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and beheld those destined to eternal happiness in Paradise, he laughed and rejoiced (Mishkat, pp. 521 sqq.)

9. There are two Recording Angels ready to note each deed that a man does, good or bad (Test. Abr. p. 91).

The Qur'an informs us that there are two Receivers (الْمُتَلَقّيَانِ ) or Recording Angels seated on each man's right and left hand respectively, to observe his every word and action and to record it (Qur'an, Surah 1. vv. 16, 17, 20[16,17,18]).

10. Abraham sees two angels of terrible aspect dragging the souls before the Judge for trial (Test. Abr. p. 90).

The Qur'an tells us that with every soul 'a driver and a witness' shall come before the Divine tribunal (Surah 1. v. 20[21]).

11. Abraham saw that at the Judgment every soul and its actions were weighed in an enormous balance (Test. Abr. p. 91). In case any soul's good deeds were equal when weighed to its evil ones, it was admitted to neither Heaven nor Hell, but was kept in a place midway between the two (Test. Abr. p. 114).

In the Qur'an 'the Balance' is repeatedly mentioned (e.g. Surah xlii. 16[17]; ci. 5, 6[6,8], etc.), and commentators tell us that it is held by the Archangel Gabriel. All things will be weighed in it on the Judgment Day. Its scales are large enough to contain both earth and heaven, and they are suspended one over Paradise and the other over hell-fire. If any man's balance is found heavy with good deeds he shall be admitted to Paradise, 'but he whose balance shall be light, his dwelling shall be the Abyss' (ci. 6[8]). If any one's good works do not outweigh


his evil deeds, but exactly balance them, he is to be placed neither in Heaven nor in Hell, but in a place midway between them called Al A'raf (Surah vii. 44, 46[46,47]). This agrees almost entirely with the traditions of the Jews and Zoroastrians, from the latter of whom it was doubtless originally borrowed.

12. The Testament of Abraham tells us that each man's work is tried by fire, and that if the fire burns up any man's work he is carried off to the place of torture by the Angel who presides over fire. (The origin of this idea was doubtless 1 Cor. iii. 13, sqq., through a too literal interpretation of part of the clause and inattention to the αυτος σωθησεται ).

The Qur'an (Surah xix. vv. 71-73[70-72]) tells us that all men must be cast into hell-fire, but that while the pious shall after a time be delivered, the ungodly shall remain there. Commentators explain that hell-fire will not hurt the just, and thus every man will be tested by fire.

13. When his hour for death had come, Abraham was bidden to kiss the Death-Angel's hand. He did so, his soul adhered to the hand, and was thus drawn forth from his body (Test. Abr. p. 103).

When the Angel of Death comes to a Muslim to summon him to return to his Lord, the Angel writes GOD'S Name on his own hand and shows it to the believer. Thereupon, according to Muhammadan tradition, the soul takes its leave from the body gladly and without any regret. 

14. According to the Testament, the angels all assemble in Heaven at sunset to worship GOD (Test. Abr. p. 108).

The Muhammadan account is that the Angels who watch over the Faithful at their prayers relieve guard at dawn and at sunset, and these are two

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