Bible Prophecy Fulfilled: Isaiah 53 The Suffering Servant-Crucifixion

 

 

Isaiah: Midrashic manifold fulfillments as a template to decode the Olivet Discourse:

A. Overview of the book of Isaiah decodes the Olivet Discourse of Jesus in the New Testament:

1.      What we see is the Isaiah is the typical Midrashic style of fulfilling prophecy familiar to all the Jews at the time of Christ and the first century church.

a.       The vast majority of the messianic prophecies were fulfilled in the life of Isaiah and his fellow Jews in 700 BC down to the Babylonian captivity and return (605-536 BC) long after he had died.

b.      Notice the prophetic fulfillments in the sections of Isaiah 40-66 that they had immediate fulfillment and application long before Christ was born.

c.       Even the famous Isa 7:14 prophecy was immediately fulfilled in 732 BC when Ahaz died shortly after Isaiah’s own child was born to him.

d.      Messianic prophecies are almost without exception based upon manifold fulfillments of up to 5 different times, peoples and events.

e.      This gives us great insight in our understanding of the Olivet discourse of Jesus concerning the destruction of Jerusalem.

2.      Prophetic partitions by date in Isaiah: 740-685 BC

a.       Isaiah 1-37: Events during 740-702 BC (Death of Uzziah, Ahaz vs. Rezin king of Aram and Pekah king of Israel)

b.      Isaiah 38-39: Events during 701 BC (Hezekiah and the Siege of Jerusalem by Sennacherib)

c.       Isaiah 40-48: Events during 605-536 BC (Babylonian captivity and release by Cyrus)

d.      Isaiah 49-57: Events after 536 BC down to Pentecost AD 33. (Suffering Servant section)

e.      Isaiah 58-66: Events after the future second coming, great judgement, Heavenly Jerusalem, hell.

3.      Death of Isaiah when he was sawed in two by Manasseh in 685 BC: Heb 11:37

a.       This gives fulfillment in Isaiah 53 in the life of Isaiah, who like Christ suffered for the sins of the people.

b.      Extra-Biblical traditions dating to 200 BC say that Isaiah was sawn in two with a metal tree saw, perhaps while suspended upside down between two trees by Manasseh around 685 BC once Hezekiah died.

c.       This was recorded in Hebrews: "They were stoned, they were sawn in two, they were tempted, they were put to death with the sword; they went about in sheepskins, in goatskins, being destitute, afflicted, ill-treated" (Hebrews 11:37)

d.      “And they seized Isaiah the son of Amoz and sawed him in half with a wood saw. 12 And Manasseh, and Belkira, and the false prophets, and the princes, and the people, and all stood by looking on. 13 And to the prophets who (were) with him he said before he was sawed in half, “Go to the district of Tyre and Sidon, because for me alone the LORD has mixed the cup.” 14 And while Isaiah was being sawed in half, he did not cry out, or weep, but his mouth spoke with the Holy Spirit until he was sawed in two. 15 Beliar did this to Isaiah through Belkira and through Manasseh, for Sammael was very angry with Isaiah from the days of Hezekiah, king of Judah, because of the things which he had seen concerning the Beloved, 16 and because of the destruction of Sammael which he had seen through the LORD, while Hezekiah his father was king. And he did as Satan wished.” (Ascension of Isaiah 5:11-16, 200 BC – 400 AD)

e.       “Because of these visions and prophecies Sammael Satan sawed Isaiah the son of Amoz, the prophet, in half by the hand of Manasseh. 42 And Hezekiah gave all these things to Manasseh in the twenty-sixth year of his reign. 43 But Manasseh did not remember these things, nor place them in his heart, but he became the servant of Satan and was destroyed.” (Ascension of Isaiah 11:41, 200 BC – 400 AD)

f.       “When Manasseh arose, he pursued Isaiah, wanting to kill him. Isaiah fled from him. He escaped to a cedar, which swallowed him up, except for the show fringes of his cloak, which revealed where he was. They came and told him. He said to them, “Go and cut the cedar down.” They cut the cedar down, and blood showed [indicating that Isaiah had been sawed also.] (Jerusalem Talmud Sanh.10:2, III.1.OO–PP, 400 AD)

4.      Specific fulfillments in a single man:

a.       Isaiah himself fulfilled most of the prophecies

b.      Jesus

c.       Cyrus

d.      Eliakim

e.      King Ahab and Hezekiah

f.        Apostle Paul and Peter

5.      General fulfillments:

a.       Jews at the time of Isaiah, Babylonian captivity and time of Jesus

b.      All prophets who ever lived, both Jewish and Christians

c.       Christians

d.      All men who ever lived

e.      The Second coming, Judgement, heaven and hell

6.      The theme of suffering:

a.       The four “suffering servant” songs in Isaiah:

                                                               i.      First Suffering servant song: Israel, Isaiah, Christ, Christians, Paul: Isa 42:1-9 (Messianic echo: Acts 26:15-18 echoes Isaiah 42:6-8: calls to service)

                                                             ii.      Second suffering servant song: Isaiah, Israel, Christ, Christians: Isa 49:1-13. Called from the womb: Isaiah himself | Israel: Gen 25:23–25 | Christ: Isa 7:14; Mt 1:23 |Christians: Isa 62:2; Eph 1:3.

                                                           iii.      Third suffering servant song: Isa 50:4-11

                                                           iv.      Fourth suffering servant song: Isaiah 52:13-53:12 (Christ’s ministry and crucifixion)

b.      Suffering in the New Testament:

                                                               i.      Jesus, as creator God, became a servant: Jn 13; Phil 2:6-10

                                                             ii.      Christ taught the greatest is the servant: Mk 10:42-45

                                                           iii.      Just as Jesus died on the cross, so too Christians “pick of their own cross” and “die daily”.

7.      Foreknown, ordained and named by God before birth:

a.       Isaiah himself

b.      Israel: Gen 25:23–25

c.       Cyrus: Isaiah 44:28-45:48 (Cyrus named in Isaiah 45:3, 150 year before birth and fulfilled in decree of 536 BC)

d.      Christ: Isa 7:14; Mt 1:23

e.      Christians: Isa 62:2; Eph 1:3.

 

B.  Five Suffering Servants in Isaiah: “MY SERVANT”

1.           My Servant Jesus of Nazareth: Messianic prophecy.

2.           My servant Isaiah: "And the Lord said, “Even as My servant Isaiah has gone naked and barefoot three years as a sign and token against Egypt and Cush" (Isaiah 20:3)

3.           My servant Eliakim: (a type of Apostle Peter)

a.         Shebnah/Eliakim, High Priest/Apostle Peter: Just as Shebah was replaced by Eliakim as Judean governor under Hezekiah. Just as the “key to Jerusalem” was taken away from Shebnah the unfit stewards of God’s people, so too was they “key to the kingdom of God” taken from the chief priests and Pharisees in Jerusalem and given to Apostle Peter. This echoes the parable of the landowner (Mt 21:33-45) that concludes with the words: "“Therefore I say to you, the kingdom of God will be taken away from you and given to a people, producing the fruit of it." (Matthew 21:43)

b.        “Then it will come about in that day, That I will summon My servant Eliakim the son of Hilkiah, And I will clothe him with your tunic and tie your sash securely about him. I will entrust him with your authority, And he will become a father to the inhabitants of Jerusalem and to the house of Judah. “Then I will set the key of the house of David on his shoulder, When he opens no one will shut, When he shuts no one will open. “I will drive him like a peg in a firm place, And he will become a throne of glory to his father’s house." (Isaiah 22:20–23)

c.         Eliakim: "Then Eliakim the son of Hilkiah, who was over the household, and Shebna the scribe and Joah the son of Asaph, the recorder, came to Hezekiah with their clothes torn and told him the words of Rabshakeh." (Isaiah 36:22)

d.        "Then I saw an angel coming down from heaven, holding the key of the abyss and a great chain in his hand. And he laid Eliakim replaced Shebnah: The tomb of Shebnah can be seen today in Jerusalem: "Thus says the Lord God of hosts, “Come, go to this steward, To Shebna, who is in charge of the royal household, ‘What right do you have here, And whom do you have here, That you have hewn a tomb for yourself here, You who hew a tomb on the height, You who carve a resting place for yourself in the rock? ‘Behold, the Lord is about to hurl you headlong, O man. And He is about to grasp you firmly" (Isaiah 22:15–17)

e.        The tomb of Shebnah can be seen today in Jerusalem.

f.          Peter: “I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven; and whatever you bind on earth shall have been bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth shall have been loosed in heaven.”" (Matthew 16:19)

g.         Christ: "When I saw Him, I fell at His feet like a dead man. And He placed His right hand on me, saying, “Do not be afraid; I am the first and the last, and the living One; and I was dead, and behold, I am alive forevermore, and I have the keys of death and of Hades." (Revelation 1:17–18)

4.           My servant David: "For I will defend this city to save it for My own sake and for My servant David’s sake." (Isaiah 37:35)

a.         David was hunted by Saul for four years: 1018-1014 BC

b.        David was expelled from Jerusalem by his son Absalom in 979 BC. Both David and Jesus are connected to the Mount of Olives. First when David was fleeing Absalom. Second when Jesus announced the destruction of the city in AD 70 and his arrest.

