The Bible Blueprint of the Lord's Supper:

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The Bible Pattern:

Breaking Bread
The Lord's Supper

Click to ViewRefuted: The false doctrine of "transubstantiation"


A. Bible's major references:

1. Jesus instituted the "Lord's Supper" in Mt 26:26-29; Mk 14:22-25; Lk 22:14-23

2. Paul gave us some more details in 1 Cor 10:16-17,21; 11:20-34

a. The church at Corinth had made communion into a common meal: 1 Cor 11:20-22

b. We likewise must partake of the Lord's Supper properly: 1 Cor 11:27

3. Contrary to the practice of many denominations, eating common meals while assembled is forbidden: 1 Cor 11:34

B. Term's used in NT to describe:

1. "Lord's Supper": 1 Cor 11:20

2. "Communion": 1 Cor 10:16, Vine, "Having in common, partnership, fellowship

3. "Breaking bread": Acts 20:7

a. Communion: Acts 2:42 "And to fellowship, the breaking of bread"

b. Common meal: Acts 2:46 taking meals together with gladness

4. "Partake of the table of the Lord": 1 Cor 10:21

5. Terms not found in Bible commonly used to describe: See Tit 2:1

a. "Sacrament": from Latin word, "sacramentum" meaning solemn assembly

C. The Lord's Supper; Jewish Passover; North American Thanksgiving

1. special meals with special foods

2. shared in by special people with special meanings

3. to remember a special event

D. Although Christians sang, gave and prayed when assembled, it appears communion was the primary reason for assembling: 1 Cor 11:20,33; Acts 20:7

I. Element's Of The Lord's Supper:

A. Symbolism in communion:

1. Unleavened bread represents the body of Christ

2. Grape juice represents blood of Christ

3. Anti-type of the Jewish Passover: 1 Cor 5:7-8. Ambrose (390 AD), directly applied 1 Cor 5:7 "let us celebrate the feast with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth" to the Lord's Supper: "Christ our Passover hath been sacrificed." For as often as we receive the Blood of the Lord, we proclaim the death of the Lord. As, then, He was once slain for all, so whensoever forgiveness of sins is granted, we receive the Sacrament of His Body, that through His Blood there may be remission of sins." (Ambrose, Repentance, Book 2, Ch 3, 18) The connection between the Lord's Supper and the Jewish Passover as an antitype, is powerful and obvious in scripture.

B. Both the bread and grape juice must be unleavened in order to exactly duplicate the liturgy of Jesus when he instituted the Lord's Supper:

1. Jesus instituted communion during the days of unleavened bread and the upper room was prepared specifically for the feast of unleavened bread which would require the removal of all leaven including leavened bread and leavened wine. Mark 14:12: "On the first day of Unleavened Bread, when the Passover lamb was being sacrificed, His disciples said to Him, "Where do You want us to go and prepare for You to eat the Passover?" It is utterly unthinkable that any leavened bread would be even in the room, let alone eaten by Jesus in direct violation of the Law of Moses.

2. Ex 12:18-20; 34:25 prohibited leaven, yeast or anything fermented. For Jesus to use leaven during this time or any type would be a violation of Mosaic law.

3. The scriptures command unleavened bread: "Clean out the old leaven so that you may be a new lump, just as you are in fact unleavened. For Christ our Passover also has been sacrificed. Therefore let us celebrate the feast, not with old leaven, nor with the leaven of malice and wickedness, but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth." 1 Corinthians 5:7-8

4. Ambrose in 390 AD, viewed the feast we are to do with "unleavened bread" in 1 Cor 5:7-8 as being communion. (Repentance, Book 2, Ch 3, 18) It would be unthinkable that anyone could apply this verse to communion and not see the plain command to use unleavened bread.

C. Grape Juice: fermented or unfermented?

1. The juice is never referred to as wine (oinos) but fruit of the vine, or grape juice. Jesus did not use leavened bread or leavened grape juice (wine), nor should we.

