The True Mount Hor
Jebel Maderah
George L. Robinson
The Biblical World
Vol. 31, No. 2. (Feb., 1908), pp. 86-100.

Aside from tradition there is little reason for identifying the mountain on which Aaron died and was buried with that peak of the Mt. Seir range near Petra known as Jebel Nebi Haroun. Yet ever since Dean Stanley in 1856 (Sinai and Palestine, pp. 152, 153, 161) identified Jebel Nebi Haroun with Mt. Hor, and Petra with Kadesh-Barnea, most commentators have adopted without question his conclusion. On the other hand, there is abundant evidence that the true mountain on which the Great High-Priest died must have been located considerably farther to the north and west. In 1863, Rev. Edward Wilton, M.A., suggested Jebel Maderah as the probable peak; [The Negeb, or "South Country" or Scripture, pp. 127 ff] while in 1884 the late Dr. Henry Clay Trumbull argued at length to demonstrate the same hypothesis. [Kadesh-Barnea, pp. 132 ff.]

The location of this mountain in the wilderness of Paran answers so perfectly all the conditions of the Exodus story that one wonders why more have not seized upon it as the true Mt. Hor. Until recently, however, the entire Negeb has been so inaccessible to travelers that no one, so far as the writer can ascertain, has ever succeeded in visiting both mountains in question, and in consequence nothing definite has been known of the relative importance of the two sites.4 The writer having had the good fortune to visit both these mountains twice can, therefore, speak from personal observation.

I. THE BIBLICAL DATA

Mt. Hor is alluded to in Scripture in three separate contexts as the scene of Aaron's death: Num. 20:22-21:4; 3337-39; and

 

4 Libbey and Hoskins' remark (The Jordan Valley and Petra, 1go5, Vol. II, pp. 243, 244) that "travelers who have visited both locations have little hesitation in affirming that this peak in Edom (Jebel Nebi Haroun) more perfectly fulfils all the requirements of the Bible narrative," has no basis whatever in fact. Their own state-ment, indeed, that Jebel Nebi Haroun is a "peak in Edom," is in itself a sufficient refutation of this conclusion.

86

THE TRUE MOUNT HOR

PROFESSOR GEORGE L. ROBINSON, D.D. McCormick Theological Seminary, Chicago, Ill.

Aside from tradition there is little reason for identifying the mountain on which Aaron died and was buried with that peak of the Mt. Seir range near Petra known as Jebel Nebi Haroun. Yet ever since Dean Stanley in 18561 identified Jebel Nebi Haroun with Mt. Hor, and Petra with Kadesh-Barnea, most commentators have adopted without question his conclusion. On the other hand, there is abund-ant evidence that the true mountain on which the Great High-Priest died must have been located considerably farther to the north and west. In 1863, Rev. Edward Wilton, M.A., suggested Jebel Maderah as the probable peak;2 while in 1884 the late Dr. Henry Clay Trumbull argued at length to demonstrate the same hypothesis.3

The location of this mountain in the wilderness of Paran answers so perfectly all the conditions of the Exodus story that one wonders why more have not seized upon it as the true Mt. Hor. Until recently, however, the entire Negeb has been so inaccessible to travelers that no one, so far as the writer can ascertain, has ever succeeded in visiting both mountains in question, and in consequence nothing definite has been known of the relative importance of the two sites.4 The writer having had the good fortune to visit both these mountains twice can, therefore, speak from personal observation.

I. THE BIBLICAL DATA

Mt. Hor is alluded to in Scripture in three separate contexts as the scene of Aaron's death: Num. 20:22-21:4; 33:37-39; and

I Sinai and Palestine, pp. 152, 153, 161.

a The Negeb, or "South Country" ol Scripture, pp. 127 ff. s Kadesh-Barnea, pp. 132 ff.

4 Libbey and Hoskins' remark (The Jordan Valley and Petra, 1905, Vol. II, pp. 243, 244) that "travelers who have visited both locations have little hesitation in affirming that this peak in Edom (Jebel Nebi Haroun) more perfectly fulfils all the requirements of the Bible narrative," has no basis whatever in fact. Their own state-ment, indeed, that Jebel Nebi Ijaroun is a "peak in Edom," is in itself a sufficient refutation of this conclusion.