5.           My servant Hezekiah:

a.         "His servants spoke further against the LORD God and against His servant Hezekiah." (2 Chronicles 32:16)

b.        "I will deliver you and this city from the hand of the king of Assyria; and I will defend this city.” (Isaiah 38:6)

c.         Hezekiah suffered fear and anxiety when Sennacherib sieged Jerusalem. Hezekiah suffered a terminal physical illness although he was righteous. His prayer and healing resulted in the defeat of Sennacherib attacks Jerusalem in 701 BC. God healed Hezekiah and killed 185,000 soldiers from Sennacherib’s army. Had this not happened, Judah would have gone into Assyrian captivity in 701 BC, joining the 10 lost tribe of Israel who were deported into extinction in 723 BC.

d.        Later in 701 BC, Hezekiah foolishly and overconfidently shows Merodach-baladan the king of Babylon his Royal treasures and God decrees that the king of Babylon will come for the riches and deport his sons to Babylon.

e.        "‘Behold, the days are coming when all that is in your house and all that your fathers have laid up in store to this day will be carried to Babylon; nothing will be left,’ says the LORD. ‘And some of your sons who will issue from you, whom you will beget, will be taken away, and they will become officials in the palace of the king of Babylon.” Then Hezekiah said to Isaiah, “The word of the LORD which you have spoken is good.” For he thought, “For there will be peace and truth in my days.”" (Isaiah 39:6–8)

f.          Isaiah therefore prophecies both the 70 Babylonian captivity (605-536 BC) and the decree of Cyrus in 536 BC where the “captives are freed” and allowed to return and rebuild Jerusalem.

g.         The very next verse in Isa 40:1 prophecies the spiritual kingdom/church/Jerusalem and the rise of John the Baptist as a forerunner to Jesus, who like Cyrus, would free the people from the bondage of their sins.

h.        “Comfort, O comfort My people,” says your God. “Speak kindly to Jerusalem; And call out to her, that her warfare has ended, That her iniquity has been removed, That she has received of the Lord’s hand Double for all her sins.” A voice is calling, “Clear the way for the Lord in the wilderness; Make smooth in the desert a highway for our God." (Isaiah 40:1–3)

i.           The entire contrast displayed when Sennacherib easily defeated the nation’s who worshipped idols of wood and stone but was himself defeated by the one true God, who has no equal or rival is the central theme in Isaiah chapters 40-55.

j.          Jesus deliberately echoes a pattern of themes that are unique to Jehovah by using the expression "I AM" (Greek: ego eimi; Hebrew: ani hu). The high density of I AM sayings of Jehovah found in Chapters 40-55 of Isaiah match the high density of I AM sayings of Jesus in the gospel of John. The vast majority of these sayings are only found in Isaiah 40-55 and John because the theme of Isaiah 40-55 is the identify of Jehovah and the theme of John is the identity of Jesus. When Jesus echoes the sayings of Jehovah in Isaiah, he is clearly applying this "language of deity" to himself as Jehovah. If we see one elephant in a cloud, it may be a coincidence, but 15 elephants linked trunk to tail is a pattern of design. So too with Jesus saying "I AM". By itself "I AM" would prove little, but the pattern of His use in various themes that exactly match Isaiah, create an unmistakable mosaic that is a powerful and irrefutable proof of his deity.

 

C. General prophetic date partitions in Isaiah:

1.           Isaiah 1-37: Events during 740-702 BC (Death of Uzziah, Ahaz vs. Rezin king of Aram and Pekah king of Israel)

2.           Isaiah 38-39: Events during 701 BC (Hezekiah and the Siege of Jerusalem by Sennacherib)

3.           Isaiah 40-48: Events during 605-536 BC (Babylonian captivity and release by Cyrus)

a.         Messianic echo: John 14:5-6 echoes Isaiah 40:3 (the way)

b.        My Servant: Righteous Israel, Christians: Isaiah 41:8–16 (Messianic echo: John 6:20 echoes Isaiah 41:10,13: fear not)

c.         First Suffering servant song: Israel, Isaiah, Christ, Christians, Paul: Isa 42:1-9 (Messianic echo: Acts 26:15-18 echoes Isaiah 42:6-8: calls to service)

d.        My Servant: Wicked Israel in 587 BC and AD 70: Isaiah 42:18–20

e.        My Servant: Israel, Christ, Christians: Isaiah 43:10 (Messianic echo: Phil 2:6-8 echoes John 13:19 which echoes Isaiah 43:10-12: Jesus as saviour/God incarnate)

f.          Add echoes starting here

g.         My Servant: Israel in 587 BC before captivity because of idolatry (identified in Isa 44:9-20), Christians: Isaiah 44:1-8

h.        My Servant: Israel in 536 BC returned from captivity (identified in Isa 44:9-20), Christians AD 33 and after Islamic captivity of Christians (Captivity of Jerusalem began in AD 636) for Idolatry through Mariolatry, Mary worship, praying to dead humans/saints, venerating bones of dead church leaders: Isa 44:21-27

i.           My Anointed: Cyrus, Christ (Shepherd/Anointed), agent of restoration after Babylonian captivity, freed from sin: Isaiah 44:28–48

4.           Isaiah 49-57: Events after 536 BC down to Pentecost AD 33. (Suffering Servant section)

a.         Second suffering servant song: Isaiah, Israel, Christ, Christians: Isa 49:1-13. Called from the womb: Isaiah himself | Israel: Gen 25:23–25 | Christ: Isa 7:14; Mt 1:23 |Christians: Isa 62:2; Eph 1:3.

b.        Third suffering servant song: Isa 50:4-11

c.         Fourth suffering servant song: Isaiah 52:13-53:12 (Christ’s ministry and crucifixion)

5.           Isaiah 58-66: Events after the future second coming, great judgement, Heavenly Jerusalem, hell.

 

D. Messianic echoes and antitypes in Isaiah:

1.           Prime Echo Examples: These passages stand on their own in proving the deity of Christ:

a.         John 14:5-6 echoes Isaiah 40:3 (the way)

b.        John 6:20 echoes Isaiah 41:10,13 (fear not)

c.         Acts 26:15-18 echoes Isaiah 42:6-8 (calls to service)

d.        Phil 2:6-8 echoes John 13:19 which echoes Isaiah 43:10-12 (saviour/God incarnate)

e.        Rev 22:12-13 echoes Isaiah 44:6 (first and last)

f.          1 Cor 10:4 echoes Isaiah 44:8 (only Rock)

g.         John 1:1-5 echoes Isaiah 44:24 (only creator)

h.        King of Babylon echoes Jehovah: Isa 47:8-10; 46:9 (quote)

i.           John 4:25-26 echoes Isaiah 52:6 (quoted by Jesus)

j.          John 8:58 echoes Isaiah 40-55; Ex 3:14; Psalm 90:2 (eternal)

k.         John 18 echoes Isaiah's "I AM"

2.           Secondary Echo Examples: These passages follow the pattern of Jesus echoing the words of Jehovah, but are not in themselves definitive in proving the deity of Christ.

a.         John 11:25 echoes Deut 32:39 (Resurrection)

b.        John 18:37 echoes Isaiah 43:15 (King)

c.         Acts 4:12 echoes Zechariah 14:9 (only name)

d.        John 8:18 echoes 1 Samuel 12:5 (witness)

e.        Mark 14:61-64 echoes Isaiah 19:1 (coming)

f.          John 6 echoes Exodus 16:12 (manna)

g.         Rev 22:16 echoes Isaiah 60:1-5 (morning star)

h.        John 10:9-15 echoes Isaiah 40:11 (shepherd)

3.           Themes linked directly with 'I am'

a.         'I am' and light: John 8:12; 11:25; 14:6; 6:35; 10:9-11,15

b.        'I am' and belief: John 6:35; 8:24; 11:25; 13:19

c.         'I am' and knowledge: John 8:28; 10:14; 14:6,7

d.        'I am' and witness: John 8:12-13, 8:18

e.        'I am' and truth: John 4:24, 26; 8:17-18; 14:6

f.          'I am' and origin/destiny: John 6:40, 5 1; 7:34; 8:23-24

g.         'I am' and time: past and future: John 8:58; 13:19; 7:34

h.        'I am' and the Father: John 8:18; 8:28; 10:14; 14:6; 15:1

i.           'I am' and Titles: John 4:26; 8:28

j.          'I am' and Authority: John 6:20; 8:28; 18:5-6

 

E. Five-fold fulfilment of Isaiah:

4.           National Israel, Christians: "“But you, Israel, My servant, Jacob whom I have chosen, Descendant of Abraham My friend, You whom I have taken from the ends of the earth, And called from its remotest parts And said to you, ‘You are My servant, I have chosen you and not rejected you." (Isaiah 41:8–9)

5.           1st Servant Song: Israel, Isaiah, Christ, Christians: “Behold, My Servant, whom I uphold; My chosen one in whom My soul delights. I have put My Spirit upon Him; He will bring forth justice to the nations. “He will not cry out or raise His voice, Nor make His voice heard in the street. “A bruised reed He will not break And a dimly burning wick He will not extinguish; He will faithfully bring forth justice. “He will not be disheartened or crushed Until He has established justice in the earth; And the coastlands will wait expectantly for His law.”" (Isaiah 42:1–4)

6.           Israel in 587 BC and AD 70: "Hear, you deaf! And look, you blind, that you may see. Who is blind but My servant, Or so deaf as My messenger whom I send? Who is so blind as he that is at peace with Me, Or so blind as the servant of the LORD? You have seen many things, but you do not observe them; Your ears are open, but none hears." (Isaiah 42:18–20)

7.           Israel, Christ, Christians: “You are My witnesses,” declares the LORD, “And My servant whom I have chosen, So that you may know and believe Me And understand that I am He. Before Me there was no God formed, And there will be none after Me." (Isaiah 43:10)

8.           Israel in 587 BC before captivity because of idolatry, Christians: “But now listen, O Jacob, My servant, And Israel, whom I have chosen: Thus says the LORD who made you And formed you from the womb, who will help you, ‘Do not fear, O Jacob My servant; And you Jeshurun whom I have chosen." (Isaiah 44:1–2)

9.           Israel in 536 BC returned from captivity, Christians AD 33 and after Islamic captivity of Christians (Captivity of Jerusalem began in AD 636) for Idolatry through Mariolatry, Mary worship, praying to dead humans/saints, venerating bones of dead church leaders: “Remember these things, O Jacob, And Israel, for you are My servant; I have formed you, you are My servant, O Israel, you will not be forgotten by Me. “I have wiped out your transgressions like a thick cloud And your sins like a heavy mist. Return to Me, for I have redeemed you.”" (Isaiah 44:21–27)

