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the Holy Books of the Jews and of the Christians have been corrupted.1 Muslims often say, however, that as (in their opinion) the Torah was annulled 2 by the Zabur and the latter by the Injil, so the Injil also in its turn was annulled and rendered obsolete by the "descent of the Qur'an upon Muhammad." I have often had all these different opinions to meet in conversation with Muslims in India.

§ 7. Practically speaking therefore the Religion of Islam rests upon the supposed revelation

The Qur'an.

given by GOD to Muhammad. This revelation, however, is said to be of 3 two kinds, technically termed Wahi Matlu ( وَحِى مَتْلْو ) or "Recited Revelation," and Wahi Ghair Matlu ( وَحِى غَيْر مَتْلْو ) or "Unrecited Revelation." The Qur'an belongs to the former or higher

Its Author.

class, being supposed to have been recited by the Prophet in the very words taught to him by GOD Himself through the instrumentality of Gabriel. Its authorship being Divine it is often termed

The Ahadith.

"the Book of GOD," and the greatest possible reverence is shown it. The second kind of the revelation given to Muhammad

1 This argument is very well met in the Mizanu'l Haqq," by Dr. Pfander.
2 E.g. Sa'di, Bustan, near beginning. In July 1893 the Wali of Baghdad forbade the sale of the Bible to Muslims on this plea.
3 Sayyid Ahmad, "Essay on the Holy Koran," pp. 3, 4; "Essay on Muhammadan Traditions," pp. I, sqq.

is known only through the "Traditions" of the "Prophet," which are technically termed Ahadith (sing. Hadith ( حَدِيثْ ) often pronounced Hadis) to distinguish them from the Tales about Muhammad known as Riwayat ( رِوَايَات ).

Many collections of these Traditions have been made by leading Muhammadan theologians, the most 1 famous of which, and those which are acknowledged by the Sunnis, are the six following:—the "Muwatta" of Malik ibn Anas, the "Sahih" of Al Bukhari, the "Sahih" of his friend Muslim, the "Sunan" of Abu Daud Sulaiman, the "Jami"' of Al Tirmidhi, and the "Kitabu's Sunan" of Muhammad ibn Yazidi'l Kasimir.2 The authority of any genuine Tradition ranks next to that of the Qur'an itself, but a very great degree of uncertainty

1 Osborn, "Islam under the Khalifs of Baghdad," p. 6o, note.
2 Sayyid Ahmad ("Essay on the Muhammadan Theological Literature," p. 5) says that the following Hadith writers are more entitled to credit than the rest:—(1) Bukhari, (2) Muslim, (3) Tirmidhi, (4) Abu Daud, (5) Nasai, (6) Ibn Majah, and (7) the Muwatta of Imam Malik. [Bukhari was born A.D. 810 and died 870: Muslim born A.D. 819, died 875: Tirmidhi born A.D. 824, died 892: Abu Daud born A.D. 817, died 858: Nasai born (?), died A.D. 915: Ibn Majah died A.D. 906 : Malik born A.D. 713, died 795.] But in his "Essay on the Birth and Childhood of Muhammad," p. 24, the same writer speaks of Muslim's and Bukhari's works as "the most authentic and authoritative works upon Traditions," while classing "Tirmidhi and other less scrupulous authors" in a different category!

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