his evil deeds, but exactly balance them, he is to be placed neither in Heaven nor in Hell, but
in a place midway between them called Al A'raf (Surah vii. 44, 46[46,47]). This agrees almost
entirely with the traditions of the Jews and Zoroastrians, from the latter of whom it was doubtless
12. The Testament of Abraham tells us that each man's work is tried by fire, and that if
the fire burns up any man's work he is carried off to the place of torture by the Angel who presides
over fire. (The origin of this idea was doubtless 1 Cor. iii. 13, sqq., through a too literal
interpretation of part of the clause and inattention to the ).
The Qur'an (Surah xix. vv. 71-73[70-72]) tells us that all men must be cast into hell-fire, but that
while the pious shall after a time be delivered, the ungodly shall remain there. Commentators
explain that hell-fire will not hurt the just, and thus every man will be tested by fire.
13. When his hour for death had come, Abraham was bidden to kiss the Death-Angel's hand. He did
so, his soul adhered to the hand, and was thus drawn forth from his body (Test. Abr. p. 103).
When the Angel of Death comes to a Muslim to summon him to return to his Lord, the Angel writes
GOD'S Name on his own hand and shows it to the believer. Thereupon, according to Muhammadan
tradition, the soul takes its leave from the body gladly and without any regret.
14. According to
the Testament, the angels all assemble in Heaven at sunset to worship GOD (Test. Abr. p.
The Muhammadan account is that the Angels who watch over the Faithful at their prayers relieve
guard at dawn and at sunset, and these are two