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He now gave from the spoils of the Huwazin large presents to the leading chiefs of Mecca and of the Bedouin tribes, who had become converts, at which his old followers and friends were somewhat annoyed and made discontented. But later on a revelation came to justify his action even in a small matter like this:—

Some of them defame thee in regard to the alms, yet if a part be given them they are content, but if no part be given them, behold, they are angry . . . .
Would that they were satisfied with what God and His Apostle had given them and would say, 'God sufficeth us, God will vouchsafe to us of His favour and so will His Apostle: verily unto God do we make our suit.'
But alms are only to be given to the poor and needy and those who collect them, and to those whose hearts are reconciled (to Islam). Sura At-Taubah (ix) 58-60.1

The alms were, in the case of the chiefs who received rich presents, very much of the nature of a bribe, and naturally the men of Madina objected to the procedure. The words ' those whose hearts are reconciled to Islam' are said by the commentators to be now abrogated, for Abu Bakr abolished the making of these gifts to converts, because God had now prospered Islam and so such gifts were no longer needed.2

1 It is the unanimous testimony of the commentators that the wordsاَلْمُوْلَّفَةِ قُلُوْبُهُمْ —'whose hearts are reconciled,' mean won over to Islam. The term al-Mu'allafa Qulubuhum was ever after the name by which the chiefs thus won over were known. Ibn 'Abbas and Baidawi say that Abu Sufyan and his friends and Iqra bin Jabis, 'Abba's bin Mirdas and others were amongst the persons who received presents.
2 Husain referring to the abolition of these alms says:—
'After the development of Islam and the conquests made by the
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The ninth year after the Hijra is called the 'Year of the Deputations,' for now that Mecca and the Ka'ba had passed into the possession of Muhammad, his fame became great and tribe after tribe made their submission. The historian Ibn Ishaq rightly estimated the moral value of these conversions. He says: 'As soon as Mecca was conquered and the Quraish had submitted to him, being humbled by Islam, the Arabs, understanding that they themselves had not the power to oppose Muhammad and make war against him, professed the faith of Allah.' Bands of Muslims under active leaders scoured the country, and the permission given to non-Muslims to visit the temple was now annulled and the order was:—

When the sacred months are passed, kill those who join other gods with God wherever ye shall find them, and seize them, besiege them, and lay wait for them with every kind of ambush; but if they shall convert and observe prayer and pay the obligatory alms then let them go their way. Sura At-Taubah (ix) 5.

It has been said that this famous verse, known as the Ayatu's-Saif, or 'verse of the sword,' abrogates the restriction which did not allow the

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Muslims, this was all cancelled by the unanimous consent of the Companions.'
بعد از ظهور اسلام وغلبة مسلمانان باجماع صحابة مساقط شدة است
Tafsir-i-Husaini, vol. i, p. 260.
'In the time of Abd Bakr Siddiq by unanimous consent the portion of those reconciled to Islam was cancelled, for there was no longer any necessity for reconciliation of hearts.'
زمانة ابو بكر صديق مين باجتماع حصة مولفة القلوب مساقط هوكيا اس لئى كة ضرورت تالف تليف كرنى كى باقى نرهى
Khalasatu't-Tafasir, vol. ii, p. 271.

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