Jesus is God, our Saviour:
Since Jesus is our creator, He cannot be a creature: Romans 1:25




Jesus is creator

 Jn 1:3,10; 1 Cor 8:6; Col 1:16; Heb 1:8-12

Jesus is worshipped as God

Rev 5:12-14 Mt 2:2,8; 11; 14:33; 28:9, 17; Luke 24:52; John 9:38; Rom 1:25; Heb 1:6 + Deut 32:43 LXX + Dead Sea Scroll 4Q44 + Justin Martyr, Dialogue 130

We pray to Jesus as God


1.       Command: Jn 14:14; 1 Cor 1:2; Eph 5:19; Acts 8:22

2.       Example: Rev 22:20, 2 Cor 12:7-9, Acts 7; Acts 8:24

3.       Necessary inference: 1 Jn 5:11-15, Acts 1:24; Heb 7:25

God the Son, becomes a man

Incarnation of Jesus

Philippians: 2:1-11

Detailed study of Phil 2:6

Logical Fallacies lead to false conclusions:

Unitarian False dilemmas exposed

1.       God cannot be tempted

2.       Jesus was tempted

3.       Conclusion: Jesus cannot be God


Trinitarian False dilemmas exposed

1.       God cannot be tempted

2.       Jesus is God

3.       Conclusion: Jesus was never tempted





1.      God the Son is Jesus Christ (Messiah)

a.       Eternally pre-existent

b.      Creator not a creature: Rom 1:25

c.       God, but distinct from the Father and the Holy Spirit

d.      In heaven, Jesus was omnipresent (everywhere), omniscient (all knowing) and omnipotent.

e.      The definition of God is based upon the status of NOT being a creature, as opposed to attributes like being omnipresent, omniscient, omnipotent. In other words, Jesus differs from men and angels because they are created and He is not, regardless of the power they possess. For example, if God granted man or angels to be omnipresent, omniscient, omnipotent, they would NOT be God but a creature.

2.      It is noteworthy that Gnosticism was the first heresy regarding the nature of Christ:

a.       It dates to about AD 105 when 1st, 2nd and 3rd John were written

b.      The Gnostics viewed spirit as good and flesh as evil.

c.       They taught that Jesus was uncreated God

d.      The Gnostics taught that Jesus as God, was spirit only and did not have flesh and bones.

e.      John attacks this false doctrine and calls it the antichrist:

                                                               i.      "By this you know the Spirit of God: every spirit that confesses that Jesus Christ has come in the flesh is from God; and every spirit that does not confess Jesus is not from God; this is the spirit of the antichrist, of which you have heard that it is coming, and now it is already in the world." (1 John 4:2–3)

                                                             ii.      "For many deceivers have gone out into the world, those who do not acknowledge Jesus Christ as coming in the flesh. This is the deceiver and the antichrist." (2 John 7)

f.        This proves that the apostolic view of the first century church was that Jesus was eternal, creator God become flesh in the incarnation.

3.      During the Nicene era (AD 325) the great battle between those who believed Jesus was creator God, vs. Arius who taught that Jesus was a mere creature man.

a.       The Nicene creed was written but it contains a huge error in that it does not acknowledge the submission of Jesus to God, or the downranking of Jesus under God. (1 Cor 15:27–28)

b.      Because of this false doctrine, Arius was easily able to show the submission of Jesus to God in scripture and from about AD 350-400 Arius’ false doctrine dominated the church until the teaching was finally overturned with truth.


I. Humanity of Jesus: Jesus depended upon the Father for:


Jesus depended upon the Father for


His own life:

"For just as the Father has life in Himself, even so He gave to the Son also to have life in Himself" Jn 5:26

"As the living Father sent Me, and I live because of the Father, so he who eats Me, he also shall live because of Me." Jn 6:57


"Put the sword into the sheath; the cup which the Father has given Me, shall I not drink it?"

Authority and office

"but He has given all judgment to the Son" Jn 5:22

"and He gave Him authority to execute judgment, because He is the Son of Man." Jn 5:27

"I can do nothing on My own initiative" Jn 5:30

"I have authority to lay it down, and I have authority to take it up again. This commandment I received from My Father." Jn 10:18

"even as Thou gavest Him authority over all mankind, that to all whom Thou hast given Him, He may give eternal life" Jn 17:2

Mark 2:5-12 He is blaspheming; who can forgive sins but God alone?" ... "But in order that you may know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins"—He *said to the paralytic— "I say to you, rise, take up your pallet and go home." Mt 9:8 "But when the multitudes saw this, they were filled with awe, and glorified God, who had given such authority to men."

