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These men are constantly referred to as his 'witnesses.' But the great body of the Jews did not accept him nor admit his claim. The prophet for whom they looked was to come of the house of David. Thus they formed a standing protest against the position he assumed, which was that their own Scriptures testified of him. Still, as Islam grew, it was clear that all else must give way. Many pagan Arabs and some of the Jews left the city. Ibn Ishaq says, ' Under these circumstances the Rabbis of the Jews became Muhammad's enemies. They were filled with envy because God had chosen his ambassador from amongst the Arabs.' Some Jews, however, from fear accepted Muhammad and the new religion. They are described by the Arab historian as those 'who sought shelter in Islam and accepted it only in appearance, whilst they were hypocrites at heart.' Thus there were Munafiqun both amongst the pagan and the Jewish converts. The enmity of the Jews was as dangerous to him as that of the idolaters, since the former did him hurt not only in war and politics but by sharp criticism and pointed sayings concerning Islam. Seeing that it was hopeless to win over the Jews as a body, Muhammad now changed his position with reference to them, and accused them of unbelief and of dishonesty in tampering with their Scriptures.

The Sura Al-An'am (vi) is almost the latest Meccan one, but verse ninety-one was evidently added at Madina:—

Say, who sent down the Book which Moses brought, a light and a guidance to man, which ye set down on


paper, publishing part, but concealing most: though we have now been taught that which neither ye nor your fathers knew? Say, Allah; then leave them in their discussion to play. 91.

These words show that Muhammad did not charge them with the corruption of the text, for that they 'set down on paper,' but with suppressing or concealing portions of it to evade his claims.1 Sura Al-Baqarah (ii), the earliest Madina Sura, revealed in the early part of the second year of the Hijra,2 embodies many revelations against the Jews. It is far too long for detailed study, but a few extracts from it and other Suras will make the matter clear:—

O children of Israel! remember my favour wherewith I showed favour upon you, and be true to your covenant with me; I will be true to my covenant with you; me, therefore, revere, and believe in what I have sent down confirming your Scriptures, and be not the first to disbelieve it (i.e., Qur'an), neither for a mean price barter my signs: therefore, fear ye me! and clothe not the truth with falsehood and hide not the truth when ye know it. 38.

1 Rodwell says 'Muhammad rarely accused the Jews and Christians of corrupting, but often of misinterpreting, their sacred books in order to evade his claims. His charges, however, are vaguely worded and his utterances on this subject are tantamount to a strong testimony in favour of the unimpeachable integrity of the sacred Books, both of the Jews and the Christians so far as he knew them.' Rodwell, Qur'an, p 434.
For the testimony of the Qur'an to the Scriptures, see The Testimony of the Qur'an to the Jewish and Christian Scriptures (Agra, 1856) and its Persian translation, Shahadut-i-Qur'ani bar Kutub-i-Rabbani.
2 Several portions of this Sura, however, are Meccan, especially the verses nineteen to thirty-seven. This is seen from the subject matter and also from the use of the term
يايها الناس —'O men,' which occurs in verse nineteen. This is not the usual term used when addressing the people of Madina, which isيايها الذين أمنو —'O ye who believe.'

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