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bodies appointed to receive them; Jibrail (Gabriel), the guardian and communicator of GOD'S revelation; Mikail (Michael), who conveys to souls and bodies their daily nourishment, spiritual and material; 'Azrail, whose feet stand on the foundations of the earth, while his head reaches to the highest heaven; his office is to conduct souls, after death, to their everlasting habitation, whether in hell or in Paradise. In addition to these are the Cherubim (Karubiyyun), occupied exclusively in chanting the praises of GOD; the two Secretaries, who record the actions of men, each in a distinct writing; the Observers, who spy out the least gestures and hear every word of men; the Travellers, who traverse the whole earth in order to know when men utter the name of GOD and pray to Him; Harut1 and Marut, who, having offended GOD, are confined in a well near Babylon until the Day of judgment; the angels of the seven planets;

of Hell.

the guardian angels appointed to keep watch over men; and the two angels of the grave," Munkir and Nakir. Over hell an angel reigns who is called Malik, probably the Molech of the Old Testament; and under his authority there are nineteen2 other angels appointed to aid him in maintaining authority there. These, according to Tradition,3 are preserved from being injured by the flames through having the Divine Seal impressed

1 Surah ii. 96[102].
2 Surah lxxiv. 30.
3 "Qisasu'l Anbiya," Pers. ed., p. 71.
1 They followed what the evil ones gave out (falsely) against the power of Solomon: the blasphemers Were, not Solomon, but the evil ones, teaching men Magic, and such things as came down at babylon to the angels Harut and Marut. But neither of these taught anyone (Such things) without saying: "We are only for trial; so do not blaspheme." They learned from them the means to sow discord between man and wife. But they could not thus harm anyone except by Allah's permission. And they learned what harmed them, not what profited them. And they knew that the buyers of (magic) would have no share in the happiness of the Hereafter. And vile was the price for which they did sell their souls, if they but knew! 2:102
Yusufali's translation

upon their forehead, the inscription on the Seal of GOD being the Muhammadan Creed, "There is no God but GOD; Muhammad is the Apostle of GOD."

§ 10. One of the most noteworthy points in the Muhammadan Religion is the importance which they attach to Prayer.1 GOD is described by them, in accordance with the Qur'an, as

of Prayer.

hearing and answering the prayers of His worshippers. They regard it as impossible for anyone to be saved who does not pray, and consider the man who wilfully neglects this duty as an out-and-out infidel.2 We have already seen that prayer is insisted on as one of the Five Points or Five Foundations of Islam. Muhammad himself showed the importance of prayer by calling it the "key of Paradise" and the "pillar of religion." So in Surah LXXIII. Muhammad is addressed as follows: "O thou that art wrapped up,3 arise during the night except

1 A. von Kremer, "Culturgeschichte des Orients," vol. ii., pp. 30 sqq.: Qur'an, ubique: Mishkatu'l Masabih, Book on Salat (Prayer).
2 Mishkat, Book on Prayer, cap. iii.:
عن عبد الله بن عمرو بن العاص عن النبي صلعم انه ذكر الصلوة يوماً فقال من حافظ عليها كانت له نوراً وبرهاناً ونجاة يوم القيامة ومن لم يحافظ عليها لم تكن له نوراً ولا برهاناً ولا نجاة وكان يوم القيامة مع قارون وفرعون وهامان وابى بن خلف ـ رواه احمد والد ارمى والبيهقى في شعب الإيمان‫.
3 Commentators say that when this Surah was revealed Muhammad was wrapped up, either asleep or at prayers. (Penrice, Dict. of Koran, s. voce زمل‬ ).

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