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and difference of opinion exists among the various sects of Muslims with reference to the Traditions, which they accept or reject. A very large number of the Traditions are filled with absurdities, but from our present point of view they are interesting because the genuine ones are considered a form of revelation and are for that reason accepted. The inspiration of the Qur'an is, of course, of a much higher order.

The Muhammadan theologians teach us that the whole Qur'an, as dictated to Muhammad by Gabriel, is

The Preserved

a literal copy of what was written ages before the creation of the world by the Divine decree upon the Everlasting (or rather the Preserved) Tablet ( لَوْحُ الْمَحَفُوظُ‬ )1 in heaven. The purity of its Arabic and the eloquence and beauty of its language are regarded as proving its Divine authorship and as a perpetual miracle, sufficient to prove their "Prophet's" claim to be sent by GOD. They hold that the writers of the Law, the Psalms and the Gospel were inspired and given the ideas which GOD wished them to express in those books, but that the language in which they expressed the revealed teaching was their own mother tongue, and being human was necessarily imperfect. Arabic, however, being the language of Heaven, the Qur'an is a miracle2 as well as a

1 Surah lxxxv. 21, 22:
بَلْ هُوَ قُرْآنٌ مَّجِيدٌ
فِي لَوْحٍ مَّحْفُوظٍ
2 Even Sayyid Ahmad accepts this theory: vide his "Essay on the Holy Koran," pp. 35, sqq. (Vide also Sale's "Preliminary Discourse," sect. iii.)


revelation, and is perfect in style as well as in doctrine. There are, of course, many absurdities involved in all this, but we see this deep truth underlying it all, that GOD does in a miraculous manner reveal His will to Mankind by Revelations communicated through inspired prophets.

§ 8. With regard to the Creation of Man1 the Muhammadan belief is that Adam2

of Man.

was created in Paradise3 or "the Garden," which they locate in Heaven, but that GOD sent an angel to obtain from the ground a handful or a few handfuls of earth, from which Adam's body was then made. When the spirit entered into this body, GOD commanded all the Angels to worship Adam. All obeyed except Iblis, who was thereupon condemned to hell fire, and became known as Sheitan


"Fall" of
and Eve.

(Satan),his former name as an angel having been 'Azazil. Eve was created from Adam's rib, and when they ate the forbidden fruit—which many authorities hold to have been wheat-they were hurled forth from the heavenly Paradise and fell to the earth. Adam fell in Ceylon and Eve at Jiddah, the port

1 Vide Surahs ii. 29-35; iii. 30, 52; v. 30; vii. 10, 18, 25-33, 171; xvii. 63, 72; xviii. 48; xix. 59; xx. 114-119; xxxvi. 60.
2 "Qisasu'l Anbiya"; "'Araisu't Tijan"; and Weil, "Biblische Legenden der Muselmanner," pp. 12, sqq.
3 Other accounts say he was created on the earth (at Mecca) and immediately taken up to Paradise.

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