not live.' " Then he turned his face to the wall and prayed to the LORD, saying, "Remember now, O LORD, I beseech You, how I have walked before You in truth and with a whole heart and have done what is good in Your sight." And Hezekiah wept bitterly." (2 Kings 20:1-3)

b. "and said, "Remember now, O LORD, I beseech You, how I have walked before You in truth and with a whole heart, and have done what is good in Your sight." And Hezekiah wept bitterly." (Isaiah 38:3)

c. "In those days Hezekiah became mortally ill; and he prayed to the LORD, and the LORD spoke to him and gave him a sign. But Hezekiah gave no return for the benefit he received, because his heart was proud; therefore wrath came on him and on Judah and Jerusalem." (2 Chronicles 32:24-25)

d. "And He went a little beyond them, and fell on His face and prayed, saying, "My Father, if it is possible, let this cup pass from Me; yet not as I will, but as You will."" (Matthew 26:39)

III. Biblical evidence Hezekiah was not the child/king born Isa 9:6-7 which is only fulfilled in Jesus of Nazareth:

1. "A child WILL BE BORN" (NASB): Hezekiah began reigning in 728 BC at the age of 25 (2 Chro 29:1), but the prophecy of Isa 9 was spoken in 732 BC when he was 21 years old. If the prophecy is about a future child/king born after 732 BC, it excludes Hezekiah who was already 21 years old when the prophecy was uttered. "Many have held that the birth is historic, and that the poet refers in particular to the birth of Hezekiah; but this view is now generally and rightly abandoned." (International Critical Commentary, George Buchanan Gray, Isaiah 9, Vol 1, p165, 1912 AD) However, to complicate the matter, the Hebrew text is most accurately translated "A child HAS been born to us" (KJV, RSV, NIV, Jewish Tanakh 1985). This opens the door for a partial fulfillment with Hezekiah who had already been born. But it is also common for Messianic prophecy to use past tense to describe future events. In this way, the Midrashic prophetic pattern allowed for both Hezekiah (already born) and Jesus (born in future) to fulfill the prophecy. It is clear that the Jews are wrong today when they say Hezekiah was the promised child/king of Isa 9:6-7 to the exclusion of Jesus the Nazarene.

a. "Therefore My people go into exile [past tense: have gone into- KJV] for their lack of knowledge; And their honorable men are famished, And their multitude is parched with thirst." (Isaiah 5:13)

b. Future even in past tense: "She has fallen, she will not rise again- The virgin Israel. She lies neglected on her land; There is none to raise her up." (Amos 5:2)

c. All of Isa 53 is spoken in the past tense of Jesus Christ who was born 700 years later: "Surely our griefs He Himself bore, And our sorrows He carried; Yet we ourselves esteemed Him stricken, Smitten of God, and afflicted. But He was pierced through for our transgressions, He was crushed for our iniquities; The chastening for our well-being fell upon Him, And by His scourging we are healed." (Isaiah 53:4-5)

d. "For the sons of the desolate one will be more [past tense, are more- KJV] numerous Than the sons of the married woman," says the LORD." (Isaiah 54:1)

2. Hezekiah became prideful, triggering his illness and his lack of thankfulness when he was healed like the ten lepers Jesus healed where only one was thankful (Lk 17:11). Merodach-baladan (Isa 39:1), king of Babylon, came to Hezekiah in awe exactly like the Queen of Sheba came to Solomon. In a prideful display Hezekiah showcased his material wealth that God had given him. (2 Chro 32:27-29)

3. Isaiah 9:7 said, "There will be no end to the increase of His government or of peace, on the throne of David and over his kingdom to establish it and to uphold it with justice and righteousness from then on and forevermore." Hezekiah died and his son Manasseh was one of the wickedest Judean kings. Hezekiah died in 686 BC and the Davidic dynasty came to an end 100 years later when Babylon burned Jerusalem in 587 BC.