Purpose and mission

"My food is to do the will of Him who sent Me, and to accomplish His work." Jn 4:34

"And He who sent Me is with Me; He has not left Me alone, for I always do the things that are pleasing to Him." Jn 8:29


"All that the Father gives Me shall come to Me, and the one who comes to Me I will certainly not cast out."

Future glory

"glorify Thou Me together with Thyself, Father, with the glory which I had with Thee before the world was." Jn 17:5

that they may behold My glory, which Thou hast given Me Jn 17:24


"But of that day and hour no one knows, not even the angels of heaven, nor the Son, but the Father alone." Mt 24:36

And He asked his father, "How long has this been happening to him?" And he said, "From childhood. Mk 9:21

And Jesus kept increasing in wisdom and stature, and in favor with God and men. Lk 2:52

"Jesus heard that they had put him out, and finding him, He said, “Do you believe in the Son of Man?”" (John 9:35)

"and said, “Where have you laid him?” They said to Him, “Lord, come and see.”" (John 11:34)

"Jesus answered, “Are you saying this on your own initiative, or did others tell you about Me?”" (John 18:34)


"“Now, Father, glorify Me together with Yourself, with the glory which I had with You before the world was." (John 17:5)


Isaiah 53 says, "He was despised. He was rejected."


"For you know the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, that though He was rich, yet for your sake He became poor, so that you through His poverty might become rich." (2 Corinthians 8:9)

Independent exercise of authority and will

"I will do only that which the Father shows Me. My meat is to do the Father's will. What the Father says I will do. What I see the Father I will do."


II. Humanity of Jesus: Contrast of the Humanity and Deity of Jesus


As a man, Jesus

But as God, He:

Was born a baby: Luke 2:7 

Existed from eternity: Micah 5:2; John 1:1-2 

Grew mentally, physically, spiritually, socially: Luke 2:52

Never changes: Hebrews 13:8

Was tempted by the devil: Luke 4:2

Cast out devils: Matthew 12:28

Hungered: Matthew 4:2 

Was the Bread of Life and miraculously fed multitudes: John 6:35; Mark 6:38-44, 52

Thirsted: John 19:28 

Gave living water: John 4:14 

Grew weary: John 4:6 

Gave rest: Matthew 11:28

Slept in a storm: Mark 4:38 

Calmed the storm: Mark 4:39-41 

Prayed: Luke 22:41 

Answered prayer: John 14:14 

Was scourged and beaten: John 19:1-3

Healed the sick: Matthew 8:16-17; I Peter 2:24

Died: Mark 15:37 

Raised His own body from the dead: John 2:19-21; 20:9 

Was a sacrifice for sin: Hebrews 10:10-12

Forgave sin: Mark 2:5-7

Did not know all things: Mark 13:32

Knew all things: John 21:17

Had no power: John 5:30 

Had all power: Matthew 28:18; Colossians 2:10 

Was inferior to God: John 14:28

Was equal to God - was God: John 5:18

Was a servant: Philippians 2:7-8 

Was King of kings: Revelation 19:16 





III. Deity of Jesus: Old Testament texts referring to God are quoted in the NT and applied to Jesus

Old Testament texts referring to God are quoted in the NT and applied to Jesus


"“Behold, to the Lord your God belong heaven and the highest heavens, the earth and all that is in it." (Deuteronomy 10:14)

"“The word which He sent to the sons of Israel, preaching peace through Jesus Christ (He is Lord of all)—" (Acts 10:36)


"From the mouth of infants and nursing babes You have established strength Because of Your adversaries, To make the enemy and the revengeful cease." (Psalm 8:2)

"and said to Him, “Do You hear what these children are saying?” And Jesus said to them, “Yes; have you never read, ‘Out of the mouth of infants and nursing babies You have prepared praise for Yourself’?”" (Matthew 21:16)


"O taste and see that the Lord is good; How blessed is the man who takes refuge in Him!" (Psalm 34:8)

"if you have tasted the kindness of the Lord." (1 Peter 2:3)


"“Of old You founded the earth, And the heavens are the work of Your hands. “Even they will perish, but You endure; And all of them will wear out like a garment; Like clothing You will change them and they will be changed. “But You are the same, And Your years will not come to an end." (Psalm 102:25–27)

"And, “You, Lord, in the beginning laid the foundation of the earth, And the heavens are the works of Your hands; They will perish, but You remain; And they all will become old like a garment, And like a mantle You will roll them up; Like a garment they will also be changed. But You are the same, And Your years will not come to an end.”" (Hebrews 1:10–12)


"And He will redeem Israel From all his iniquities." (Psalm 130:8)

"“She will bear a Son; and you shall call His name Jesus, for He will save His people from their sins.”" (Matthew 1:21)