2. The word wine [oinos] in the Bible is generic which is shed and is used in all these ways:

a. fermented: Gen 9:21; Mt 9:17

b. unfermented: Jer 40:10-12; Isa 16:10; Rev 19:15

3. Jesus never uses "wine" [oinos] for the Lord's supper but a different set of Greek words: "fruit of the vine" Mt 26:29; Lk 22:18. Obviously then grape juice that has no yeast added. There is no evidence of fermentation from the Greek. It also cannot be proven to be wine with yeast from the Greek.

4. Since the Lord's Supper was instituted DURING the Days of unleavened bread (Mark 14:12), this proves Jesus used unfermented juice, for the leaven in the wine would be a violation of mosaic law: Ex 12:18-20; 34:25

5. The scriptural objection to using wine, revolves not around the alcohol content, but the yeast content. Even natural grape juice will acquire up to 3% alcohol, then shortly thereafter turn to vinegar. So it is the yeast of "wine" that violates the liturgy of Jesus when he instituted the Lord's Supper, not the alcohol content of "wine".

6. Even if both "yeasted wine" and plain grape juice were both equally permitted options based solely upon the phrase "fruit of the vine", we should still chose the grape juice, for alcohol has done much evil in the world and caused much offence. Scripture has this unflattering comment on mixed wine: "Who has woe? Who has sorrow? Who has contentions? Who has complaining? Who has wounds without cause? Who has redness of eyes? Those who linger long over wine, Those who go to taste mixed wine. Do not look on the wine when it is red, When it sparkles in the cup, When it goes down smoothly; At the last it bites like a serpent And stings like a viper." Proverbs 23:29-32.

7. Many Christians view the pattern of moral conduct to be total abstainers of alcohol, based upon the fact that Timothy was an abstainer and needed to be told to drink wine for his stomach. (1 Tim 5:23) Even if this view is wrong, which it is not, it is an insult for these Christians to avoid alcohol at all times, except during the most holy portion of worship in communion. Therefore under all occasions plain grape juice is the best choice.

D. The Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches are divided over exactly whose "apostolic church tradition" is correct:

1. "In the 11th century the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches fought over the issue of whether the bread was leavened or unleavened: "In regard to the bread of the Eucharist the Latins held that it should be unleavened, the Greeks that it should be leavened. Each church claimed to follow the usage of Christ. Theophylact [Greek] admitted that Christ used unleavened bread, but maintained that His example in this respect is not binding, for if it were in this then it would be in everything connected with the Supper, and it would be necessary to use barley bread and the wine of Palestine, to recline at table and to hold the Supper in a ball or upper room." (Philip Schaff, History Of The Christian Church, Chapter XIV, 148, Theophylact)

2. Roman Catholics record this: "the bread must be, at present unleavened in the Western Church, but leavened bread in the Eastern Church, except among the Maronites, the Armenians, and in the Churches of Jerusalem and Alexandria, where it is unleavened. It is probable that Christ used unleavened bread at the institution of the Blessed Eucharist, because the Jews were not allowed to have leavened bread in their houses on the days of the Azymes [unleavened bread]. Some authors are of the opinion that down to the tenth century both the Eastern and Western Churches used leavened bread; others maintain that unleavened bread was used from the beginning in the Western Church; still others hold that unleavened or leavened bread was used indifferently. St. Thomas (IV, Dist. xi, qu. 3) [died 1274] holds that, in the beginning, both in the East and West unleavened bread was used" (New Advent Catholic encyclopedia, Altar Breads, 1908)

3. The Orthodox church traces their liturgy of using leavened bread as back to only the fifth century: "We use leavened bread for the Eucharist because that is the practice that was handed down to us through the Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom. [400 AD] The Orthodox Church follows the chronology of John's Gospel which places Last Supper on Thursday evening before the beginning of Sabbath and Passover on which fell on Friday evening; Western Christianity on the other hand follows the chronology of the synoptic gospels which places the Last Supper and Passover on the same day, Thursday. Also there is some debate among scholars as to whether the Last Supper instituted by our Lord Jesus Christ derived from the once a year Passover Haggadah meal which used only unleavened bread or the weekly chaburah (fellowship) meal which normally used leavened bread. It is possible that the chaburah meal overlapped with the Passover Haggadah meal on the night that Jesus instituted the Eucharist. This might explain why the Roman Catholic Church uses unleavened bread while the Eastern Orthodox Church uses leavened bread. In any event both the Western and Eastern traditions are in agreement that the bread and the wine becomes the body and blood of Christ in the Eucharistic celebration." (Eastern Greek Orthodox apologist)