IV. Biblical evidence John the Baptist partially fulfilled Isa 9:1-7 in Lk 1:79

Isa 9:2 MT/NASB

Isa 9:2 LXX/Septuagint

Ps 23:4

Lk 1:79

Mt 4:15-16

"The people who walk in darkness Will see a great light; Those who live in a dark land, The light will shine on them." (Isaiah 9:2)

"People going in darkness, see a great light! Those inhabiting a region, a shadow of death, light will shine on you!" (Isaiah 9:2)

"Even though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I fear no evil, for You are with me; Your rod and Your staff, they comfort me." (Psalm 23:4)

"To shine upon those who sit in darkness and the shadow of death, To guide our feet into the way of peace."" (Luke 1:79)

""The Land of Zebulun and the Land of Naphtali, By yhe way of the sea, beyond the Jordan, Galilee of the Gentiles- "The people who were sitting in darkness saw a great light, and those who were sitting in the land and shadow of death, upon them a light dawned."" (Mt 4:15-16)

1. Zacharias applied Isa 9:2 to his son, John the Baptist, by bringing light to the gentiles as the forerunner of Christ:

a. "TO SHINE UPON THOSE WHO SIT IN DARKNESS AND THE SHADOW OF DEATH, To guide our feet into the way of peace."" (Luke 1:79)

b. The quotation might wrongly be assumed to combine Isa 9:2 and Ps 23 because the phrase "shadow of death" is not in the NASB. In fact, Ps 23 speaks about those who have been delivered who walk among the wicked and Isa 9:2 speaks about those trapped in satanic oppression of darkness in need of salvation and release. But more significantly, Jesus and the apostles always quoted the Greek Septuagint which does include the phrase "shadow of death" in Isa 9:2.

2. Three elements of Isa 9:1-7 was fulfilled by John the Baptist.

a. He was a special child born of prophecy for a special purpose: Isa 40:3; Mal 4:5-6

b. He was a lesser light of truth to the world as the forerunner pointing to Christ who is the GREAT true light.

i. Jesus said: ""You have sent to John, and he has testified to the truth. "But the testimony which I receive is not from man, but I say these things so that you may be saved. "He was the lamp that was burning and was shining and you were willing to rejoice for a while in his light." (John 5:33-35)

ii. "There came a man sent from God, whose name was John. He came as a witness, to testify about the Light, so that all might believe through him. He was not the Light, but he came to testify about the Light. There was the true Light which, coming into the world, enlightens every man." (John 1:6-9)

c. He was a teacher whose message brought about peace. "To guide our feet into the way of peace": Mt 3:1-2

3. Hezekiah, John, and Jesus were unique in the world among men:

a. Hezekiah: "Hezekiah trusted in the Lord, the God of Israel; so that after him there was none like him among all the kings of Judah, nor among those who were before him. For he clung to the Lord; he did not depart from following Him, but kept His commandments, which the Lord had commanded Moses." (2 Kings 18:5-6)

b. John: "Truly I say to you, among those born of women there has not arisen anyone greater than John the Baptist! Yet the one who is least in the kingdom of heaven is greater than he." (Matthew 11:11)

c. Jesus: "And the Word/God became flesh, and dwelt among us, and we saw His glory, glory as of the only begotten from the Father, full of grace and truth." (John 1:14)

4. John the Baptist was from the tribe of Levi (Luke 1:5) and he was not a king.

a. These two critical elements demonstrate that although he partially fulfilled Isa 9:1-7, only Jesus the Nazarene was the primary messianic target who fully fulfilled the prophecy.

b. The partial fulfillment of John the Baptist of Isa 9:1-7 is a classic example of how Midrashic prophecies were fulfilled.

V. Biblical evidence Jesus the Nazarene was the primary prophetic target of who fully fulfilled Isa 9:1-7

1. There is a triple prophecy of the Messiah child who will be born in the future:

a. Isa 7:14: Child born of a virgin will defeat two kings: Rome and Satan

b. Isa 9:7-8: Child born who will be king forever

c. Isa 11:1: Branch prophecy of Jesus as the son of David will be born.

2. Jesus was a descendant of David

3. The four Egyptian type throne names all fully apply to Jesus in the greatest sense.

a. Jesus was the ultimate Wonderful Counselor in bringing man to God through his blood

b. Jesus was Mighty God, being creator God incarnate into a human body.

c. Eternal Father: The only man who could say, "When you see me, you see the Father."

d. Prince of Peace: Jesus brought peace between sinful man and Holy God, peace among the faithful and peace among the nations.