"Your dead will live; Their corpses will rise. You who lie in the dust, awake and shout for joy, For your dew is as the dew of the dawn, And the earth will give birth to the departed spirits." (Isaiah 26:19) "“Arise, shine; for your light has come, And the glory of the Lord has risen upon you." (Isaiah 60:1)

"For this reason it says, “Awake, sleeper, And arise from the dead, And Christ will shine on you.”" (Ephesians 5:14)


"“You are My witnesses,” declares the Lord, “And My servant whom I have chosen, So that you may know and believe Me And understand that I am He. Before Me there was no God formed, And there will be none after Me." (Isaiah 43:10)

"but you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you; and you shall be My witnesses both in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria, and even to the remotest part of the earth.”" (Acts 1:8)


"“I have sworn by Myself, The word has gone forth from My mouth in righteousness And will not turn back, That to Me every knee will bow, every tongue will swear allegiance." (Isaiah 45:23)

"so that at the name of Jesus every knee will bow, of those who are in heaven and on earth and under the earth," (Philippians 2:10)


"“For My people have committed two evils: They have forsaken Me, The fountain of living waters, To hew for themselves cisterns, Broken cisterns That can hold no water." (Jeremiah 2:13) "O Lord, the hope of Israel, All who forsake You will be put to shame. Those who turn away on earth will be written down, Because they have forsaken the fountain of living water, even the Lord." (Jeremiah 17:13)

"Jesus answered and said to her, “Everyone who drinks of this water will thirst again; but whoever drinks of the water that I will give him shall never thirst; but the water that I will give him will become in him a well of water springing up to eternal life.”" (John 4:13f) "The Jews then said to one another, “Where does this man intend to go that we will not find Him? He is not intending to go to the Dispersion among the Greeks, and teach the Greeks, is He? “What is this statement that He said, ‘You will seek Me, and will not find Me; and where I am, you cannot come’?” Now on the last day, the great day of the feast, Jesus stood and cried out, saying, “If anyone is thirsty, let him come to Me and drink." (John 7:35–37)


"but let him who boasts boast of this, that he understands and knows Me, that I am the Lord who exercises lovingkindness, justice and righteousness on earth; for I delight in these things,” declares the Lord." (Jeremiah 9:24)

"But he who boasts is to boast in the Lord." (2 Corinthians 10:17)


"“I, the Lord, search the heart, I test the mind, Even to give to each man according to his ways, According to the results of his deeds." (Jeremiah 17:10)

"‘And I will kill her children with pestilence, and all the churches will know that I am He who searches the minds and hearts; and I will give to each one of you according to your deeds." (Revelation 2:23)


"“And it will come about that whoever calls on the name of the Lord Will be delivered; For on Mount Zion and in Jerusalem There will be those who escape, As the Lord has said, Even among the survivors whom the Lord calls." (Joel 2:32)

"for “Whoever will call on the name of the Lord will be saved.”" (Romans 10:13)


"“Behold, I am going to send My messenger, and he will clear the way before Me. And the Lord, whom you seek, will suddenly come to His temple; and the messenger of the covenant, in whom you delight, behold, He is coming,” says the Lord of hosts." (Malachi 3:1)

"As it is written in Isaiah the prophet: “Behold, I send My messenger ahead of You, Who will prepare Your way;" (Mark 1:2)


IV. Deity of Jesus: The Only passages: Both the Father and Jesus are Jehovah, Qualities of Joint action and nature


The Only passages

Both the Father and Jesus are Jehovah

Qualities of Joint action and nature

Father (Yahweh)

Old Testament

Jesus Christ (Yahweh)

New Testament

Only creator

Isaiah 44:24 Thus says the Lord, your Redeemer, and the one who formed you from the womb, "I, the Lord, am the maker of all things, Stretching out the heavens by Myself, And spreading out the earth all alone

1.       "All things came into being through Him, and apart from Him nothing came into being that has come into being." (John 1:3)

2.      "He was in the world, and the world was made through Him, and the world did not know Him." (John 1:10)

3.      "yet for us there is but one God, the Father, from whom are all things and we exist for Him; and one Lord, Jesus Christ, by whom are all things, and we exist through Him." (1 Corinthians 8:6)

4.      "For by Him all things were created, both in the heavens and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or authorities—all things have been created through Him and for Him." (Colossians 1:16)

5.      "But of the Son He says, “Your throne, O God, is forever and ever, And the righteous scepter is the scepter of His kingdom. “You have loved righteousness and hated lawlessness; Therefore God, Your God, has anointed You With the oil of gladness above Your companions.” And, “You, Lord, in the beginning laid the foundation of the earth, And the heavens are the works of Your hands; They will perish, but You remain; And they all will become old like a garment, And like a mantle You will roll them up; Like a garment they will also be changed. But You are the same, And Your years will not come to an end.”" (Hebrews 1:8–12)

Only rock

1.      Deuteronomy 32:4,12 "The Rock! His work is perfect, For all His ways are just; A God of faithfulness and without injustice, Righteous and upright is He. ... "The Lord alone guided him, And there was no foreign god with him.