4. The whole debate between Roman Catholic and Orthodox regarding whether the bread is leavened or unleavened revolves around whether the Lord's supper was instituted at the same time the Jews ate the lamb, or the day before.

a. It should be clear, first of all, that there is no contradiction between the synoptic gospels and the gospel of John. The issue is solved by simply noting that John uses Roman time, while the synoptics use Jewish time. Click here for more details on the truth that the Lord's Supper was instituted on Thursday evening, Nissan 14, the same day Jesus and the Passover lamb was killed (Friday afternoon at 3 PM) but exactly 24 hours before the Jews ate the cedar Passover feast of lamb according to Ex 12.

b. So although we side with the Orthodox on the fact the Lord's Supper was instituted 24 hours before the Passover lamb meal was eaten, they are still wrong.

c. The issue is proven by the fact that 24 hours before the Passover lamb meal was eaten, was still on the first day of unleavened bread: Nissan 14. This fact is proven by Mark 14:12: "On the first day of Unleavened Bread, when the Passover lamb was being sacrificed".

d. Yes indeed, the scripture is very clear and plain that the evening Jesus instituted the Lord's Supper in the upper room, was 24 hours before the lamb meal was eaten, but during the first day of the Jewish feast of unleavened bread.

5. There is almost no information before 400 AD, from the uninspired writings of the "church fathers" regarding whether the bread is unleavened vs. leavened, and the juice is grape juice or leavened wine. So this is a unique case where we must either chose one of several contradicting "church traditions" between 400 -1200 AD, or simply use the scripture as a final guide to settle the matter.

6. The inability of the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches to come to unity on the "eucharist" as they call it, by using their tradition, proves sola Scriptura correct. Using scripture, we can easily prove the correct liturgy of communion.

E. The Catholic false doctrine of "transubstantiation" teaches that the bread and juice undergo a change to become the literal body and blood of Christ. It is wrong for the following reasons:

1. When Jesus instituted Lord's Supper before his blood was shed and body broken

2. When Jesus said take eat & drink he LITERALLY gave them bread and juice.

3. For a full discussion on transubstantiation, click here.

II. Meanings Of Communion:

A. An antitype of the Jewish Passover: 1 Cor 5:7-8



Lord's Supper


Remember Egypt: Ex 12:26,27

Remember Lord: 1 Cor 11:25


1 Yr, Unblemished: Ex 12:5
(Young, Innocent)

Jesus Is Lamb: Jn 1:29
Jesus Perfect Sacrifice


Eat Flesh: Ex 12:8
No Bone Broken:V46;Num 9:12

Eat flesh: 1 Cor 11:27
No Bone Broken: Jn 19:33,36


On Mercy Seat: Ex 12:7

For Forgiveness: Mt 26:27,28


Covenant Relationship: Ex 12:43

Covenant Relationship:
Baptized: 1 Cor 10:16,17;11:29; Col 2:12


Every Nissan 14: Ex 12:6

Every Sunday: Acts 20:7

B. A memorial: 1 Cor 11:24,25 "Do this in remembrance of Me"

1. Every memorial can be traced back to its founder: LS proof of Jesus existence

2. Every Nov 11 Canadians remembers those who died so we could be free.

3. Every Sunday Christians remember Christ who died so we could be free from sin.

4. We are commanded to remember the death of Christ not His birth

5. We remember His death, not once a year on Easter, but every Sunday.

C. A proclamation: 1 Cor 11:26 "You proclaim the Lord's death"

1. By breaking bread, we tell the world that Jesus died. (preaching the cross)

D. An anticipation: 1 Cor 11:26 "Till He comes"

1. Notice this proclamation takes place every week from His death "till He comes"

2. The Lord's Supper looks back at Christ's death and looks forward to his return!

3. We break bread in hope of His return: Jn 14:3; Acts 1:11

E. A fellowship, sharing, communion: Acts 2:42; 1 Cor 10:16-17

1. Between Christians and God: V16; Lk 22:16,18

2. Between individual Christians: V17

3. It is meaningless to non-Christians:

a. Just like Bastille Day is to a non-Frenchman

b. Chinese New year to a non-Chinaman

c. Thanksgiving to a non-North American.