4. Matthew 4:12-17 directly applied Isa 9:1-7 to Jesus

5. Jesus brought about light, joy, and peace

6. Jesus "increased the borders of His kingdom through salvation of the Gentiles through faith, echoing Gideon's defeat of Midian, Hezekiah's defeat of the Philistines

7. Jesus liberated mankind from the oppression of Satan echoing the liberation of Zebulun and Naphtali though his Galilean ministry.

VI. Dead Sea Scrolls prove the Jews in 90 BC viewed "Branch of David" in Isa 9:1-7 and Amos 9:11 as Messianic

1. Written about 90 BC, two Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q174-4QFlorilegium and 4Q175-4QTestimonia, show us what Bible verses the Jews, at the time of Jesus considered to be messianic. Although not a complete list, it clearly shows that the "Branch of David" prophecies were central. This is exactly what Matthew meant when he said, "He shall be called a Nazarene".

2. 4Q174-4QFlorilegium: The first century Jews viewed Jesus as the "branch" of David who will destroy the enemies of Israel. The Jews viewed the Messiah as a physical king who would liberate Israel from Rome, but Jesus was a spiritual king who will never set foot on the earth again after his ascension: See outline

a. The battle of the Messiah was interpreted by the Hasmoneans as a physical, not spiritual battle as seen vividly in the Zealots and the two physical Jewish wars of 66-69 AD and 132-235 AD which were lost to the Romans. They were wrong.

i. "Jesus answered, "My kingdom is not of this world. If My kingdom were of this world, then My servants would be fighting so that I would not be handed over to the Jews; but as it is, My kingdom is not of this realm." Therefore Pilate said to Him, "So You are a king?" Jesus answered, "You say correctly that I am a king. For this I have been born, and for this I have come into the world, to testify to the truth. Everyone who is of the truth hears My voice."" (John 18:36-37)

b. "4Q174 identifies the seed of David as the "Branch of David," a figure once again derived from Jer 23:5 and 35:15, who is also expected to stand in the end of days. 4Q174's exegesis of 2 Sam 7:14 specifies that this Branch of David is the son of God (line 11). Because the Branch of David is also called the "Messiah of Righteousness" (משׁיח הצדק) in 4Q252, this figure in 4Q174 is certainly a Davidic Messiah. 4Q174's exposition of 2 Sam 7:14 therefore demonstrates that the title "Son of God" is an additional epitaph for the Davidic Messiah." (Journal of Biblical Literature, Volume 118, p457, 1999 AD)

c. "4Q174 also quotes Amos 9:11 to declare that this Branch of David will have an active role in restoring Israel's fortunes (lines 12-13). Although 4Q174 does not delineate the means by which this Branch of David will deliver Israel, its verb, ישׁע, is also used in 1QM 10-11 and elsewhere to denote God's deliverance of his people from their enemies within the context of battle. In regard to 4Q174's use of ישׁע to depict this emancipation, Brooke comments: "Nowhere does the community operate 'to save Israel,' but these other aspects of salvation can be observed in 4QFlor [= 4Q174] if צמח is seen to refer to a particular individual who will have the powers and function of a king." Given that this verb is consistently used to specify God's deliverance that is implemented through human agency, the Messiah of 4Q174 therefore possesses a militant function and will presumably lead in eschatological battle as king. As the Messiah of 4Q252 also took office in order to save Israel, the Messiah in 4Q174 will presumably fight God's enemies, including the current illegitimate Herodian monarch, to save Israel from its present distress." (Journal of Biblical Literature, Volume 118, p458, 1999 AD)

d. Messianic prophecies found in the Dead Sea Scrolls used by Jews before Jesus was born.

Messianic ideology found in Dead Sea Scrolls that predate the birth of Jesus of Nazareth

Concerning his birth in DSS

Prophesied in DSS

Fulfilled in NT

1. Seed of Jacob

Num 24:17

Lk 3:34

2. Seed of David

Jer 23:5

Lk 3:31

3. Tribe of Judah

Gen 49:10

Rev 5:5

4. Family line of Jesse

Isa 11:1

Lk 3:32

Concerning his nature in DSS

Prophesied in DSS

Fulfilled in NT

5. Prophet like Moses

Deut 18:18-19

Acts 3:18-25

6. Priest

Ps 110:4

Heb 5:5-6

7. Judge

Isa 33:22

Jn 5:22-23

8. King

Ps 2:6

Jn 18:33-37

9. Anointed by the Spirit

Isa 11:2

Mt 3:16-17

10. His zeal for God

Ps 69:9

Jn 2:15-17

Role as Messiah in DSS

Prophesied in DSS

Fulfilled in NT

11. "Branch" of David

Amos 9:11; Isa 11:1-5; Isa 53:2;