10.       Cyrus, Christ (Shepherd/Anointed), agent of restoration after Babylonian captivity, freed from sin: Isa 44-48

a.         Cyrus restores from 70-year Babylonian captivity: “It is I who says of Cyrus, ‘He is My shepherd! And he will perform all My desire.’ And he declares of Jerusalem, ‘She will be built,’ And of the temple, ‘Your foundation will be laid.’ ” Thus says the LORD to Cyrus His anointed, Whom I have taken by the right hand, To subdue nations before him And to loose the loins of kings; To open doors before him so that gates will not be shut: “I will go before you and make the rough places smooth; I will shatter the doors of bronze and cut through their iron bars. “I will give you the treasures of darkness And hidden wealth of secret places, So that you may know that it is I, The LORD, the God of Israel, who calls you by your name. For the sake of Jacob My servant, And Israel My chosen one, I have also called you by your name; I have given you a title of honor Though you have not known Me." (Isaiah 44:28–45:4)

b.        National Israel restored from Babylonian captivity: "Go forth from Babylon! Flee from the Chaldeans! Declare with the sound of joyful shouting, proclaim this, Send it out to the end of the earth; Say, “The LORD has redeemed His servant Jacob.”" (Isaiah 48:20)

c.         Both Cyrus and Christ were named by Isaiah hundreds of years before birth: Isa 45:3 (Cyrus); Isa 7:14 (Immanuel)

d.        Isaiah, Cyrus, Christ: "The Spirit of the Lord GOD is upon me, Because the LORD has anointed me To bring good news to the afflicted; He has sent me to bind up the brokenhearted, To proclaim liberty to captives And freedom to prisoners; To proclaim the favorable year of the LORD And the day of vengeance of our God; To comfort all who mourn, To grant those who mourn in Zion, Giving them a garland instead of ashes, The oil of gladness instead of mourning, The mantle of praise instead of a spirit of fainting. So they will be called oaks of righteousness, The planting of the LORD, that He may be glorified. Then they will rebuild the ancient ruins, They will raise up the former devastations; And they will repair the ruined cities, The desolations of many generations. Strangers will stand and pasture your flocks, And foreigners will be your farmers and your vinedressers. But you will be called the priests of the LORD; You will be spoken of as ministers of our God. You will eat the wealth of nations, And in their riches you will boast. Instead of your shame you will have a double portion, And instead of humiliation they will shout for joy over their portion. Therefore they will possess a double portion in their land, Everlasting joy will be theirs." (Isaiah 61:1–7)

e.        Christ: "Then a shoot will spring from the stem of Jesse, And a branch from his roots will bear fruit. The Spirit of the Lord will rest on Him, The spirit of wisdom and understanding, The spirit of counsel and strength, The spirit of knowledge and the fear of the Lord." (Isaiah 11:1–2)

f.          Christ: "After being baptized, Jesus came up immediately from the water; and behold, the heavens were opened, and he saw the Spirit of God descending as a dove and lighting on Him," (Matthew 3:16)

g.         Christ: "John testified saying, “I have seen the Spirit descending as a dove out of heaven, and He remained upon Him." (John 1:32)

h.        Christ: "And He came to Nazareth, where He had been brought up; and as was His custom, He entered the synagogue on the Sabbath, and stood up to read. And the book of the prophet Isaiah was handed to Him. And He opened the book and found the place where it was written, “THE SPIRIT OF THE LORD IS UPON ME, BECAUSE HE ANOINTED ME TO PREACH THE GOSPEL TO THE POOR. HE HAS SENT ME TO PROCLAIM RELEASE TO THE CAPTIVES, AND RECOVERY OF SIGHT TO THE BLIND, TO SET FREE THOSE WHO ARE OPPRESSED, TO PROCLAIM THE FAVORABLE YEAR OF THE LORD.” And He closed the book, gave it back to the attendant and sat down; and the eyes of all in the synagogue were fixed on Him. And He began to say to them, “Today this Scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing.”" (Luke 4:16–21)

11.       2nd Servant Song: Isaiah, Israel, Christ, Christians: "Listen to Me, O islands, And pay attention, you peoples from afar. The LORD called Me from the womb (Isaiah himself | Israel: Gen 25:23–25 | Christ: Isa 7:14; Mt 1:23 |Christians: Isa 62:2; Eph 1:3); From the body of My mother He named Me. He has made My mouth like a sharp sword, In the shadow of His hand He has concealed Me; And He has also made Me a select arrow, He has hidden Me in His quiver. He said to Me, “You are My Servant, Israel, In Whom I will show My glory.” But I said, “I have toiled in vain, I have spent My strength for nothing and vanity; Yet surely the justice due to Me is with the LORD, And My reward with My God.” And now says the LORD, who formed Me from the womb to be His Servant, To bring Jacob back to Him, so that Israel might be gathered to Him (For I am honored in the sight of the LORD, And My God is My strength), He says, “It is too small a thing that You should be My Servant To raise up the tribes of Jacob and to restore the preserved ones of Israel; I will also make You a light of the nations So that My salvation may reach to the end of the earth.”" (Isaiah 49:1–6)

12.       Isaiah, Christ, Church: "Who is among you that fears the LORD, That obeys the voice of His servant, That walks in darkness and has no light? Let him trust in the name of the LORD and rely on his God." (Isaiah 50:10)

13.       Isaiah, Christ, Church: Isaiah 52:13-15; Isaiah 53.

14.       National Israel returns from Babylonian captivity and messianic/Christians: "Thus says the LORD, “As the new wine is found in the cluster, And one says, ‘Do not destroy it, for there is benefit in it,’ So I will act on behalf of My servants In order not to destroy all of them. “I will bring forth offspring from Jacob, And an heir of My mountains from Judah; Even My chosen ones shall inherit it, And My servants will dwell there." (Isaiah 65:8–9)

15.       National Israel returns from Babylonian captivity and messianic/Christians: "Thus says the LORD, “As the new wine is found in the cluster, And one says, ‘Do not destroy it, for there is benefit in it,’ So I will act on behalf of My servants In order not to destroy all of them. “I will bring forth offspring from Jacob, And an heir of My mountains from Judah; Even My chosen ones shall inherit it, And My servants will dwell there. “Sharon will be a pasture land for flocks, And the valley of Achor a resting place for herds, For My people who seek Me. “But you who forsake the LORD, Who forget My holy mountain, Who set a table for Fortune, And who fill cups with mixed wine for Destiny, I will destine you for the sword, And all of you will bow down to the slaughter. Because I called, but you did not answer; I spoke, but you did not hear. And you did evil in My sight And chose that in which I did not delight.” Therefore, thus says the Lord GOD, “Behold, My servants will eat, but you will be hungry. Behold, My servants will drink, but you will be thirsty. Behold, My servants will rejoice, but you will be put to shame. “Behold, My servants will shout joyfully with a glad heart, But you will cry out with a heavy heart, And you will wail with a broken spirit. “You will leave your name for a curse to My chosen ones, And the Lord GOD will slay you. But My servants will be called by another name (Jew-after captivity/Christian)." (Isaiah 65:8–15)

16.       Jerusalem, Christ, Church, Christians: "“Be joyful with Jerusalem and rejoice for her, all you who love her; Be exceedingly glad with her, all you who mourn over her, That you may nurse and be satisfied with her comforting breasts, That you may suck and be delighted with her bountiful bosom.” For thus says the LORD, “Behold, I extend peace to her like a river, And the glory of the nations like an overflowing stream; And you will be nursed, you will be carried on the hip and fondled on the knees. “As one whom his mother comforts, so I will comfort you; And you will be comforted in Jerusalem.” Then you will see this, and your heart will be glad, And your bones will flourish like the new grass; And the hand of the LORD will be made known to His servants, But He will be indignant toward His enemies. For behold, the LORD will come in fire And His chariots like the whirlwind, To render His anger with fury, And His rebuke with flames of fire. For the LORD will execute judgment by fire And by His sword on all flesh, And those slain by the LORD will be many." (Isaiah 66:10–16)

 

F. 55 Isaiah Quotations in 65 New Testament Passages

 

55 Isaiah Quotations in 65 New Testament Passages

Generally New Testament writers quoted from the Greek Septuagint (LXX)

Isaiah Source

NT quote

New Testament: New English Translation (NET)

Septuagint LXX

Vaticanus 325 AD

Masoretic MT

Jewish Bible JPS

Isaiah 1:9

Rom 9:29

"Just as Isaiah predicted, “If the Lord of armies had not left us descendants, we would have become like Sodom, and we would have resembled Gomorrah.”" (Romans 9:29)

"And if the Lord Sabaoth had not left us seed, we would have become like Sodom and we would have been made like Gomorrah." (Isaiah 1:9)

"Had not the Lord of Hosts Left us some survivors, We should be like Sodom, Another Gomorrah." (Isaiah 1:9)

Isaiah 6:9-10

Mt 13:14-15; Mark 4:12; Luke 8:10; John 12:40; Acts 28:26-27

"And concerning them the prophecy of Isaiah is fulfilled that says: ‘You will listen carefully yet will never understand, you will look closely yet will never comprehend. For the heart of this people has become dull; they are hard of hearing, and they have shut their eyes, so that they would not see with their eyes and hear with their ears and understand with their hearts and turn, and I would heal them.’" (Matthew 13:14–15) "so that although they look they may look but not see, and although they hear they may hear but not understand, so they may not repent and be forgiven.”" (Mark 4:12) "He said, “You have been given the opportunity to know the secrets of the kingdom of God, but for others they are in parables, so that although they see they may not see, and although they hear they may not understand." (Luke 8:10) "“He has blinded their eyes and hardened their heart, so that they would not see with their eyes and understand with their heart, and turn to me, and I would heal them.”" (John 12:40) "when he said, ‘Go to this people and say, “You will keep on hearing, but will never understand, and you will keep on looking, but will never perceive. For the heart of this people has become dull, and their ears are hard of hearing, and they have closed their eyes, so that they would not see with their eyes and hear with their ears and understand with their heart and turn, and I would heal them.” ’" (Acts 28:26–27)