2.      Isaiah 44:8 'Do not tremble and do not be afraid; Have I not long since announced it to you and declared it? And you are My witnesses. Is there any God besides Me, Or is there any other Rock? I know of none.'"

1 Corinthians 10:4 all drank the same spiritual drink, for they were drinking from a spiritual rock which followed them; and the rock was Christ.

Alone knows hearts

1 Kings 8:22-23,39 Then Solomon stood before the altar of the Lord in the presence of all the assembly of Israel and spread out his hands toward heaven. And he said, "O Lord, the God of Israel, there is no God like Thee in heaven above or on earth beneath, who art keeping covenant and showing lovingkindness to Thy servants who walk before Thee with all their heart ... then hear Thou in heaven Thy dwelling place, and forgive and act and render to each according to all his ways, whose heart Thou knowest, for Thou alone dost know the hearts of all the sons of men,

1.      John 2:24-25 But Jesus, on His part, was not entrusting Himself to them, for He knew all men, and because He did not need anyone to bear witness concerning man for He Himself knew what was in man.

2.      Mark 2:5-8 And immediately Jesus, aware in His spirit that they were reasoning that way within themselves, *said to them, "Why are you reasoning about these things in your hearts?



Not give glory away

Isaiah 42:8 "I am the Lord, that is My name; I will not give My glory to another, Nor My praise to graven images.

1.      Mark 8:38 Whosoever therefore shall be ashamed of me and of my words in this adulterous and sinful generation; of him also shall the Son of man be ashamed, when he cometh in the glory of his Father with the holy angels.

2.      John 17:22 And the glory which thou gavest me I have given them; that they may be one, even as we are one

3.      1 Corinthians 2:8 Which none of the princes of this world knew: for had they known it, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory.

Only saviour

1.      Isaiah 43:11"I, even I, am the Lord; And there is no savior besides Me.

2.      Psalm 62:2,6 He only is my rock and my salvation, My stronghold; I shall not be greatly shaken. ... He only is my rock and my salvation, My stronghold; I shall not be shaken.

3.      Isaiah 45:21 "Declare and set forth your case; Indeed, let them consult together. Who has announced this from of old? Who has long since declared it? Is it not I, the Lord? And there is no other God besides Me, A righteous God and a Savior; There is none except Me.

1.      Titus 2:13 looking for the blessed hope and the appearing of the glory of our great God and Savior, Christ Jesus;

2.      Mark 2:7 "Why does this man speak that way? He is blaspheming; who can forgive sins but God alone?"

3.      "“And there is salvation in no one else; for there is no other name under heaven that has been given among men by which we must be saved.”" (Acts 4:12)

Equal Worship!

 "“Worthy are You, our Lord and our God, to receive glory and honor and power; for You created all things, and because of Your will they existed, and were created.”" (Revelation 4:11)

 "saying with a loud voice, “Worthy is the Lamb that was slain to receive power and riches and wisdom and might and honor and glory and blessing.”" (Revelation 5:12)

Only worship

1.      Zec 14:9 And the Lord will be king over all the earth; in that day the Lord will be the only one, and His name the only one.

2.      "Delight, O heavens, with him and worship him, you sons of God. Delight, O nations, with his people and prevail with him, all you angels of God. For he will avenge the blood of his sons, and he will avenge and he will repay the enemies with vengeance, and he will repay those who hate, and the Lord will cleanse out the land of his people.’ ”" (Deut 32:43 LXX + Dead Sea Scroll 4Q44 + Justin Martyr, Dialogue 130)

The only name given in the NT is Jesus! YHWH (Jehovah) not found in Greek NT!

1.      "“Where is He who has been born King of the Jews? For we saw His star in the east and have come to worship Him.”" (Matthew 2:2)

2.      "And he sent them to Bethlehem and said, “Go and search carefully for the Child; and when you have found Him, report to me, so that I too may come and worship Him.”" (Matthew 2:8)

3.      "After coming into the house they saw the Child with Mary His mother; and they fell to the ground and worshiped Him. Then, opening their treasures, they presented to Him gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrrh." (Matthew 2:11)

4.      "And those who were in the boat worshiped Him, saying, “You are certainly God’s Son!”" (Matthew 14:33)

5.      "And behold, Jesus met them and greeted them. And they came up and took hold of His feet and worshiped Him." (Matthew 28:9)

6.      "When they saw Him, they worshiped Him; but some were doubtful." (Matthew 28:17)

7.      "And they, after worshiping Him, returned to Jerusalem with great joy," (Luke 24:52)

8.      "And he said, “Lord, I believe.” And he worshiped Him." (John 9:38)

9.      "For they exchanged the truth of God for a lie, and worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed forever. Amen." (Romans 1:25)

10.  "And when He again brings the firstborn into the world, He says, “And let all the angels of God worship Him.”" (Hebrews 1:6 + Deut 32:43 LXX + Dead Sea Scroll 4Q44 + Justin Martyr, Dialogue 130)

 One God

Isa 45:14 'Surely, God is with you, and there is none else, No other God.

