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of the most acceptable times of worship (Mishkat, p. 54).

15. Enoch is described as ό διδάσκαλος του ουρανου και τνς γης και γραμματευς της δικαιοσυνης (Test. Abr. p. 115).

Muhammadans say that Enoch (أخْنُوخ Akhnukh) received the name of Idris, by which he is more commonly known among them, because of the great extent of his learning and his study (دَرْسٌ ) of the books of Adam and Seth. 'Enoch was the first man who wrote with the pen' ('Arais, p. 68).

16. The Testament tells us that Death appears in a terrible shape to the wicked, and in a charming aspect to the just.

Muslims believe the same. The Masnavi says:—

مركِ هركس اى بسر هم زنكِ اوست‫.‬
بيشِ دشمن دشمن وبر دوست دوست
i.e. 'Every man's death is of the same colour as himself: to the enemy (of GOD, it appears) as an enemy, and to the friend (of GOD) as a friend' (Lubb-i Libab, p. 236).

17. We are informed in the Testament that when the three Angels visited Abraham at Mamre (Gen. xviii. 7), the calf on which they had feasted revived after the meal and returned to its mother in joy for nourishment.

The Qur'an informs us that on one occasion Abraham asked GOD how He would raise the dead, and that as a proof of the Resurrection GOD told him to take four birds, to divide them into fragments, to lay a piece of their flesh upon a number of separate hills, and then to call them. When this was done the birds


came back to life and flew swiftly to Abraham (Qur'an, Surah ii. v. 262[260]: vide also Jalalu'ddin's note).

The above are the principal coincidences that I have noticed between The Testament of Abraham and Muhammadan traditions and beliefs. There are some minor points of agreement which it would take too long to notice in detail. It may be remarked, however, that many of the Muhammadan fables which Muhammad (according to the Qur'an and tradition) handed down to his followers have been traced, as in the present instance, to an Egyptian source. It is unlikely that Muhammad ever read The Testament of Abraham or other apocryphal works which originated in Egypt. But it seems to me that a suggestion which Major Conder makes (in a note on my Lecture on 'Islam, its Origin, its Strength, and its Weakness,' published in vol. xxv. of the Journal of the Victoria Institute), viz. that Muhammad learnt many of these Egyptian legends viva voce from Mary the Copt, one of his concubines, is very likely to be correct. This removes the difficulty presented by the late character of the Arabic of the Arabic Gospel of the Infancy and that of the Arabic version of The Testament of Abraham.

1. The Qur'an (Surah xxi. 69 sqq.) relates how Abraham was cast into the fire by order of the King of Chaldaea, whom the commentators suppose to have been Nimrod. If a Muhammadan be asked what proof he has that this ever took place, he appeals to the Jews. The latter confirm the tale by referring to Gen. xi. 28, 31 and Gen. xv. 7. Jonathan Ben

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