86

THE TRUE MOUNT HOR 87

Deut. 32:50. These are the only passages in which Mt. Hor is men-tioned.s From them and their contexts, however, several valuable hints as to the probable location of the mountain may be obtained. The following are some of the most instructive:

i. First, it is said that "Moses sent messengers from Kadesh unto the king of Edom," asking permission to pass through his territory, but the king of Edom refused to grant it, coming out "against him with much people and with a strong hand" (Num. 20:14-21).

2. It is next stated that Israel "journeyed from Kadesh and came unto Mount Hor," and "encamped in Mount Hor" (Num. 20:22; 33:37). The order of the Bible narrative leaves it uncertain whether the Israelites began their journey from Kadesh toward Mt. Hor during the absence of the messengers, or directly after their return. It is not improbable that they broke camp prior to the actual return of the messengers.

3. The general location of Mt. Hor is then given as "by the border of the land of Edom" (Num. 20:23), or "in the edge (i. e., at the extremity) of the land of Edom" (Num. 33:37).

4. The account goes on to state more explicitly that Moses, Aaron, and Eleazar, his son, went up into Mount Hor "in the sight of all the congregation" (Num. 20:27), which intimates that the mountain was near and accessible.

5. Next in order the statement is made that Aaron died on the top of the mount, and that all the people "wept for Aaron thirty days" (Num. 20:28, 2q).

6. It is then recorded that the king of Arad (a city usually identified with Tell Arad, some twenty-five miles south of Hebron), having heard of Israel's approach, came out against them, but in the end was completely vanquished (Num. 21:1-3; cf. 33:40)-

7. Finally, it is stated that the Israelites "journeyed from Mount Hor by the way to the Red Sea, to compass the Land of Edom: and the soul of the people was much discouraged because of the way" (Num. 21 : 4) ; " and they encamped in Zalmonah " (Num. 33:41) .

Now, from these specifications it is evident, if there is any chronological sequence to the record whatever, that Mt. Hor must be looked for somewhere between Kadesh and the border of the land of Edom;

s The "Mount Hor" alluded to in Num. 34:7, 8 is quite another peak, the location of which must be sought in the neighborhood of Hamath, on the Orontes.

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and if Kadesh is correctly identified with `Ain Kadees, as is commonly done, that Mt. Hor must be located somewhere between it and the city of Arad.

II. THE LOCATION OF JEBEL MADERAH

Jebel Maderah is located about twenty-five miles southwest of the southern end of the Dead Sea, or about three miles southwest of the

JEBEL MADERAH FROM THE WEST

junction of the wadies Yemen and Fikreh. If a line, therefore, were drawn from `Ain Kadees to the southern end of the Dead Sea, Jebel Maderah would stand at about the middle point. It rises in the midst of a wilderness; and apparently, as it seems, near the point where the boundaries of Edom and Canaan and the wilderness of Paran came together. Thus it was situated on the very border of the land of promise, yet just outside; and likewise, on the very edge of the land of Edom, yet not within. In our journeys we approached it first from the northeast, and in departing struck out toward the southeast; on our second visit we approached it from the south, and in leaving turned westward.

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III. DESCRIPTION OF JEBEL MADERAH

Few mountains rise so conspicuously from the plains in which they are situated as Jebel Maderah, which rears its flat, square head some six hundred feet into the air, resembling a lofty white citadel. From every direction it attracts the eye of the traveler. Even from the distant table lands of Edom proper across the `Arabah, as one rides from Shobek to Bozrah, it stands out as the most conspicuous

JEBEL MADERAH FROM THE EAST

mountain in the west. Being white and chalky, it presents a striking contrast to the brown desert plain in which it stands. Many travelers testify to its unique appearance .6 From the accompanying photo-graphs it will appear how symmetrical and isolated it is.

6 Lindsay, Letters on Egypt, Edom and the Holy Land, x838, Vol. II, P. 46; Robin-son, Biblical Researches, 1841, Vol. II. P. 589; Wilson, The Lands of the Bible, 1847, Vol. I, P. 340; El-Mukattem (Howard Crosby), Lands of the Moslem, 1851, P. 235; Seetzen, Reisen durch Syrien, 1854, Vol. III, P. 14; Wilton, The Negeb, or "South Country" of Scripture, 1863, P. 127; Palmer, The Desert ol the Exodus, 1872, P. 351; Trumbull, Kadesh-Barnea, 1885, P. 133.