1.       "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God." (John 1:1)

2.      "And he confessed and did not deny, but confessed, “I am not the Christ.”" (John 1:20)

3.      "These things took place in Bethany beyond the Jordan, where John was baptizing." (John 1:28)

Only serve

Matthew 4:10 Then saith Jesus unto him, Get thee hence, Satan: for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve.

Jesus accepted worship on three occasions

Only forgive sins

Mark 2:7 Why doth this man thus speak blasphemies? who can forgive sins but God only?

Jesus forgave sins

Only pray

Only God answers prayer! We don't pray to a creature!

We have are to pray to Jesus:

1.      Command: Jn 14:14; 1 Cor 1:2; Eph 5:19; Acts 8:22

2.      Example: Rev 22:20, 2 Cor 12:7-9, Acts 7; Acts 8:24

3.      Necessary inference: 1 Jn 5:11-15, Acts 1:24; Heb 7:25

Only wise god

Romans 16:27 To God only wise, be glory through Jesus Christ for ever.

1 Timothy 1:17 Now unto the King eternal, immortal, invisible, the only wise God, be honour and glory for ever and ever.

Only true God

John 17:3 And this is life eternal, that they might know thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom thou hast sent

Jesus is called God by John 1:1; Thomas Jn 20:28; Paul in Phil 2:6 and Heb 1:8

One God

One Lord

1.      Mark 12:32 And the scribe said unto him, Well, Master, thou hast said the truth: for there is one God; and there is none other but he:

2.      1 Timothy 2:5 For there is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus;

3.      Ephesians 4:4 There is one body, and one Spirit, even as ye are called in one hope of your calling; One Lord, one faith, one baptism, One God and Father of all, who is above all, and through all, and in you all.

4.      1 Corinthians 8:4,6 we know that an idol is nothing in the world, and that there is none other God but one. ... But to us there is but one God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we in him; and one Lord Jesus by whom are all things, and we exist through Him.

5.      Galatians 3:20 Now a mediator is not a mediator of one, but God is one.

Jesus is said to be the "ONE Lord" If ONE God rules out Jesus as being God, then ONE Lord rules out the father from being Lord.

Eph 4:4-7 (does this mean that Father is not Lord?)

Purchaser, owner, possessor of people

1 Pet 2: 9 But you are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people for God's own possession, that you may proclaim the excellencies of Him who has called you out of darkness into His marvelous light; 10 for you once were not a people, but now you are the people of God; you had not received mercy, but now you have received mercy.

1.      Jude 4 ungodly persons who turn the grace of our God into licentiousness and deny our only Master (Gr: despovthn) and Lord, Jesus Christ. ("theos" is not in the Greek)

2.      2 Pet 2:1 there will also be false teachers among you, who will secretly introduce destructive heresies, even denying the Master (Gr: despovthn) who bought them, bringing swift destruction upon themselves.

3.      Acts 20:28 "the church of God/Lord which He purchased with His own blood." Whether God or Lord it was Jesus who did the purchasing. the NWT: "blood of his son" is a corrupt paraphrase and as the word "SON" is not in the Greek. This would make even the NWT render it "blood of his own" with Son in italics!

4.      Tit 2:13 "looking for the blessed hope and the appearing of the glory of our great God and Savior, Christ Jesus; 14 who gave Himself for us, that He might redeem us from every lawless deed and purify for Himself a people for His own possession, zealous for good deeds." Even if "great God and Savior, Christ Jesus" is rendered as the NWT: Jehovah our great God. And our saviour Jesus Christ" the balance of the verse must be applied to Jesus alone: Jesus alone gave himself for us, redeemed us, purified us AS A PEOPLE OF HIS OWN POSSESSION! So Jesus is the purchaser and possessor of all men! They are Jesus' people!

5.      Rev 5:9 "for Thou wast slain, and didst purchase for God with Thy blood men from every tribe and tongue and people and nation." Thus Jesus was the purchaser which cannot be denied in Acts 20:28

Only holy

Revelation 15:4 Who shall not fear thee, O Lord, and glorify thy name? for thou only art holy: for all nations shall come and worship before thee; for thy judgments are made manifest.