"And he said, “Go and tell this people, ‘You will hear by hearing and not understand; and although looking, you will look and not see.’ For the heart of this people has been thickened; and they have heard with difficulty with their ears, and they closed their eyes lest they see with their eyes and hear with their ears and understand with their heart and turn, and I will heal them.”" (Isaiah 6:9–10)

"And He said, “Go, say to that people: ‘Hear, indeed, but do not understand; See, indeed, but do not grasp.’ Dull that people’s mind, Stop its ears, And seal its eyes— Lest, seeing with its eyes And hearing with its ears, It also grasp with its mind, And repent and save itself.”" (Isaiah 6:9–10)

Isaiah 7:14 (Isaiah’s own son born just before the death of Rezin and Pekah in 732 BC (Isa 8:3)

Mt 1:23 (Jesus)

"“Look! The virgin will conceive and bear a son, and they will call him Emmanuel,” which means “God with us.”" (Matthew 1:23)

"Because of this, the Lord himself will give you a sign: Look, the maiden will become pregnant and will bear a son, and you will call his name Immanuel." (Isaiah 7:14)

"Assuredly, my Lord will give you a sign of His own accord! Look, the young woman is with child and about to give birth to a son. Let her name him Immanuel." (Isaiah 7:14)

Isaiah 8:12

1 Peter 3:14

"But in fact, if you happen to suffer for doing what is right, you are blessed. But do not be terrified of them or be shaken." (1 Peter 3:14)

"‘Let them not say, “It is hard.” ’ For anything that this people might say is hard; but do not be frightened with its fear, neither be troubled.”" (Isaiah 8:12)

"“You are not to say, ‘It is a conspiracy!’ In regard to all that this people call a conspiracy, And you are not to fear what they fear or be in dread of it." (Isaiah 8:12)

Isaiah 8:14; 28:16

Rom 9:33; 10:11; 1 Peter 2:6; 2:8

"just as it is written, “Look, I am laying in Zion a stone that will cause people to stumble and a rock that will make them fall, yet the one who believes in him will not be put to shame.”" (Romans 9:33) "For the scripture says, “Everyone who believes in him will not be put to shame.”" (Romans 10:11) "For it says in scripture, “Look, I lay in Zion a stone, a chosen and priceless cornerstone, and whoever believes in him will never be put to shame.”" (1 Peter 2:6) "and a stumbling-stone and a rock to trip over. They stumble because they disobey the word, as they were destined to do." (1 Peter 2:8)

"And if you trust him, he will become a sanctuary for you, and you will not encounter him as an obstacle of stone or like a fall from a rock. But the houses of Jacob are in a snare, and those who sit in Jerusalem are in a pit." (Isaiah 8:14) "Because of this, this is what the Lord God says: “Look, I am casting into the foundations of Zion a precious choice stone, a valuable cornerstone into its foundations, and the one who trusts will certainly not be disgraced." (Isaiah 28:16)

"He shall be for a sanctuary, A stone men strike against: A rock men stumble over For the two Houses of Israel, And a trap and a snare for those Who dwell in Jerusalem." (Isaiah 8:14) "Assuredly, Thus said the Lord God: “Behold, I will found in Zion, Stone by stone, A tower of precious cornerstones, Exceedingly firm; He who trusts need not fear." (Isaiah 28:16)

Isaiah 9:1-2

Mt 4:15-16

"“Land of Zebulun and land of Naphtali, the way by the sea, beyond the Jordan, Galilee of the Gentiles— the people who sit in darkness have seen a great light, and on those who sit in the region and shadow of death a light has dawned.”" (Matthew 4:15–16)

"Drink this first; act swiftly, region of Zebulun, land of Naphtali, and the rest who are on the coast and across the Jordan, Galilee of the nations! People going in darkness, see a great light! Those inhabiting a region, a shadow of death, light will shine on you!" (Isaiah 9:1–2)

"For if there were to be any break of day for that which is in straits, only the former would have brought abasement to the land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali—while the later one would have brought honor to the Way of the Sea, the other side of the Jordan, and Galilee of the Nations. The people that walked in darkness Have seen a brilliant light; On those who dwelt in a land of gloom Light has dawned." (Isaiah 8:23–9:1)

Isaiah 10:22-23

Rom 9:27-28

"And Isaiah cries out on behalf of Israel, “Though the number of the children of Israel are as the sand of the sea, only the remnant will be saved, for the Lord will execute his sentence on the earth completely and quickly.”" (Romans 9:27–28)

"And if the people of Israel become like the sand of the sea, the remnant of them will be saved, because they complete an account and curtail it in righteousness, for the Lord will make a curtailed account with the whole inhabited land." (Isaiah 10:22–23)

"Even if your people, O Israel, Should be as the sands of the sea, Only a remnant of it shall return. Destruction is decreed; Retribution comes like a flood! For my Lord God of Hosts is carrying out A decree of destruction upon all the land." (Isaiah 10:22–23)

Isaiah 11:10

Rom 15:12

"And again Isaiah says, “The root of Jesse will come, and the one who rises to rule over the Gentiles, in him will the Gentiles hope.”" (Romans 15:12)

"And in that day there will be the root of Jesse and the one who rises up to rule nations; nations will put their hope in him, and his repose will be honor." (Isaiah 11:10)

"In that day, The stock of Jesse that has remained standing Shall become a standard to peoples— Nations shall seek his counsel And his abode shall be honored." (Isaiah 11:10)

Isaiah 12:2; 8:17-18; 2 Samuel 22:3;

Heb 2:13

"Again he says, “I will be confident in him,” and again, “Here I am, with the children God has given me.”" (Hebrews 2:13)

"Look! My God is my savior; I will trust him, and I will not be frightened, for the Lord is my glory and my praise, and he has become salvation for me.”" (Isaiah 12:2) "my God will be my guard; I will rely on him; my protector and the horn of my deliverance, my protector and my refuge for my deliverance from wrongdoing, you will save me." (2 Kingdoms 22:3) "And he will say, “I will wait for God, who turned his face from the house Jacob, and I will trust him. Look, here am I, along with the children whom God has given me, and in the house of Israel they will become signs and wonders from the Lord Sabaoth, who dwells on Mount Zion.”" (Isaiah 8:17–18)

"Behold the God who gives me triumph! I am confident, unafraid; For Yah the Lord is my strength and might, And He has been my deliverance.”" (Isaiah 12:2) "My God, my rock, in whom I take refuge, My shield and the horn of my salvation, my stronghold and my refuge; My savior, You save me from violence." (2 Samuel 22:3) "And I will wait for the Lord who is hiding His face from the house of Jacob; I will even look eagerly for Him. Behold, I and the children whom the Lord has given me are for signs and wonders in Israel from the Lord of hosts, who dwells on Mount Zion." (Isaiah 8:17–18)

Isaiah 22:13

1 Cor 15:32

"If from a human point of view I fought with wild beasts at Ephesus, what did it benefit me? If the dead are not raised, let us eat and drink, for tomorrow we die." (1 Corinthians 15:32)

"But they acted with happiness and rejoicing, slaughtering calves and sacrificing sheep in order to eat meat and drink wine: “Let’s eat and drink, for tomorrow we die!”" (Isaiah 22:13)

"Instead, there was rejoicing and merriment, Killing of cattle and slaughtering of sheep, Eating of meat and drinking of wine: “Eat and drink, for tomorrow we die!”" (Isaiah 22:13)

Isaiah 22:22-24

Rev 3:7

"“To the angel of the church in Philadelphia write the following: “This is the solemn pronouncement of the Holy One, the True One, who holds the key of David, who opens doors no one can shut, and shuts doors no one can open:" (Revelation 3:7)

"And I will give the glory of David to him, and he will rule, and there will be no one who opposes him. And he will shut, and there will be no one to open. And I will set him up as leader in a secure place, and he will become a throne of the glory of his father’s house. And every esteemed person in his father’s house, from small to great, will trust him, and they will be dependent on him" (Isaiah 22:22–24)

"I will place the keys of David’s palace on his shoulders; and what he unlocks none may shut, and what he locks none may open. He shall be a seat of honor to his father’s household. I will fix him as a peg in a firm place, on which all the substance of his father’s household shall be hung: the sprouts and the leaves—all the small vessels, from bowls to all sorts of jars." (Isaiah 22:22–24)

Isaiah 25:8

1 Cor 15:54

"Now when this perishable puts on the imperishable, and this mortal puts on immortality, then the saying that is written will happen, “Death has been swallowed up in victory.”" (1 Corinthians 15:54)

"Death, having power, swallowed; and again the Lord God took away every tear from every face; he took away the reproach of the people from all the land, for the mouth of the Lord has spoken." (Isaiah 25:8)

"He will destroy death forever. My Lord God will wipe the tears away From all faces And will put an end to the reproach of His people Over all the earth— For it is the Lord who has spoken." (Isaiah 25:8)

Isaiah 28:11-12

1 Cor 14:21

"It is written in the law: “By people with strange tongues and by the lips of strangers I will speak to this people, yet not even in this way will they listen to me,” says the Lord." (1 Corinthians 14:21)

"because of the contempt of lips, through a different tongue, because they will speak to this people, saying to them, “This is the rest for the hungry, and this is the ruin.” And they did not want to hear it." (Isaiah 28:11–12)

"Truly, as one who speaks to that people in a stammering jargon and an alien tongue is he who declares to them, “This is the resting place, let the weary rest; this is the place of repose.” They refuse to listen." (Isaiah 28:11–12)