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Its sides are steep and barren, being composed of soft, decayed limestone, with a mixture of sulphur and saltpeter. An Arab foot-path leads up from the plain over the western end of the mountain. Twenty-three minutes brought us in the heat of noonday (1050 Fahr.) from the base to the summit. The upper portion of the climb was somewhat difficult, being along a narrow ridge about loo feet in length, with precipices on either side and a large boulder on its top, and a

JEBEL MADERAH FROM THE SOUTH

deep chasm across it over which one was forced to leap. These, however, were safely passed, Mr. Forder, our interpreter, being the first to arrive on top.ti

Having reached the summit, which was quite flat, though sloping slightly toward the south, our attention was first arrested by a large circle of small stones, 18 feet in diameter, having a small depression in its center which was used evidently by the Arabs as a kind of menhir in connection with religious ceremonies. This was situated

> In the year igos, Jebel Maderah was ascended by Professor Nath. Schmidt, of Cornell, and his companions, Messrs. A. T. Olmstead, J. E. Wrench, J. D. Whiting, and L. Larson.

THE TRUE MOUNT HOR

91

near the southwest corner of the mountain's roof-like surface. Far-ther to the east there were two elliptical stone circles which suggested the idea of tombs; however, probably of no great antiquity. Now, the top platform or roof of the mountain is divided into two inde-pendent and non-communicable sections, cut off from each other by a narrow tongue or ridge of mountain about 75 feet lower than the level of the top platform proper and about 300 yards long. The

LOOKING EAST FROM JEBEL MADERAH (Showing the Eastern Portion of Maderah)

length of the western section was found to be 450 paces from east to west and a8o paces from north to south. The eastern platform we were unable to reach.

The view from the summit was most desolate and weird. On the east stretched for miles the wilderness of Paran, which opened out through two wadies, Fikreh and Kuseib, into the `Arabah. Far beyond rose the mountains of Seir and southern Moab. On the south, also, as far as the eye could reach, extended the same fruitless desert, its undulating surface being covered with black flints, and broken by numerous small wadies. On the west the eye rested upon the dry

92 THE BIBLICAL WORLD

valley bed of Wady Murreh, which empties its water into Wady Maderah near the base of the mountain. Looking north, at one's feet was the broad bottom of Wady Maderah, beyond which rose the imposing range of bare, "smooth" mountains which formed the southern boundary of Canaan and are probably identical with "Mount Halak" (cf. Josh. II:17; 12:7). With the single exception of an eagle, which soared about above our heads, there was no sign of life for miles in any direction.

At the base of the mountain on its southern side the desert is strewn with a single layer of large elliptical limestones, in shape resembling cannon balls, concerning which the Arabs have a tradition. They say that "a people once dwelt here, to whom there came one day some travelers seeking hospitality: but the people of the place did unto them a vile and horrible deed, wherefore the Almighty in his anger rained down these stones upon them and destroyed them from off the face of the earth." The legend suggests the story of Sodom, which seems to have been transferred from the Dead Sea to this mountain. Wilton sees in it a hint as to the derivation of the name Maderah, namely, from a root meaning "to discipline." a

IV. THE DERIVATION OF THE NAME MADERAH

The modern pronunciation of the name would lead one to conclude that the Arabs spell it with a dhad rather than with a dal.9 If the root be spelled with a dhad then the name means "whiteness," which corresponds exactly with the character of the mountain. If on the other hand the root be spelled with a dal, then the name means clods of tough cohesive clay, loam, or mud without sand; which also satis-fies most perfectly the character of the mountain, particularly after a rain storm.' From the same root is derived the name of a mountain near Mecca, and of a place near Medina.- Indeed, Mr. Jebr Dhumit, of Beirut, professor of Arabic in the Syrian Protestant College,

8 The Negeb, p. 133-

9 Yet the Arabs of the desert, as is well known, frequently pronounce dal (J) like dhad (L16). According to their pronunciation of the name, it would seem to

come from the root J_1CI9 .

lo Cf. Lane, .Arabic-English Lexicon, 1885, under the roots g)caro and ) L)"

it ~5) c~A ; cf. Lexicon Geographicum, edited by Juynball, Vol. III, Leiden, x854.

THE TRUE MOUNT HOR

93

w A c w

a m

ww F

O u F v x5

FO a

z ,~ z

0 0 a

94

THE BIBLICAL WORLD

believes that the name may be traced back historically to the period of the Hyksos, who originally came, he thinks, from Yemen by way of South Syria into Egypt, and in their sweep through the Negeb named this mountain after a large town in Yemen.,'

STONES RAINED DOWN FROM HEAVEN ON THE WICKED INHABITANTS OF MADERAH

V. MOUNT HOR AND MOSERAH

A possible link between Jebel Maderah and Mt. Hor is the name Moserah, which in Deut. Io:6 is said to have been the place where Aaron died and was buried. Moseroth also, the plural of the same

_2 Al-Homadani mentions such a town as flourishing as late as his own time, three hundred years after the Hegira.