1.      Mark 1:24 Saying, Let us alone; what have we to do with thee, thou Jesus of Nazareth? art thou come to destroy us? I know thee who thou art, the Holy One of God.

2.      Luke 4:34 Saying, Let us alone; what have we to do with thee, thou Jesus of Nazareth? art thou come to destroy us? I know thee who thou art; the Holy One of God.

Only good

  1. Matthew 19:17 And he said unto him, Why callest thou me good? there is none good but one, that is, God: but if thou wilt enter into life, keep the commandments.
  2. Mark 10:18 And Jesus said unto him, Why callest thou me good? there is none good but one, that is, God.


Only master


1.       Matthew 23:8 But be not ye called Rabbi: for one is your Master, even Christ; and all ye are brethren.

2.       Matthew 23:10 Neither be ye called masters: for one is your Master, even Christ

Only shepherd


John 10:16 And other sheep I have, which are not of this fold: them also I must bring, and they shall hear my voice; and there shall be one fold, and one shepherd.

Joint ownership of kingdom

Eph 5:5 kingdom of Christ and God.

 Eph 5:5 kingdom of Christ and God.



V. Deity of Jesus: The father and Son shared attributes:


Shared Attribute




Is. 42:8 (alone)
Is. 48:11

Jn. 17:5


Is. 60:20 (true light)
Ps. 27:1

Jn. 1:9
Jn. 8:12


Joel 3:12
Ps. 98:9 
Ps. 96:10, 13 
Ps. 50:6

Jn. 5:22
Jn. 9:39
II Cor. 5:10
II Tim. 4:1


Jer. 10:10 
Ps. 47:7
Is. 44:6; 43:15 
Zech. 14:9

Rev. 17:14
Jn. 12:15
I Tim. 1:16-17
I Tim. 6:15


Deut. 10:17

Rev. 17:14


I Kings 8:39

Luke 5:22
Matt. 9:4


Jer. 31:3

Jn. 12:32


Hos. 11:9 
Is. 40:25
Job 6:10
Hab. 1:12

Acts 3:14
Ps. 16:10
Mk. 1:24
I Jn. 2:20


Deut. 32:4
II Sam. 22:32
II Sam. 23:3

I Cor. 20:11I Pet. 2:6-8Num. 20:11


Ps. 106:21
Is. 43:3,11 (alone)
Is. 45:21

Acts 4:12
I Jn. 4:14
Jn. 4:42


Is. 25:6-8

I Cor. 15:54


Is. 41:4; 44:6
Is. 48:12

Rev. 1:8; 2:8
Rev. 1:17-18
Rev. 22:13


Ps. 23:1
Ps. 80:11

Jn. 10:14,16
Heb. 13:20
I Pet. 5:4


Ex. 3:14

Jn. 8:58



VI. The apostolic belief in the deity of Christ is what drove the development of trinity doctrine.

1.      The necessity to formulate the doctrine was thrust upon the Church by forces from without, and it was, in particular, its faith in the deity of Christ, and the necessity to defend it, that first compelled the Church to face the duty of formulating a full doctrine of the Trinity for its rule of faith." (New Bible Dictionary, J. D. Douglas & F. F. Bruce, Trinity, p 1298)

2.      For the early Christian belief that Jesus was divine, the Son of God, and that as the risen, glorified Messiah or Lord, He was now at the right hand of God: required the use of theistic language. (Encyclopedia Americana, Trinity, p116)

3.      They [Bible writers] assign Him [Jesus] the divine functions of creation, salvation, judgment. Sometimes they call Him God explicitly. (The Triune God, Edmund Fortman, introduction, p.xv)

4.     GOD THE SON ... the Gospel According to John, which regards the figure of Jesus Christ as the divine Logos become flesh. Here, the divinity of the person of Jesus is understood not as the endowment of the man Jesus with a divine power but rather as the result of the descent of the divine Logos- a pre-existent heavenly being- into the world: the Logos taking on a human body of flesh so as to be realized in history. This view was adopted by the catechetical school of Alexandrian theology. (Encyclopedia Britannica, 1979, Christianity, Vol. 4, p.480)

5.     Summary Of New Testament Witness To God: ... To Him are ascribed the strictly divine functions of creation, salvation, and judgment, and sometimes He is explicitly called God. The New Testament writers attribute divinity to Him in different ways. The Synoptists usually assign to Him the powers and prerogatives of Yahweh in the work of salvation, and at times put Him on the same divine level with the Father in knowledge and power. Paul calls Him the image of God, Lord, Son of God, Christ. and Savior; he says that He subsists in the form of God and is equal to God; he assigns to Him the divine functions of creation, salvation, and judgment; and he probably also calls Him God explicitly. Paul makes Christ's eternal pre-existence more explicit than the Synoptists did. If at times he sees the Son as in some sense subordinate to the Father, yet he never makes Him a creature but always puts Him on the side of the creator.