F. A thanksgiving: "Eucharist" 1 Corinthians 11:24

1. Christ instructed us to give thanks to God for both the body and blood of Christ.

2. The word "Eucharist" comes from Greek, "eucharistia" meaning "thanksgiving, gratitude, giving of thanks".

III. Manner OF Partaking

A. We can partake in an unworthy manner: 1 Cor 11:27

1. V28 examine self (2 Cor 13:5)

a. Are your thoughts on Christ or some activity after assembly?

b. Is there unrepented sin in your life?

c. Have you obeyed Christ through baptism on order to become a Christian?

2. V29 Judge the body rightly

B. A time of reverence: Heb 12:28 (Think of the reverence given on Nov 11)

C. A time of meditation:

1. Look backward to the cross

2. Look forward to Christ's return

3. Look inward to examine your own heart & faith

4. Look outward to those you are sharing the family meal with: God & Christians

V. How often should We Partake?





General Command:

1 Cor 11:25

Heb 10:25

2 Cor 9:7

Specific Command:

The Day



1 Cor 16:2

The Frequency



1 Cor 16:2

General Example:

Acts 2:42

Rom 16:5


Specific Example:

The Day

Acts 20:7

Acts 20:7


The Frequency





Heb 10:25


1 Cor 11:25

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Acts 20:7
What goes for assembly, also goes for communion
Weekly assembly proves weekly communion.
If we can commune only once a year, then we can assemble only once a year


A. Christians were commanded to give every Sunday:

1. It is inferred that this collection would take place within the assembly.

2. Christians were already meeting every Sunday when Paul commanded weekly giving.

B. Acts 20:7 is a key verse for both the day and frequency of LS and assembly

1. Acts 20:7 is only example of NT worship service where a specific day is mentioned.

2. Notice they came together for the specific purpose of breaking bread. 1 Cor 11:20,33

3. The line of reasoning that establishes the frequency of assembly is the exact same line of reasoning to establish the frequency of the Lord's supper.

4. If someone maintains that we don't have to break bread every Lord's day, then the same holds true of the assembly itself.

C. In view of 1 Cor 16:1,2 + Acts 20:7 it is evident that Christians assembled every Sunday to break bread & give into a common treasury.

VI. Lord's Supper Worksheet for classes:

Instructions: circle what is permitted, cross out what is wrong from the options given below.

 Time: Acts 20:7

Sun, Every week, 5AM, Monthly, Yearly at Easter, 10PM

Emblems: The Body/Bread:: Mt 26:26-29

leavened, Cheese, Rye flour, Meat, unleavened

Emblems: Blood/Fruit Of Vine: Mt 26:26-29

Milk, White grape juice, Wine, Cola, Water

Participants: Mt 26:27

All of you, Women, Priests only, Men

Order: 1 Cor 11:33

Individually at home, Together within assembly


 Steve Rudd


The Lord Jesus commanded only one monument to His memory; the Lord's Supper. No other commemoration to the birth, life, death, resurrection, or ascension of our Lord is appointed by either command or example in the Pages of the New Testament. Thus, the Lord's Supper is the only memorial service for the Lord in which Christians can engage with the full authority of the Word of God, the Bible. Since the beginning of the New Testament church, shortly after Jesus' ascension, the Lord's Supper has been the central act of Christian worship. The early Christians met each Lord's day (Sunday) to eat this memorial supper. Although this act of worship seems simple(so simple that it would seem to be wholly unable to honor the life and sacrifice of the Son of God) it is the most deep and the most sacred act in which Christians can engage.