Isaiah 29:13

Mt 15:8-9; Mark 7:6-7

"‘This people honors me with their lips, but their heart is far from me, and they worship me in vain, teaching as doctrines the commandments of men.’ ”" (Matthew 15:8–9) "He said to them, “Isaiah prophesied correctly about you hypocrites, as it is written: ‘This people honors me with their lips, but their heart is far from me. They worship me in vain, teaching as doctrine the commandments of men.’" (Mark 7:6–7)

"And the Lord said, “This people approaches me with their mouth, and with their lips they honor me, but their heart remains far from me. And they are pious to me to no avail, teaching human rules and instructions." (Isaiah 29:13)

"My Lord said: Because that people has approached with its mouth And honored Me with its lips, But has kept its heart far from Me, And its worship of Me has been A commandment of men, learned by rote—" (Isaiah 29:13)

Isaiah 29:14

1 Cor 1:19

"For it is written, “I will destroy the wisdom of the wise, and I will thwart the cleverness of the intelligent.”" (1 Corinthians 1:19)

"Because of this, Look! I will continue to change this people, and I will change them, and I will destroy the wisdom of the wise, and I will hide the intelligence of the intelligent.”" (Isaiah 29:14)

"Truly, I shall further baffle that people With bafflement upon bafflement; And the wisdom of its wise shall fail, And the prudence of its prudent shall vanish." (Isaiah 29:14)

Isaiah 35:3

Heb 12:12

"Therefore, strengthen your listless hands and your weak knees," (Hebrews 12:12)

"Be strong, hands at ease and feeble knees!" (Isaiah 35:3)

"Strengthen the hands that are slack; Make firm the tottering knees!" (Isaiah 35:3)

Isaiah 40:3-5 (Isaiah)

Mt 3:3; Luke 3:4-6; John 1:23 (John the Baptist)

"For he is the one about whom Isaiah the prophet had spoken: “The voice of one shouting in the wilderness, ‘Prepare the way for the Lord, make his paths straight.’ ”" (Matthew 3:3) "As it is written in the book of the words of Isaiah the prophet, “The voice of one shouting in the wilderness: ‘Prepare the way for the Lord, make his paths straight. Every valley will be filled, and every mountain and hill will be brought low, and the crooked will be made straight, and the rough ways will be made smooth, and all humanity will see the salvation of God.’ ”" (Luke 3:4–6) "John said, “I am the voice of one shouting in the wilderness, ‘Make straight the way for the Lord,’ as Isaiah the prophet said.”" (John 1:23)

"The voice of one calling in the desert, “Prepare the way of the Lord! Make the paths of our God straight!” Every valley will be filled, and every mountain and hill will be leveled, and all the crooked ways will be made straight, and every rough spot a plain; and the glory of the Lord will be seen, and all flesh will see the salvation of God, for the Lord has spoken." (Isaiah 40:3–5)

"A voice rings out: “Clear in the desert A road for the Lord! Level in the wilderness A highway for our God! Let every valley be raised, Every hill and mount made low. Let the rugged ground become level And the ridges become a plain. The Presence of the Lord shall appear, And all flesh, as one, shall behold— For the Lord Himself has spoken.”" (Isaiah 40:3–5)

Isaiah 40:6-8 (Old Testament canon)

1 Peter 1:24-25 (New Testament canon)

"For all flesh is like grass and all its glory like the flower of the grass; the grass withers and the flower falls off, but the word of the Lord endures forever. And this is the word that was proclaimed to you." (1 Peter 1:24–25)

"The voice of one saying, “Cry out,” and I said, “What shall I cry out?” All flesh is grass, and all the glory of humanity is like a flower of grass; the grass is withered, and the flower falls off, but the word of our God remains forever." (Isaiah 40:6–8)

"A voice rings out: “Proclaim!” Another asks, “What shall I proclaim?” “All flesh is grass, All its goodness like flowers of the field: Grass withers, flowers fade When the breath of the Lord blows on them. Indeed, man is but grass: Grass withers, flowers fade— But the word of our God is always fulfilled!”" (Isaiah 40:6–8)

Isaiah 40:13-14 (Isaiah)

Rom 11:34-35; 1 Cor 2:16 (Christians, Paul, Corinthians)

"For who has known the mind of the Lord, or who has been his counselor? Or who has first given to God, that God needs to repay him?" (Romans 11:34–35) "For who has known the mind of the Lord, so as to advise him? But we have the mind of Christ." (1 Corinthians 2:16)

"Who has known the mind of the Lord, and who has become his counselor? Who will advise him? With whom did he consult, and who advised him? Who ever explained a decision to him? Who has ever shown him a way of understanding?" (Isaiah 40:13–14)

"Who has plumbed the mind of the Lord, What man could tell Him His plan? Whom did He consult, and who taught Him, Guided Him in the way of right? Who guided Him in knowledge And showed Him the path of wisdom?" (Isaiah 40:13–14)

Isaiah 41:4; 44:6 (YHWH)

Rev 1:17 (Jesus)

"When I saw him I fell down at his feet as though I were dead, but he placed his right hand on me and said: “Do not be afraid! I am the first and the last," (Revelation 1:17)

"Who has produced and made these things? The one who called her from the beginning of generations has summoned her. I, God, am at the first, and I am in the future." (Isaiah 41:4) "This is what the king of Israel, and the one who rescues him, God Sabaoth says: “I am the first, and I am after these things; except for me there is no God." (Isaiah 44:6)

"Who has wrought and achieved this? He who announced the generations from the start— I, the Lord, who was first And will be with the last as well." (Isaiah 41:4) "Thus said the Lord, the King of Israel, Their Redeemer, the Lord of Hosts: I am the first and I am the last, And there is no god but Me." (Isaiah 44:6)

Isaiah 42:1-4 (Israel, Isaiah)

Mt 12:18-21 (Jesus)

"“Here is my servant whom I have chosen, the one I love, in whom I take great delight. I will put my Spirit on him, and he will proclaim justice to the nations. He will not quarrel or cry out, nor will anyone hear his voice in the streets. He will not break a bruised reed or extinguish a smoldering wick, until he brings justice to victory. And in his name the Gentiles will hope.”" (Matthew 12:18–21)

"Jacob is my child, I will help him; Israel is my chosen one, my soul has accepted him. I have given my spirit upon him; he will bring forth judgment upon the nations. He will not cry out or lift up his voice, nor will his voice be heard outside. He will not crush a bruised reed, and he will not extinguish a smoking flax, but he will bring forth justice to truth. He will blaze forth and will not be broken until he brings justice upon the earth, and the nations will hope in his name." (Isaiah 42:1–4)

"This is My servant, whom I uphold, My chosen one, in whom I delight. I have put My spirit upon him, He shall teach the true way to the nations. He shall not cry out or shout aloud, Or make his voice heard in the streets. He shall not break even a bruised reed, Or snuff out even a dim wick. He shall bring forth the true way. He shall not grow dim or be bruised Till he has established the true way on earth; And the coastlands shall await his teaching." (Isaiah 42:1–4)

Isaiah 42:6

Suffering servant song 1;

Isaiah 49:6 Suffering servant song 2

(Israel, Isaiah)

Acts 13:47 (Jesus, Christians, Paul)

"For this is what the Lord has commanded us: ‘I have appointed you to be a light for the Gentiles, to bring salvation to the ends of the earth.’ ”" (Acts 13:47)

"I, the Lord God, have called you in righteousness, and I will hold fast onto your hand and strengthen you and make you a covenant for the nation" (Isaiah 42:6) "And he said to me, “It is a great thing for you to be called my child, to establish the tribes of Jacob and to return the dispersion of Israel. Look! I have given you as a covenant for a nation, as a light for the nations so that you may bring salvation as far as the end of the earth.”" (Isaiah 49:6)

"I the Lord, in My grace, have summoned you, And I have grasped you by the hand. I created you, and appointed you A covenant people, a light of nations—" (Isaiah 42:6) "For He has said: “It is too little that you should be My servant In that I raise up the tribes of Jacob And restore the survivors of Israel: I will also make you a light of nations, That My salvation may reach the ends of the earth.”" (Isaiah 49:6)

Isaiah 45:9; 29:16 (Israel)

Rom 9:20 (Christians)

"But who indeed are you—a mere human being—to talk back to God? Does what is molded say to the molder, “Why have you made me like this?”" (Romans 9:20)

"Will you not be reckoned as the clay of the potter? Surely the shape will say not to the one who shapes it, “You did not shape me.” Or the thing made to the one who makes it, “You did not make me intelligently.”" (Isaiah 29:16) "“What better thing have I prepared like potter’s clay? Will the one who plows plow the ground the entire day? Will the clay say to the potter, ‘What are you doing, since you do not labor or have hands’?" (Isaiah 45:9)

"How perverse of you! Should the potter be accounted as the clay? Should what is made say of its Maker, “He did not make me,” And what is formed say of Him who formed it, “He did not understand?”" (Isaiah 29:16) "Shame on him who argues with his Maker, Though naught but a potsherd of earth! Shall the clay say to the potter, “What are you doing? Your work has no handles”?" (Isaiah 45:9)

Isaiah 45:23-24 (YHWH)

Rom 14:11; Phil 2:10-11 (Jesus)

"For it is written, “As I live, says the Lord, every knee will bow to me, and every tongue will give praise to God.”" (Romans 14:11)  "so that at the name of Jesus every knee will bow —in heaven and on earth and under the earth— and every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord to the glory of God the Father." (Philippians 2:10–11)  

"I am swearing an oath according to myself: Unless righteousness shall go forth from my mouth, my words shall not turn back, because every knee shall bend to me, and every tongue shall swear by God, saying, “Righteousness and glory will come with him, and all who separate them will be shamed." (Isaiah 45:23–24)

"By Myself have I sworn, From My mouth has issued truth, A word that shall not turn back: To Me every knee shall bend, Every tongue swear loyalty. They shall say: “Only through the Lord Can I find victory and might. When people trust in Him, All their adversaries are put to shame." (Isaiah 45:23–24)

Isaiah 49:8 Suffering servant song 2 (Isaiah, Israel)

