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a small part of it, during half of it, or take from it a little, or add to it, and repeat the Qur'an with distinct enunciation. . . . Verily the early1 part of the night is stronger for treading down (evil thoughts) and more suitable for distinct pronunciation. Verily thou hast long-continued business during the day. And mention the name of thy Lord, and separate thyself unto Him with seclusion. The Lord of the East and of the West, there is no God but He, therefore take thou Him for a guardian."2

Again and again in the Qur'an is repeated the command to pray. It is true that the Muslim is taught that prayer is a duty rather than a privilege, and that in this and other

Prayer a Duty,
not a Privilege.

respects the view which Muhammad took of prayer was very defective. This we shall have to point out more fully when we come to consider the defects of Islam as a religious system. But the very fact that every true Muslim recognises—and is by his creed obliged to recognise—the obligation and to some extent the

1 Penrice suggests the version I have adopted in this Surah.
2 Surah lxiii., 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9: 
يَا أَيُّهَا الْمُزَّمِّلُ قُمِ اللَّيْلَ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا نِصْفَهُ أَوِ انقُصْ مِنْهُ قَلِيلًا أَوْ زِدْ عَلَيْهِ وَرَتِّلِ الْقُرْآنَ تَرْتِيلًا إِنَّا سَنُلْقِي عَلَيْكَ قَوْلًا ثَقِيلًا إِنَّ نَاشِئَةَ اللَّيْلِ هِيَ أَشَدُّ وَطْءًا وَأَقْوَمُ قِيلًا إِنَّ لَكَ فِي اَلنَّهَارِ سَبْحًا طَوِيلًا وَاذْكُرِ اسْمَ رَبِّكَ وَتَبَتَّلْ إِلَيْهِ تَبْتِيلًا رَبُّ الْمَشْرِقِ وَالْمَغْرِبِ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ فَاتَّخِذْهُ وَكِيلًا

value of prayer, is a matter for1 which we should be very thankful.

Five times a day there sounds forth from the minarets of the Mosque the solemn call to prayer in these2 words: "Allahu akbar!" "God is most great," repeated

Cry of
the Muezzin.

four times in a loud tone of voice. Then in a lower tone the Muezzin says, repeating each clause separately twice, "I bear witness that there is no God but GOD, I bear witness that Muhammad is the Apostle of God." Then raising his voice once more he again recites these two clauses twice over, and then proceeding in the

1 An English officer who had for some time served in Egypt said to me that one thing that struck him very much when there was the diference in this respect between the Egyptian and the English soldier. "The Muhammadan," he said, "five times a day repeated his prayer, wherever he might be, caring not who saw him, while as a rule the English soldier never thought of doing anything of the kind."
2 Mishkat, p. 55:
الله أكبر الله أكبر الله أكبر الله أكبر (ترفع بها صوتك ثم تقول ـ) اشهد ان لا لِلّه الا الله اشهد ان محمداً رسول الله (تخْفِضُ بها صوتك ـ ثمُّ ترفع صوتك بالشهادة) اشهد ان لا اله الا الله اشهد ان لا اله الا الله اشهد ان محمداً رسول الله  اشهد ان محمد رسول الله حى على الصلوة حى على الصلوة حى على الفلاح (فان كان صلوة الصّبح قلت) الصلوة خير من النوم الصلوة خير من النوم ـ الله اكبر ـ الله اكبر الله اكبر لا اله الا الله‫.

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