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word, occurs in the list of encampments recorded in Num. 33:30, 31.13 At first sight the passage in Deuteronomy seems to be not only a divergent, but an irreconcilable tradition concerning the geography of Aaron's death and sepulcher. But upon more careful reflection it becomes evident that the critical analysis of the Pentateuchal sources at the points where these names Hor and Moserah occur is doubtful. For example, Num. 20:22-29 and 21:4, in which Hor14 is given as the name of the mountain where Aaron died, are assigned to P, though in a JE context. The same is true of Deut. 32:50. On the the other hand, Num., chap. 33, as a whole, is assigned to P, and yet both Hor and Moseroth occur in it (cf. vss. 30, 31, 38); whereas Deut. Io:6, in which Aaron is declared to have died at Moserah, is assigned to E, notwithstanding its strong affinities with P. The sources are thus divergent within themselves. Probably, therefore, with Ewald, "these two divergent traditions may be most easily reconciled by supposing the two places to have been not far from each other; Hor lying strictly more to the north, but used, as the name of a high mountain easily might be, to designate a larger district." 1 s

VI. IDENTIFICATION OF MADERAH AND MOSERAH

Whether Maderah is the corresponding Arabic equivalent of the Hebrew name Moserah (even if Moserah and Hor are one) is an open question. The Arabic d of Maderah as a philological equivalent of the Hebrew s of Moserah has no known analogy. The correspond-ence in sound may be purely accidental. Yet it must be allowed that the sibilants and dentals of Semitic languages are often interchanged,

13Boththesingular i V~olb, and the plural r1170112, are by modern lexicographers derived from the root '1Dit , to bind, the bt vanishing in the noun; but it is possible, with Wilton, to derive these forms from the root `1a", "to discipline;" in which case the name then furnishes a basis for the Arab tradition which clings to the place, that God disciplined the inhabitants by raining upon them stones from heaven; the explana-tion given by Jerome of the meaning of "Mosera" is also satisfied: "Mosera eruditio uel disciplina eius" (Onomast., Lagarde, p. 5I). Jerome also enumerates as one of the stations in the desert where the wrath of God was manifested against Israel, "Misaida filiorum Jacim locus in solitudine, in quo obitt Aaron" (ibid., p. r6q).

14 Mt. Hor in the Hebrew is Hor-ha-har, `1~ 1,1 'IM, which means "Hor, the moun-tain," that is, "the remarkable mountain," or as the Jews in the Orient explain it, "the top of the mountain."

15 History of Israel, Vol. II, p. 2oi.

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and that there may be an affinity between Moserah and Maderah, even though no analogy can be found. '6

VII. JEBEL NEBI HAROUN LOCATED AND DESCRIBED

Jebel Haroun is located about three miles west of Petra, and is one of the most conspicuous peaks in the Mt. Seir range. It rises precipi-tously from the arid plain of the `Arabah to a height of 4,500 feet. Seven hours are required to ascend it. The rocks are of richly varie-gated sandstone and very beautiful. The view from the roof of the little white mosque which crowns the summit of the mountain is among the finest rock scenery in the world. On every side there is a maze of mountains, cliffs, and chasms. Far across the `Arabah in the west rise the comparatively low mountains of the wilderness. In the distant north glisten the waters of the Dead Sea. The oasis of green about `Ein El-Weibeh relieves to some degree the barrenness of the `Arabah. Eagles, hawks, and vultures of various sorts fly screaming overhead.

The mosque itself is unpretentious and quite modern. The door

is broken. An Arab cenotaph 4 ft. 7 in. long, a ft. io in. broad, and

4 ft. 3 in. high stands on the right as qne enters. A pall covers it. On its face is an Arabic inscription, but Hebrew names are also rudely scratched on its plastered walls. Two ostrich eggs hang suspended over it from the ceiling. Near by, rags and shreds of yarn, with bottles for oil and pieces of matting, and a ladder reaching to the dome, are among the furnishings, some of them being votive offerings by the Arabs.