2 Cor 6:2 (Paul, Christians)

"For he says, “I heard you at the acceptable time, and in the day of salvation I helped you.” Look, now is the acceptable time; look, now is the day of salvation!" (2 Corinthians 6:2)

"This is what the Lord says: “I have listened to you at the acceptable time, and I have helped you in the day of salvation. And I formed you and have given you as a covenant for the nations, to establish the land and to allot deserted lots," (Isaiah 49:8)

"Thus said the Lord: In an hour of favor I answer you, And on a day of salvation I help you— I created you and appointed you a covenant people— Restoring the land, Allotting anew the desolate holdings," (Isaiah 49:8)

Isaiah 49:10 Suffering servant song 2 (Isaiah, Israel)

Rev 7:16 (Christians)

"They will never go hungry or be thirsty again, and the sun will not beat down on them, nor any burning heat," (Revelation 7:16)

"They will not hunger or thirst, and the burning heat and the sun will not strike them, but the one who shows mercy will comfort them, and he will lead them through springs of waters." (Isaiah 49:10)

"They shall not hunger or thirst, Hot wind and sun shall not strike them; For He who loves them will lead them, He will guide them to springs of water." (Isaiah 49:10)

Isaiah 52:5; Ezek 36:20, 23 (Israel in Egypt and Assyrian captivity, warning Judah about impending Babylonian captivity)

Rom 2:24 (Christians)

"For just as it is written, “the name of God is being blasphemed among the Gentiles because of you.”" (Romans 2:24)

"and now why are you here?” This is what the Lord says: “Because my people were taken for nothing, be impressed and wail.” This is what the Lord says: “Because of you my name is always blasphemed among the nations." (Isaiah 52:5) "But when they arrived in the nations where they went, they profaned my holy name. It was said of them, ‘These are the people of the Lord, yet they have departed from his land.’ I was concerned for my holy reputation which the house of Israel profaned among the nations where they went. “Therefore say to the house of Israel, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: It is not for your sake that I am about to act, O house of Israel, but for the sake of my holy reputation which you profaned among the nations where you went. I will magnify my great name that has been profaned among the nations, that you have profaned among them. The nations will know that I am the Lord, declares the sovereign Lord, when I magnify myself among you in their sight. “ ‘I will take you from the nations and gather you from all the countries; then I will bring you to your land." (Ezekiel 36:20–24)

"What therefore do I gain here? —declares the Lord— For My people has been carried off for nothing, Their mockers howl —declares the Lord— And constantly, unceasingly, My name is reviled." (Isaiah 52:5) "But when they came to the nations, wherever they came, they profaned my holy name, in that it was said of them, “These are the people of the Lord, and yet they had to go out of his land.” But I had concern for my holy name, which the house of Israel had profaned among the nations to which they came. Therefore say to the house of Israel, Thus says the Lord God: It is not for your sake, O house of Israel, that I am about to act, but for the sake of my holy name, which you have profaned among the nations to which you came. I will sanctify my great name, which has been profaned among the nations, and which you have profaned among them; and the nations shall know that I am the Lord, says the Lord God, when through you I display my holiness before their eyes. I will take you from the nations, and gather you from all the countries, and bring you into your own land." (Ezekiel 36:20–24)  

Isaiah 52:7 (Isaiah)

Rom 10:15 (Paul, Christians)

"And how are they to preach unless they are sent? As it is written, “How timely is the arrival of those who proclaim the good news.”" (Romans 10:15)

"as an hour upon the mountains, as the feet of one who brings the good news of peace, as the one who brings the good news of good things; for I will make your salvation heard, saying, ‘O Zion, your God will reign!’ ”" (Isaiah 52:7)

"How welcome on the mountain Are the footsteps of the herald Announcing happiness, Heralding good fortune, Announcing victory, Telling Zion, “Your God is King!”" (Isaiah 52:7)

Isaiah 52:11; Jeremiah 23:3; 38:9; 50:8; 51:6,8,45 (Return from Babylonian Captivity)

2 Cor 6:17-18; Rev 18:4 (Christians out the world and Jerusalem in September AD 66 as per Luke 21:20.

"Therefore “come out from their midst, and be separate,” says the Lord, “and touch no unclean thing, and I will welcome you, and I will be a father to you, and you will be my sons and daughters,” says the All-Powerful Lord." (2 Corinthians 6:17–18) "Then I heard another voice from heaven saying, “Come out of her, my people, so you will not take part in her sins and so you will not receive her plagues," (Revelation 18:4)

"Depart! Depart; come out from there and touch no unclean thing! Come out from her midst; be separate, you who carry the vessels of the Lord," (Isaiah 52:11) "Be alienated from the midst of Babylon and from the land Chaldeans, and go out and become like dragons before sheep;" (Jeremiah 27:8) "Flee from the midst of Babylon, and each of you rescue his life! And do not be cast away in her injustice, because the time of her vengeance is from the Lord. He is repaying her repayment to her." (Jeremiah 28:6) "We treated Babylon, and she was not cured. Let us forsake her, and let us each depart to his land. Because her judgment has drawn near to the sky. It has risen up to the stars." (Jeremiah 28:9) Jeremiah 51:45 – missing from LXX

"Turn, turn away, touch naught unclean As you depart from there; Keep pure, as you go forth from there, You who bear the vessels of the Lord!" (Isaiah 52:11) "Flee from Babylon, Leave the land of the Chaldeans, And be like he-goats that lead the flock!" (Jeremiah 50:8) "Flee from the midst of Babylon And save your lives, each of you! Do not perish for her iniquity; For this is a time of vengeance for the Lord, He will deal retribution to her." (Jeremiah 51:6) "We tried to cure Babylon But she was incurable. Let us leave her and go, Each to his own land; For her punishment reaches to heaven, It is as high as the sky." (Jeremiah 51:9) "Depart from there, O My people, Save your lives, each of you, From the furious anger of the Lord." (Jeremiah 51:45)

Isaiah 52:15 Suffering servant song 4 (Isaiah, Messiah)

 

Isaiah 65:1-2 (Isaiah)

Rom 15:20-21 (Christ, Paul, Christians, Jesus)

"And in this way I desire to preach where Christ has not been named, so as not to build on another person’s foundation, but as it is written: “Those who were not told about him will see, and those who have not heard will understand.”" (Romans 15:20–21)

 

"And Isaiah is even bold enough to say, “I was found by those who did not seek me; I became well known to those who did not ask for me.”But about Israel he says, “All day long I held out my hands to this disobedient and stubborn people!”" (Romans 10:20–21)

"Thus many nations will be impressed at him, and kings will shut their mouth, because those to whom it has not been declared concerning him will see, and those who have not heard will understand." (Isaiah 52:15)

 

“I became evident to those who did not consult me; I was found by those who did not seek me. I said, “Look! Here I am,” to a people who have not called upon my name. I stretched out my hands all day long to a people who broke faith and opposed, to those who walked in a way that was not good but followed after their own sins. (Isaiah 65:1-2)

"Just so he shall startle many nations. Kings shall be silenced because of him, For they shall see what has not been told them, Shall behold what they never have heard.”" (Isaiah 52:15)

 

"I responded to those who did not ask, I was at hand to those who did not seek Me; I said, “Here I am, here I am,” To a nation that did not invoke My name. I constantly spread out My hands To a disloyal people, Who walk the way that is not good, Following their own designs;" (Isaiah 65:1–2)

Isaiah 53:1 Suffering servant song 4 (Isaiah)

John 12:38; Rom 10:16 (Jesus, Paul, Christians)

"so that the word of Isaiah the prophet would be fulfilled. He said, “Lord, who has believed our message, and to whom has the arm of the Lord been revealed?”" (John 12:38) "But not all have obeyed the good news, for Isaiah says, “Lord, who has believed our report?”" (Romans 10:16)

"O Lord, who has believed our report? And to whom has the arm of the Lord been revealed?" (Isaiah 53:1)

"“Who can believe what we have heard? Upon whom has the arm of the Lord been revealed?" (Isaiah 53:1)

Isaiah 53:4 Suffering servant song 4 (Isaiah)

Mt 8:17 (Jesus)

"In this way what was spoken by Isaiah the prophet was fulfilled: “He took our weaknesses and carried our diseases.”" (Matthew 8:17)

"This one carries our sins and suffers pain for us, and we regarded him as one who is in difficulty, misfortune, and affliction." (Isaiah 53:4)

"Yet it was our sickness that he was bearing, Our suffering that he endured. We accounted him plagued, Smitten and afflicted by God;" (Isaiah 53:4)

Isaiah 53:5 Suffering servant song 4 (Isaiah was sawn in two with a saw that cuts trees down, possible suspended between two trees upside down.)