The eye sees that a prayer is offered in thanks for the bread. Small trays of bread, usually baked without leavening, are passed among the congregation; each Christian prayerfully breaks off and eats a small portion while the others quietly wait. Similarly, prayers are said for the "fruit of the vine", usually grape juice (but which could be natural wine), and trays containing many individual containers are passed, each Christian (again) partaking in turn.

The eye, however, does not see the true communion between God and His children. Memories of Jesus' earthly ministry are brought to mind during the prayers of thanksgiving for the bread and while it is passed from person to person. The Christian remembers that his Lord descended from heaven into mortal body, and was (just as are we) tempted of every sin; yet, Jesus never sinned. The Christian remembers the mockery and the unjust trial where his Lord was condemned to a cruel and painful death. He remembers how Christ Jesus died, exactly as was foretold centuries before that time, and how his Lord came up from the grave, proving that death has no permanent claim on believers.

In remembering the earthly ministry of the Lord, the Christian also thinks of the brotherhood of mankind joined together as the body of Christ, the church, through all of the ages and across all of the continents for Christians are, through their baptism into Christ, made into the one body of Christ, they are now the earthly presence of the Lord and the only means whereby the Lord's work on earth is accomplished. Study I Cor. 12:13 and Eph. 4:4.

During the prayers of thanksgiving for the "fruit of the vine" and while the trays of containers are being passed, the Christian remembers the central fact of his faith, the Lord's death when Jesus' blood was shed as sacrifice for the sins of the world. "low, the Christian Remembers how, by faith, he was moved to obey the will of Jesus, as revealed in the New Testament, to be buried in baptism to contact the blood of Christ, therein finding remission of his sins.

The New Testament books by Matthew, Mark, and Luke carry the story of the origin of the Lord's Supper. The most detailed account is found in Luke 22:14-20: And when the hour was come, he sat down, and the twelve apostles with him. And he said unto them, With desire I have desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer: For I say unto you, I will not any more eat thereof, until it be fulfilled in the kingdom of God. And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and said, Take this, and divide it among yourselves: For I say unto you, I will not drink of the fruit of the vine, until the kingdom of God shall come.

And he took bread, and gave thanks, and brake it, and gave unto them, saying, This is my body which is given for you: this do in remembrance of me. Likewise also the cup after supper, saying, This cup is the new testament in-my blood, which is shed for you.

Carefully distinguish between the "fruit of the vine" and its container; it is the fruit of the vine which is the New Testament in Jesus' blood. Thus, the fruit of the vine may be partaken from one or from many containers: in either way it remains the cup of the New Testament in Jesus' blood. Hence,the Lord's people, today, may use individual containers (rather than a single, common container).

In I Corinthians 10:16-17, the apostle Paul, taught early Christians about this observance: The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ? The bread which we break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ? For we being many are one bread, and one body; for we all part of that one bread. Paul continues 1 Cor 11:26-34, to outline the solemnity of the Lord's Supper: For as often as eat of Lord's bread, and drink this cup, you do show The Lord's death till he come. Wherefore whosoever shall eat this bread, and drink this cup of the Lord, unworthy, shall be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord. But let a man examine himself, and so let h-,,m eat of that bread, and drink of that cup. For he that eateth and drinketh unworthily eateth and drinketh damnation to himself, not discerning the Lord's body. Paul, later, continues these instructions in verses 33 and 34: Wherefore, my brethren, when you come together to eat, tarry one for another. And if any man hunger, let him eat at home; that you come not together unto condemnation. How often should Christians partake of the Lord's Supper? The answer to this question is afforded by a general study of the New Testament writings which show that the early Christians habitually met together on the first day 1st of the week for this purpose. indeed, broad study of these writings will indicate that the Lord's Supper was the primary reason for their meetings. Note, for example, the wording and structure of the following scripture, Acts 20:7: "And upon the first day of the week, when the disciples came together to break bread, Paul preached unto them, ready to depart on the morrow; and continued his speech until midnight." It seems that, although Paul's visit was a rare and great treat for the Christians at Troas, their meeting was not, especially, to hear Paul, but to break bread, as was their usual custom. Thus, in following this, and similar examples, the Lord's people (today) partake of the Lord's Supper each first day of the week.

John Hurt

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