6.      The Divinity of Christ is amply attested not merely by St. John, but by the Synoptists. (The Catholic Encyclopedia, 1912, Vol. 15, p 47-49)

7.      St. John's testimony is yet more explicit than that of the Synoptists. He expressly asserts that the very purpose of his Gospel is to establish the Divinity of Jesus Christ (John, xx 31). In the prologue he identifies Him with the Word, the only begotten of the Father, Who from all eternity exists with God, Who is God (John, I, 1-18). (The Catholic Encyclopedia, 1912, Vol. 15, p 47-49)

8.      Of course the doctrine of our Lord's divinity itself partly implies and partly recommends the doctrine of the Trinity ... First, the Creeds of that early day make no mention in their letter of the Catholic doctrine at all. They make mention indeed of a Three; but that there is any mystery in the doctrine, that the Three are One, that They are coequal, coeternal, all increate, all omnipotent, all incomprehensible, is not stated and never could be gathered from them. Of course we believe that they imply it, or rather intend it. (Essay on the Development of Christian Doctrine, John Henry Newman, a cardinal by Pope Leo III in 1879, 1878, p40-42)

9.      The unity of God was already immovably fixed by the Old Testament as a fundamental article of revealed religion in opposition to all forms of idolatry. But the New Testament and the Christian consciousness as firmly demanded faith in the divinity of the Son, who effected redemption, and of the Holy Spirit, who founded the church and dwells in believers; and these apparently contradictory interests could be reconciled only in the form of the Trinity, that is, by distinguishing in the one and indivisible essence of God three hypostases or persons; at the same time allowing for the insufficiency of all human conceptions and words to describe such as unfathomable mystery. (Philip Schaff, History of the Christian Church New York: Scribner's, 1924, vol. 2, p. 566)

10.  In any event, the passage [Phil 2:6-8] makes it plain that before Christ Jesus emptied himself he was not human but divine." (Gods and the One God, Robert M. Grant, p105)

11.  Speaking first of the person of Jesus Christ ... In other passages of the New Testament the predicate "God" is without a doubt applied to Christ.' With these affirmations, which for Jewish monotheism were utterly offensive. (A Short History of Christian Doctrine, Bernard Lohse, 1966, p37-39)

12.  "Because the Trinity is such an important part of later Christian doctrine, it is striking that the term does not appear in the New Testament. Likewise, the developed concept of three coequal partners in the Godhead found in later creedal formulations cannot be clearly detected within the confines of the canon. Since the Christians have come to worship Jesus as a god ... Matthew 28.19 ... Matthew records a special connection between God the Father and Jesus the Son (e.g., 11.27), but he falls short of claiming that Jesus is equal with God. It is John's gospel that suggests the idea of equality between Jesus and God ... While there are other New Testament texts where God, Jesus, and the Spirit are referred to in the same passage (e.g., Jude 20-21), it is important to avoid reading the Trinity into places where it does not appear. An example is 1 Peter 1.1-2 (Oxford Companion to the Bible, Bruce M. Metzger and Michael D. Coogan, Trinity, p 782)

13.  "E. Stauffer is doubtless correct when he writes: "The Christology of the NT is carried to its logical conclusion with the thorough-going designation of Christ as theos"" (New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology, Colin Brown, 1932, God, Vol 2, p81, J. Schneider)


VII. Other important comments on the deity of Christ:

1.      In His disputation with the Jews He claimed that His own Sonship was not simply from David, but from a source that made Him David's Lord, and that it had been so at the very time when David uttered the words (Mt. xxii. 43). This would indicate both His deity and preexistence. (New Bible Dictionary, J. D. Douglas & F. F. Bruce, Trinity, p 1298)

2.      Rationalist critics lay great stress upon the text: "The Father is greater than I" (xiv, 28). They argue that this suffices to establish that the author of the Gospel held subordinationist views, and they expound in this sense certain texts in which the Son declares His dependence on the Father (v, 19; viii, 28). In point of fact the doctrine of the Incarnation involves that, in regard of His Human Nature, the Son should be less than the Father. No argument against Catholic doctrine can, therefore, be drawn from this text. (The Catholic Encyclopedia, 1912, Vol. 15, p 47-49)

3.      In the Apostolic writings theos may almost be said to be treated as a proper name of God the Father, and Kurios of the Son (of. e. g. I Cor xii 5 6); in only a few passages do we find kurios used of the Father (I Cor., iii, 5; vii, 17) or theos of Christ. (The Catholic Encyclopedia, 1912, Vol. 15, p 47-49)