1 Peter 2:24 (Isaiah, Jesus, Paul, Christians)

"He himself bore our sins in his body on the tree, that we may cease from sinning and live for righteousness. By his wounds you were healed." (1 Peter 2:24)

 

“If anyone wishes to come after Me, he must deny himself, and take up his cross and follow Me." (Matthew 16:24)

 

"From now on let no one cause trouble for me, for I bear on my body the brand-marks of Jesus." (Galatians 6:17)

 

"I affirm, brethren, by the boasting in you which I have in Christ Jesus our Lord, I die daily." (1 Corinthians 15:31)

 

"Are they servants of Christ?—I speak as if insane—I more so; in far more labors, in far more imprisonments, beaten times without number, often in danger of death. Five times I received from the Jews thirty-nine lashes. Three times I was beaten with rods, once I was stoned, three times I was shipwrecked, a night and a day I have spent in the deep. I have been on frequent journeys, in dangers from rivers, dangers from robbers, dangers from my countrymen, dangers from the Gentiles, dangers in the city, dangers in the wilderness, dangers on the sea, dangers among false brethren; I have been in labor and hardship, through many sleepless nights, in hunger and thirst, often without food, in cold and exposure. Apart from such external things, there is the daily pressure on me of concern for all the churches. Who is weak without my being weak? Who is led into sin without my intense concern? If I have to boast, I will boast of what pertains to my weakness." (2 Corinthians 11:23–30)

 

"They were stoned, they were sawn in two, they were tempted, they were put to death with the sword; they went about in sheepskins, in goatskins, being destitute, afflicted, ill-treated" (Hebrews 11:37)

 

“When Manasseh arose, he pursued Isaiah, wanting to kill him. Isaiah fled from him. He escaped to a cedar, which swallowed him up, except for the show fringes of his cloak, which revealed where he was. They came and told him. He said to them, “Go and cut the cedar down.” They cut the cedar down, and blood showed [indicating that Isaiah had been sawed also.] (Jerusalem Talmud Sanh.10:2, III.1.OO–PP, 400 AD)

 

“And they seized Isaiah the son of Amoz and sawed him in half with a wood saw. 12 And Manasseh, and Belkira, and the false prophets, and the princes, and the people, and all stood by looking on.” (Ascension of Isaiah 5:11-16, 200 BC – 400 AD)

 

“Because of these visions and prophecies Sammael Satan sawed Isaiah the son of Amoz, the prophet, in half by the hand of Manasseh.” (Ascension of Isaiah 11:41, 200 BC – 400 AD)

"But he was wounded because of our sins, and he became sick because of our lawless acts. The discipline of our peace was upon him; by his bruise we were healed." (Isaiah 53:5)

"But he was wounded because of our sins, Crushed because of our iniquities. He bore the chastisement that made us whole, And by his bruises we were healed." (Isaiah 53:5)

Isaiah 53:7-8 Suffering servant song 4 (Isaiah)

Acts 8:32-35 (Jesus)

"Now the passage of scripture the man was reading was this: “He was led like a sheep to slaughter, and like a lamb before its shearer is silent, so he did not open his mouth. In humiliation justice was taken from him. Who can describe his posterity? For his life was taken away from the earth.” "Then the eunuch said to Philip, “Please tell me, who is the prophet saying this about—himself or someone else?” So Philip started speaking, and beginning with this scripture proclaimed the good news about Jesus to him." (Acts 8:32–35)

"And because he was afflicted, he does not open his mouth; like a sheep is led to slaughter, and like a lamb is voiceless before the one who shears it, so he does not open his mouth. His judgment was taken away in humiliation; who will describe his family? For his life was taken from the earth; he was led to death because of the lawless acts of my people." (Isaiah 53:7–8)

"He was maltreated, yet he was submissive, He did not open his mouth; Like a sheep being led to slaughter, Like a ewe, dumb before those who shear her, He did not open his mouth. By oppressive judgment he was taken away, Who could describe his abode? For he was cut off from the land of the living Through the sin of my people, who deserved the punishment." (Isaiah 53:7–8)

Isaiah 53:9 Suffering servant song 4 (Isaiah)

1 Peter 2:22 (Jesus)

"He committed no sin nor was deceit found in his mouth." (1 Peter 2:22)

"And I will give the wicked in place of his tomb, and the wealthy in place of death, because he committed no lawlessness, and there was no deceit in his mouth." (Isaiah 53:9)

"And his grave was set among the wicked, And with the rich, in his death— Though he had done no injustice And had spoken no falsehood." (Isaiah 53:9)

Isaiah 53:12 Suffering servant song 4 (Isaiah)

Luke 22:37 (Jesus)

"For I tell you that this scripture must be fulfilled in me, ‘And he was counted with the transgressors.’ For what is written about me is being fulfilled.”" (Luke 22:37)

"Because of this he will cause many to inherit, and he will apportion the spoils of the mighty, because his soul was given over to death, and he was reckoned among the lawless, and he himself bore the sins of many, and he was handed over because of their wickedness." (Isaiah 53:12)

"Assuredly, I will give him the many as his portion, He shall receive the multitude as his spoil. For he exposed himself to death And was numbered among the sinners, Whereas he bore the guilt of the many And made intercession for sinners.”" (Isaiah 53:12)

Isaiah 54:1 (Barren women in general) Notice the Midrashic style of How Isa 54:1 doesn’t specifically reference Sarah.

Gal 4:27 (Sarah and Christians as spiritual Jews)

"For it is written: “Rejoice, O barren woman who does not bear children; break forth and shout, you who have no birth pains, because the children of the desolate woman are more numerous than those of the woman who has a husband.”" (Galatians 4:27)

"Rejoice, O barren one who does not beget! Break forth and cry aloud, you who are not in labor, because the children of the deserted woman will be more than those of the woman who has a husband, for the Lord has said it." (Isaiah 54:1)

"Shout, O barren one, You who bore no child! Shout aloud for joy, You who did not travail! For the children of the wife forlorn Shall outnumber those of the espoused —said the Lord." (Isaiah 54:1)

Isaiah 54:13; Deut 6:6-7) Jewish fathers teaching their children the Law of Moses)

John 6:45 (Jesus)

"It is written in the prophets, ‘And they will all be taught by God.’ Everyone who hears and learns from the Father comes to me." (John 6:45)

"And all your sons will be instructed by God, and your children will live in great peace." (Isaiah 54:13) "And these words that I am commanding you today shall be in your heart and in your soul. And you will impress upon your sons and speak on them when sitting in the house and when walking on the road and when lying down and when rising up." (Deut 6:6-7)

"And all your children shall be disciples of the Lord, And great shall be the happiness of your children;" (Isaiah 54:13) "Take to heart these instructions with which I charge you this day. Impress them upon your children. Recite them when you stay at home and when you are away, when you lie down and when you get up." (Deut 6:6–7)

Isaiah 55:3 (Isaiah)

Acts 13:34 (Paul)

"But regarding the fact that he has raised Jesus from the dead, never again to be in a state of decay, God has spoken in this way: ‘I will give you the holy and trustworthy promises made to David.’" (Acts 13:34)

"Pay attention to what you hear and attend to my ways. Hear me, and your soul will live among good things, and I will establish an eternal covenant with you; the holy things of David are sure." (Isaiah 55:3)

"Incline your ear and come to Me; Hearken, and you shall be revived. And I will make with you an everlasting covenant, The enduring loyalty promised to David." (Isaiah 55:3)

Isaiah 56:7; Jer 7:11 (Isaiah, Jews in 700 BC and 587 BC)

Mt 21:13; Mark 11:17 (Jesus cleanses temple twice AD 29 & 33)

"And he said to them, “It is written, ‘My house will be called a house of prayer,’ but you are turning it into a den of robbers!”" (Matthew 21:13) "Then he began to teach them and said, “Is it not written: ‘My house will be called a house of prayer for all nations’? But you have turned it into a den of robbers!”" (Mark 11:17)

"I will bring them to my holy mountain and make them rejoice in my house of prayer. Their whole burnt offerings and sacrifices will be acceptable upon my altar, for my house will be called a house of prayer for all the nations,”" (Isaiah 56:7) "Is my house, where my name has been invoked, a cave of thieves to you? Look. Even I have seen this,” says the Lord." (Jeremiah 7:11)

"I will bring them to My sacred mount And let them rejoice in My house of prayer. Their burnt offerings and sacrifices Shall be welcome on My altar; For My House shall be called A house of prayer for all peoples.”" (Isaiah 56:7) "Do you consider this House, which bears My name, to be a den of thieves? As for Me, I have been watching—declares the Lord." (Jeremiah 7:11)

Isaiah 59:20-21 (Isaiah, Messianic)

Rom 11:26-27 (Jesus, Paul)

"And so all Israel will be saved, as it is written: “The Deliverer will come out of Zion; he will remove ungodliness from Jacob. And this is my covenant with them, when I take away their sins.”" (Romans 11:26–27)

"The deliverer will come for the sake of Zion, and he will turn ungodliness back from Jacob. “And this is my covenant with them,” says the Lord. “My spirit which is upon you, and my words which I put in your mouth, will not cease from your mouth or from the mouth of your descendants.” For the Lord has spoken from the present to the end." (Isaiah 59:20–21)

"He shall come as redeemer to Zion, To those in Jacob who turn back from sin —declares the Lord. And this shall be My covenant with them, said the Lord: My spirit which is upon you, and the words which I have placed in your mouth, shall not be absent from your mouth, nor from the mouth of your children, nor from the mouth of your children’s children—said the Lord—from now on, for all time." (Isaiah 59:20–21)

Isaiah 59:7-8; Psalms 13:1-3; 5:10; 139:4; 9:28; 35:2 (Jews at the time of Isaiah)

Rom 3:10-18 (Jew and Gentile at the time of Paul, all men until second coming of Christ)

"just as it is written: “There is no one righteous, not even one, there is no one who understands, there is no one who seeks God. All have turned away, together they have become worthless; there is no one who shows kindness, not even one.” “Their throats are open graves, they deceive with their tongues, the poison of asps is under their lips.” “Their mouths are full of cursing and bitterness.” “Their feet are swift to shed blood, ruin and misery are in their paths, and the way of peace they have not known.” “There is no fear of God before their eyes.”" (Romans 3:10–18)

"Their feet run swiftly to evil to pour out blood, and their thoughts are from murder; affliction and misery are in their paths. And they do not know the way of peace, and there is no judgment in their ways, for their paths through which they travel are crooked, and they do know not peace." (Isaiah 59:7–8) "The foolish one spoke in his heart, “There is no God.” They destroy and are abhorred in their practices. There is no one doing goodness; there is not even one. The Lord looked out from heaven upon the sons of men, to see if there is one who understands or one who seeks out God. All turned aside together. They became useless. There is not one doing goodness; there is not even one. Their throat is an opened grave. With their tongues they have dealt treacherously with one another. The poison of asps is under their lips, whose mouth is full of curses and bitterness. Their feet are quick to pour out blood. Destruction and misery are in their ways, and they know not the way of peace. There is no fear of God before their eyes." (Psalm 13:1–3) "because there is no truth in their mouth. Their heart is empty. Their throat is an opened grave. With their tongue they deal treacherously." (Psalm 5:10) "They sharpened their tongue like a serpent; the poison of asps is under their lips. Musical interlude" (Psalm 139:4) "Him whose curse and bitterness and guile fill his mouth, under his tongue are trouble and distress." (Psalm 9:28) "The lawless one, to sin, says in himself that there is no fear of God before his eyes." (Psalm 35:2)