Thirteen steps descend to the cave or grotto underneath (about 14 ft. long, 5 ft. broad, and 71 ft. high) at the end of which suspended from a pole hang the two leaves of an iron grating which formerly prevented all nearer approach to the tomb of the prophet. A ragged

16 For example:

OD1= T1-tread; cf. U-6rkick. ADD= CDT= IDY=cover, hide.

1 11

92s=cutoff=C'AAJ =cut off.

7727 =be pre-eminent= _ be pure.

It is also possible that in the Arabic a Vo and a Ltd have become confused.

THE TRUE MOUNT HOR g']

pall hangs behind them. The walls are thickly plastered. As I took out my tape to measure the place, the sheikh seized me by the wrists and kissed my hands. This was evidently the holy of holies.

VIII. ANCIENT TRADITION CONCERNING AARON'S BURIAL PLACE Since the beginning of the Christian era tradition has pointed to Jebel Nebi IIaroun as the mountain on which Aaron died and was buried. Josephus says

And he (Moses) came to the district which the Arabians esteem their metropo-lis, which was formerly called Arce, but is now denominated Petra. At this place, which was surrounded by high mountains, Aaron ascended to the summit of one of them in the sight of the whole army, Moses having before told him that he was to die. 17

Eusebius'8 and Jerome'9 likewise understood that the traditional tomb of Aaron was not far from Petra. But it is easy to account for their error. A confusion existed in their day between the Rock-Kadesh and the Rock-Petra. Petra was identified with Kadesh. They furnish no evidence whatever in support of their view.'

The perpetuation of this erroneous tradition by the modern Arabs is of no importance. According to a Mohammedan legend preserved by Kazwfny in the thirteenth century and Ibn Iy1s in the fifteenth, Moses died and was buried in Wady Musa.2, Modem Arabs further claim that Pharaoh resisted Moses and Aaron at Petra.22 And what of the immense Easter pilgrimages by Mohammedans to Nebi Musa, six miles south of Jericho, where they hold Moses was buried, and show tourists his alleged tomb!

The modem Arabs, however, do not claim that Aaron died here. The sheikh who for nearly forty years has acted as custodian of the

_7 Antiq., IV, 4, 7-

=e Eusebius, Onamast., p. 291 (Lagarde) : "6pos iY w rehevrg 'Aap&Y ra+lcloy r&pas 76AEWf, IV q1 Kai Elf 9rl YVY WKYV'faL 'L) &l Mwkiwr pe6?a?a a&pa."

, Q Jerome, Onamast., pp. 175,176 (Lagarde) : ,Or mons in quo mortuus est Aaron, iuxta ciuitatem Petram, ubi usque ad praesentem diem ostenditur rupes qua percussa Moyses aquas populo dedit."

2o Eusebius and Jerome also thought that the mountains of Ebal and Gerizim were near Jericho (cf. Trumbull, Kadesh-Barnea, p. 131); the Crusaders identified Jebel Haroun with Mt. Sinai (cf. BriAnnow, Die Provincia Arabia, p. 188).

zL Cf. Robinson, Biblical Researches, Vol. II, p. 576, n. 1. ~2 Cf. Doughty, Arabia Deserta, 1888, Vol. I, p. 40.

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sacred mosque which adorns the summit of Jebel Haroun frankly concedes that the "prophet" Aaron did not die here but at `Ein El-Weibeh near which there is a Kabr, or tomb, where he was buried originally. Later, they say, his body was carried to `Ain Melfha-a fountain one day's journey southwest of Petra near Wady Jeraifeh-a.nd finally, it "flew" to its present resting-place in the cave under the modem mosque on Jebel Haroun. The story is obviously worthless. The name Jebel Haroun is equally deceptive. The Bible never mentions a "mountain of Aaron." The Arabic name, therefore, does not perpetuate a biblical tradition. Besides, the tradition is only a local one restricted to the Haiwatdt tribe of Bedawin. According to the sheikh of the sanctuary, not more than two or three hundred come annually to worship here, and they from the immediate vicinity-from Elji, Ma an, and Shobek; a few from Taffleh and Kerek, but none from `Akabah or Tibuk, or `Ain Kadees. Even those who do worship on this mountain have no particular day for sacrifice. They usually come when the fruit is ripe, bringing with them food to eat and

a goat to sacrifice. Water is obtained from Wady Musa and from the covered cistern near the summit of the mountain.