Jer 23:5-6; Zech 6:12-13

Mt 2:23

12. Lawgiver

Deut 18:18-19; Jer 31:31

Acts 3:22; 7:37; Jn 17:7-8; Col 2:14;

Heb 7:11-12; 8:13; 9:15;

1 Cor 9:21; Gal 6:2

13. King and Priest:

"King with scepter" and "star priest"

Num 24:15-17; Isa 9:6-7; Zech 6:12-13

Heb 1:8; Mt 2:2; Rev 22:16

14. Warrior to defeat Israel's enemies

Num 24:17; Deut 33:11; Ps 89:23

Heb 1:13; Jn 18:36; Rev 17:14

15. "Interpreter of the law"

Daniel 12:10; Ezekiel 37:23; Psalm 2:1

Acts 4:25-27; Mk 1:22;

Jn 7:49; Mt 22:33-34

16. Restore and rebuild temple of David

2 Samuel 7:10-14; Amos 9:11

Acts 15:16; John 2:19-22; Mt 26:61

Mt 27:40; Mk 14:58; Acts 6:14;

Eph 1:21-22; 2:19-22

(body of Christ, church)

17. Abomination of desolation

Daniel 9:27; 11:21; 12:11

Mt 24:15-16 + Lk 21:20-21


1. A reasonable and strong case can be made that Hezekiah partially fulfilled Isa 9:1-7.

a. Historically both Christians and Jews identified Hezekiah as a partial fulfillment.

b. There are several aspects of Hezekiah's life that reflect some of the prophetic details of Isa 9.

c. Hezekiah cannot fully fulfill Isa 9 because his kingdom and the David dynasty came to an end in 587 BC when Judah went into captivity at the hands of the Babylonians. Hezekiah's kingdom came to an end whereas the Messiah's kingdom will endure forever!

d. Only Jesus of Nazareth is a perfect and full fulfillment of Isa 9:1-7 as confirmed without question by Mt 4:12-17; Eph 5:6-14.

2. We are certain that John the Baptist partially fulfilled Isa 9:1-7 because Zecharias, his father, quoted Isa 9:2 in Lk 1:79 and applied it to his son at his birth. Since John was never a king, he cannot be the primary target of fulfillment and we must look to Jesus.

3. Only Jesus Christ "fully" fulfills every aspect and detail of Isa 9:1-7. The four names of the child king follow the Egyptian pattern of a full pharaonic titulary which consisted of a birth name (Jesus) and four throne names: Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God/Emmanuel "God with us", Eternal Father, Prince of Peace. Midrashically, Hezekiah can only partially and inferentially fulfill the four names and John the Baptist was not a king.

4. Messianic prophecy identified the Messiah in four geographic ways which were fulfilled in the most common name for the Messiah in the New Testament as "Jesus of Nazareth" or "Jesus the Nazarene". Jesus grew up in Nazareth of Zebulun and owned a house in Capernaum in Naphtali (See outline: Lk 5:19;Mt 4:12-13; 9:33). Nazareth and Capernaum were the two cities directly connected with Jesus as the Messiah directly fulfilling Isa 9:1-5.

a. Judah: Genesis 49:10

b. Bethlehem: Micah 5:1-5

c. Zebulun and Naphtali: Isa 9:1-7

d. Naphtali: Jesus owned a house at the start of his ministry in Capernaum, which was in in Naphtali. (Lk 5:19;Mt 4:12-13; 9:33) Later in Jesus' ministry he must have sold his house and used the money to fund his ministry: (Mt 8:19-20; Lk 9:57-58)

e. Nazareth: The branch from branch-land: Nazareth/Nazarene: Matthew 2:23. There were many prophecies that Jesus would be called the "branch" and "Nazarene" spoken in Greek, sounds like the Hebrew word for "branch". Jesus the Nazarene when spoken in Greek, sounded like, "Jesus the branch" in Hebrew. See outline

By Steve Rudd December 2022: Contact the author for comments, input or corrections.

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