"For the leader. Of David. The benighted man thinks, “God does not care.” Man’s deeds are corrupt and loathsome; no one does good. The Lord looks down from heaven on mankind to find a man of understanding, a man mindful of God. All have turned bad, altogether foul; there is none who does good, not even one." (Psalm 14:1–3) "For there is no sincerity on their lips; their heart is filled with malice; their throat is an open grave; their tongue slippery." (Psalm 5:10) "They sharpen their tongues like serpents; spiders’ poison is on their lips. Selah." (Psalm 140:4) "His mouth is full of oaths, deceit, and fraud; mischief and evil are under his tongue." (Psalm 10:7) "I know what Transgression says to the wicked; he has no sense of the dread of God," (Psalm 36:2) "Their feet run after evil, They hasten to shed the blood of the innocent. Their plans are plans of mischief, Destructiveness and injury are on their roads. They do not care for the way of integrity, There is no justice on their paths. They make their courses crooked, No one who walks in them cares for integrity." (Isaiah 59:7–8)

Isaiah 60:1 (Jews at the time of Isaiah, speaking of the message of Isaiah)

Eph 5:14 (Jesus)

"For everything made evident is light, and for this reason it says: “Awake, O sleeper! Rise from the dead, and Christ will shine on you!”" (Ephesians 5:14)

"Shine! Shine, Jerusalem, for your light is come, and the glory of the Lord has risen upon you." (Isaiah 60:1)

"Arise, shine, for your light has dawned; The Presence of the Lord has shone upon you!" (Isaiah 60:1)

Isaiah 60:20-21 (Jews upon return to Babylonian captivity)

Rev 21:23 (Heaven)

"The city does not need the sun or the moon to shine on it, because the glory of God lights it up, and its lamp is the Lamb." (Revelation 21:23)

"For the sun will not sink upon you, and the moon will not cease for you, for the Lord will be everlasting light for you, and the days of your grief will be made complete. All your people will be righteous; lastingly they will inherit the earth, guarding the planting, the works of his hands, for glory." (Isaiah 60:20–21)

"Your sun shall set no more, Your moon no more withdraw; For the Lord shall be a light to you forever, And your days of mourning shall be ended. And your people, all of them righteous, Shall possess the land for all time; They are the shoot that I planted, My handiwork in which I glory." (Isaiah 60:20–21)

Isaiah 61:1-2 (Isaiah)

Luke 4:18-19 (Jesus)

"“The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he has anointed me to proclaim good news to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim release to the captives and the regaining of sight to the blind, to set free those who are oppressed, to proclaim the year of the Lord’s favor.”" (Luke 4:18–19)

"The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, on account of which he has anointed me; he has sent me to bring good news to the poor, to heal those who are crushed in heart, to announce release to the captives and recovery of sight to the blind, to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord and the day of repayment, to comfort all who mourn," (Isaiah 61:1–2)

"The spirit of the Lord God is upon me, Because the Lord has anointed me; He has sent me as a herald of joy to the humble, To bind up the wounded of heart, To proclaim release to the captives, Liberation to the imprisoned; To proclaim a year of the Lord’s favor And a day of vindication by our God; To comfort all who mourn—" (Isaiah 61:1–2)

Isaiah 62:10-12; Zech 9:9 (Messianic)

Mt 21:5; Rev 22:12 (Jesus)

“Tell the people of Zion, ‘Look, your king is coming to you, unassuming and seated on a donkey, and on a colt, the foal of a donkey.’" (Matthew 21:5) "(Look! I am coming soon, and my reward is with me to pay each one according to what he has done!" (Revelation 22:12)

 

"Walk through my gates and prepare a way for my people and cast the stones out of the way; raise a signal for the nations! For look, the Lord has made it heard to the end of the earth. Say to the daughter of Zion: “Look! The savior has come near to you; he has his reward, and his work is before his face.” And he will call it “Holy People, Ransomed by the Lord,” and you will be called “Sought-After City” and “Not Forsaken.”" (Isaiah 62:10–12)

"Pass through, pass through the gates! Clear the road for the people; Build up, build up the highway, Remove the rocks! Raise an ensign over the peoples! See, the Lord has proclaimed To the end of the earth: Announce to Fair Zion, Your Deliverer is coming! See, his reward is with Him, His recompense before Him. And they shall be called, “The Holy People, The Redeemed of the Lord,” And you shall be called, “Sought Out, A City Not Forsaken.”" (Isaiah 62:10–12)

Isaiah 64:4 (Isaiah’s message Jews)

1 Cor 2:9 (Christian’s message to world)

"But just as it is written, “Things that no eye has seen, or ear heard, or mind imagined, are the things God has prepared for those who love him.”" (1 Cor 2:9)

"We have never heard and our eyes have not seen any god except you and your works, which you will do for those who wait for mercy." (Isaiah 64:4)

"Such things had never been heard or noted. No eye has seen them, O God, but You, Who act for those who trust in You." (Isaiah 64:3)

Isaiah 66:1-2 (Isaiah’s message to Jews)

Acts 7:49-50 (Stephen’s message to Sanhedrin about the church temple.

"‘Heaven is my throne, and earth is the footstool for my feet. What kind of house will you build for me, says the Lord, or what is my resting place? Did my hand not make all these things?’" (Acts 7:49–50)

"This is what the Lord says: “Heaven is my throne, and the earth is a footstool for my feet; what sort of house will you build for me? And what sort of place will you build as my resting place? For my hand has made all these things, and all these things are mine,” says the Lord, “and upon whom will I look except upon the one who is humble and quiet and who trembles at my words?" (Isaiah 66:1–2)

"Thus said the Lord: The heaven is My throne And the earth is My footstool: Where could you build a house for Me, What place could serve as My abode? All this was made by My hand, And thus it all came into being —declares the Lord. Yet to such a one I look: To the poor and brokenhearted, Who is concerned about My word." (Isaiah 66:1–2)

Isaiah 66:24 (Return to Physical Jerusalem after Babylonian captivity)

Mark 9:48 (Hell after second coming of Jesus)

"where their worm never dies and the fire is never quenched." (Mark 9:48)

"“And they will go out and see the corpses of the men who transgressed against me, for their worm does not die, and their fire will not be quenched, and they will become a spectacle for all flesh.”" (Isaiah 66:24)

"They shall go out and gaze On the corpses of the men who rebelled against Me: Their worms shall not die, Nor their fire be quenched; They shall be a horror To all flesh. And new moon after new moon, And sabbath after sabbath, All flesh shall come to worship Me —said the Lord." (Isaiah 66:24)

 

Conclusion: The Book of Isaiah gives us a foundation of understanding to decode the Olivet discourse:

1.             The Midrashic style prophecies in the book of Isaiah usually give no indication they are messianic because they have immediately fulfillment shortly afterwards.

2.             In countless examples above, Messianic prophecies in the book of Isaiah have up to five fulfilments.

3.             Without the New Testament identifying Isaiah’s prophecies as Messianic, we would have no idea or indication of a secondary fulfillment in Christ, the Church or eternity after the second coming of Christ.

4.             The New Testament will sew together several passages in Isaiah and other books and make surprising and new applications previously unknown to men.

5.             Many preachers will create a list of Old Testament messianic prophecies quoted as fulfilled in the New Testament while ignoring their initial and primary fulfillment hundreds of years before Christ was born.

a.         Such lists are true and correct, being inspired by the Holy Spirit but they are superficial in that they ignore the primary context and exegesis in the original prophecy.

6.             Examples of Midrashic style prophecies using well known examples:

a.         2 Sam 7:14 was fully fulfilled when Solomon built the temple in 967 BC yet the Dead Sea Scrolls in 100 BC show the Jews understood the Messiah was going to build a temple of His own. They likely connected Zechariah 6:12-13 with 2 Sam 7 that the son of David after Solomon would build the new temple of the Lord. This was the spiritual temple/church that began at the resurrection and formally at Pentecost AD 33, exactly 1000 years after Solomon build the physical temple.

b.        Isaiah himself fulfilled the “virgin shall conceive” prophecy in Isaiah 7:14 shortly before the death of Pekah king of Israel in 732 BC. Yet Apostle Matthew understood that its Messianic fulfillment was through Mary in 2 BC when Emmanuel (Jesus) was conceived.

c.         The tipple prophecy of Haggai 2:2-23 is shown to have immediate fulfillment in Zerubbabel in 515 BC even though the messianic prophecy was fulfilled first in Christ (AD 33) then the second coming as some future time.

d.        Apostle Matthew’s method of quoting the Old Testament to support that Jesus was prophesied to be “called a Nazarene” is a classic example of the first century Midrashic style by drawing on three inferential elements from the Tanakh.

e.        The prophecy of Daniel 8:9-14 appears to have total fulfillment in Antiochus IV in 167 BC, yet Jesus quotes Dan 8:9-14 and applies it to the destruction of Jerusalem in AD 70 in the Olivet discourse.  

7.             The Dead Sea Scrolls and the messianic expectation at the time of John the Baptist proves that somehow, perhaps by direct prophetic statements, the general Jewish population understood most of these prophecies to be Messianic in spite of their first fulfillment centuries earlier.  

8.             How the Jews approached the Olivet discourse after the day of Pentecost:

a.         Multiple meanings for the same prophetic language.

b.        Frequent dual fulfillment of single prophetic statements.

c.         Apply the same prophetic language to different eschatological events. 

 

 

 By Steve Rudd 2020: Contact the author for comments, input or corrections.

 

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