4.      "A few NT texts raise the question whether the Son of God is also called God." ... "Jn. 20:28 contains the unique affirmation of Thomas addressing the Risen Christ as God: "My Lord and my God [ho kyrios mou kai ho theos mou]." The statement marks the climax of the Gospel. God has become visible for Thomas in the form of Jesus. The climax of Johannine teaching occurs in the confessional formula of I Jn. 5:20 which asserts the full identity of essence of Christ and God: "And we know that the Son of God has come and has given us understanding, to know him who is true; and we are in him who is true, in his Son Jesus Christ. This is the true God and eternal life" (RSV). This gives a lit. reproduction of the Gk. words. An alternative translation is: "This [Christ] is the true one, God and eternal life."" ... "E. Stauffer is doubtless correct when he writes: "The Christology of the NT is carried to its logical conclusion with the thorough-going designation of Christ as theos"" (New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology, Colin Brown, 1932, God, Vol 2, p81, J. Schneider)

5.      "Naturally the Son is fully divine: 'the Father is God, and the Son is God, for whatever is begotten of God is God'. The Spirit, too, although Irenaeus nowhere expressly designates Him God, clearly ranked as divine in his eyes, for He was God's Spirit, ever welling up from His being. Thus we have Irenaeus's vision of the Godhead, the most complete, and also most explicitly Trinitarian, to be met with before Tertullian. Its second-century traits stand out clearly, particularly its representation of the Triad by the imagery, not of three coequal persons (this was the analogy to be employed by the post-Nicene fathers), but rather of a single personage, the Father Who is the Godhead itself, with His mind, or rationality, and His wisdom. The motive for this approach, common to all Christian thinkers of this period, was their intense concern for the fundamental tenet of monotheism, but its unavoidable corollary was a certain obscuring of the position of the Son and the Spirit as 'Persons' (to use the jargon of later theology) prior to their generation or emission. Because of its emphasis on the 'economy', this type of thought has been given the label 'economic Trinitarianism'. The description is apt and convenient so long as it is not assumed that Irenaeus's recognition of, and preoccupation with, the Trinity revealed in the 'economy' prevented him from recognizing also the mysterious three-in-oneness of the inner life of the Godhead. The whole point of the great illustrative image which he, like his predecessors, employed, that of a man with his intellectual and spiritual functions, was to bring out, however inadequately, the fact that there are real distinctions in the immanent being of the unique, indivisible Father, and that while these were only fully manifested in the 'economy', they were actually there from all eternity." (J. N. D. Kelly, Early Christian Doctrines, p 107)

6.      In the words of Jesus and in much of the rest of the NT the God of Israel (Gk. ho theos) is the Father* of Jesus Christ. It is for this reason that the title ho theos, which now designates the Father as a personal reality, is not applied in the NT to Jesus Himself; Jesus is the Son of God (of ho theos). This is a matter of usage and not of rule, and the noun [Gk. ho theos] is applied to Jesus a few times. "Jn 1:1 should rigorously be translated "the word was with the God [= the Father], and the word was a divine being." Thomas invokes Jesus with the titles which belong to the *Father, "My Lord and my God" (Jn 20:28). "The glory of our great God and Savior" which is to appear can be the glory of no other than Jesus (Tt 2:13)" (Dictionary of the Bible, John L. McKenzie, God, p317)

7.      "Many questions arise in the mind concerning the divine consciousness of Jesus. In what manner did it emerge during the conditions of His earthly existence? Was His sense of Sonship subject to development? Was it consciously and directly operative in all that He said and did? Or was it rather the undertone and secret spring of His activity? How far did it arise by intuition and how far through revelation from on high? Was His divine consciousness always at its peak, or were there times when the great moments of revelation had to be recalled, times when for a season it was in eclipse? ... His consciousness of Sonship is grounded in Himself; it is the inevitable expression of His divine nature. I shall return to this view later because I believe that in the end it is a conclusion to which we must come. If, however, we are to apprehend the reality of Christ's Sonship, it is important to recognize that, however great its force may be, this way of thinking reaches its conclusion too quickly and too easily because it does not give sufficient consideration to the reality of Christ's humanity. We have seen again and again how fully the Gospels and the Epistles attest Christ's humanity; His emotions, His fears, His disappointments, His exposure to temptation, and the limitations of His knowledge in matters not essential to His ministry. ... Granted that Christ knows Himself to be the Son of God because of His divine nature, it must still be asked, 'In what way did this consciousness emerge, and what factors and circumstances contributed to its emergence?'" (The person of Christ in NT teaching, Vincent Taylor, 1963, p170)


 By Steven Rudd



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