Now, in view of the obvious worthlessness of such a tradition, is it strange that many of the most thoughtful commentators have dis-carded the tradition of Josephus and his followers as untrustworthy, and declare that Jebel Haroun cannot be the true Mt. Hor ?'3

IX. SUMMARY OF THE EVIDENCE

With the main facts now before us, some estimate of their value seems appropriate and necessary.

I. The Hebrew name Hor-ha-har, whatever the expression may mean, whether, "Hor, the mountain," or "mountain that is a moun-tain," is quite as applicable to Jebel Maderah as to Jebel Haroun. The latter is but one conspicuous peak in a series of peaks, particu-larly as seen from the east, whereas Jebel Maderah is outstanding as one approaches it from any direction, especially from the southwest.

2. The location of Jebel Maderah with reference to Kadesh corresponds most perfectly with the statement in Num. ao: 16, that Kadesh is "a city in the uttermost of Edom's border." Jebel Maderah lies northeast of ' Ain Kadess, and therefore on the route which would naturally be followed in marching direct from Kadesh across Edom to Moab. Jebel Haroun on the other hand is too distant from Kadesh to satisfy the Biblical description.

23 E. g., Niebuhr, 1774; Pococke, 1743; "H. C." in the Journal of Sacred LiMra-

sure, April, 186o; Knobel, 1861; Ewald, 1876, and Sayce, 1893.

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99

3. Jebel Maderah's location also with reference to the boundary of the land of Edom (Num. 20:23; 33:37) satisfies the biblical con-ditions far better than Jebel.Nebi Haroun; for the latter is confessedly within Edom's bounds (cf. Num. 34:3; Josh. 15: r-4), and the Israel-ites were distinctly told that they should not possess so much as a foot's breadth of Edom's territory (Deut. 2:5).

4. In Moses' time Bozrah was probably the capital of Edom; Petra was the capital of the Nabatheans a thousand years later. Accordingly, the messengers whom Moses sent from Kadesh to ask permission to cross Edom's territory "by the king's highway" (Num. 20:17), probably wished permission to cross by the road which leads up from ' Ain Hasb; first, along the valley bed of Wady Dhalal, and then along the crest of a ridge between Wady Dhalal and Wady Buseirah, coming out at a fountain about two miles south of Bozrah known as ' Ain Jelideh. This is a most excellent road. Surely no one who has actually climbed up from the `Arabah to Petra would ever think of that pass as the route by which Moses wished to cross Edom's territory. And in any case, being refused by the king, is it probable that they would deliberately "move into Edom's territory and," as Trumbull remarks, "start a cemetery on one of the most commanding summits of the nation's stronghold" ?

5. Jebel Maderah, again, is so isolated that any transaction, like that of changing priestly vestments on its summit, could literally be done "in the sight of all the congregation" (Num. 20:27). Not so Jebel Haroun.

6. That the king of Arad, hearing of Israel's advance "by the way of the spies" (which is usually identified with Wady Yemen close by Jebel Maderah) should have become alarmed so that he came out with an army to thwart their further approach is a strong argument in favor of Jebel Maderah. On the other hand, if Jebel Haroun were at that time their objective point, then the Israelites were actually moving away from Arad, and the king had no reason to fear.

7. Similarly, when the announcement was made to the Israelites

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that they must retrace their steps and journey by the Red Sea in order to compass the land of Edom, and it is stated in the record that they murmured bitterly, it is certainly much more reasonable to suppose that their change of course required more of a wilderness journey than covering the comparatively short distance between Jebel Haroun and `Akabah. That was but a little way. They were probably at some more remote point in the northern portion of the Negeb; namely, as we are disposed to think, at Jebel Maderah.

8. Finally, Jebel Maderah is closely adjacent to the land of promise; so that Aaron, like Moses on Mt. Nebo, was possibly permitted to view the land of Canaan, though not allowed to enter it. Jebel Haroun is too distant really to allow of such a vision.'4

24 Among those who favor, more or less strongly, Jebel Maderah as the true Mt. Hor, are Wilton (The Negeb, pp. 127 ff.); Trumbull (Kadesh-Barnea, pp. r3 s ff.); Buhl (Die Geschichte der Edomiler, p. 23); G. B. Gray (Commentary on Numbers, p. z7o); and Baentsch (Exodus, Leviticus, and Numbers, p. 572.)

 

(The True Mount Hor, Jebel Maderah. George L. Robinson, The Biblical World, Vol. 31, No. 2., Feb., 1908, p 86-100)

 

 

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