The Book of Judges: Gideon
1191 - 1144 BC

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Oppressor: years

A

Area of Israel affected

Judge: years

Tribes involved in fighting

B

A+B

Date BC

Indivisible units

Aram-naharaim: (3:8) Oppressed 8 yrs.

1350-1342 BC

8

-

Othniel: (3:11)

Peace 40 yrs.

1342-1302 BC

Hebron

40

48

1350 - 1302

Unit 1:
1350 - 1144
(206 years)

Moabites: (3:14) Oppressed 18 yrs.

1302-1284 BC

18

Central

Merneptah Stele (1205 BC)

Ehud: (3:30) Eglon killed in 1284BC. Ruth & Boaz move to Bethlehem in 1284 BC

Peace 80 yrs.

1284-1204 BC

Benjamin

80

98

1302 - 1204

Philistines: (3:31)

-

Southern

Merneptah Stele (1205 BC)

After Ehud came Shamgar: (3:31)

Many

-

-

1200

after Ehud died, Canaanites: (4:3) Oppressed 20 yrs.

1204-1184 BC

20

Central to North, Mt. Tabor to Hazor

Merneptah Stele (1205 BC)

Deborah: (5:31) Mt. Tabor then Hazor burned in 1184 BC

peace 40 yrs.

1184-1144 BC

Zebulun, Naphtali

40

60

1204 - 1144

Midianites, Amalekites: (6:1) Year invasion. Oppressed 7 yrs.

1191-1184 BC

7

South and Central: Gaza to Jezreel Valley.

(6:4)

Gideon: (8:28) Gideonís army at Mt. Gilead in 1184 BC. Peace 40 yrs.

1184-1144 BC

Manasseh, Asher, Zebulun, Naphtali

40

47

1191-1144

Unit 2:
1191 - 1096
(95 years)

Bronze age ends in 1177 BC. Philistines arrive in 1177 BC in 8th yr. of Ramesses III.

-

-

-

Abimelech: (9:22) After Gideon

Shechem

3

3

1144 - 1141

-

-

-

Tola: (10:2)

After Abimelech

Ephraim

23

23

1141 - 1118

-

-

Transjordan

Jair: (10:3) After Tola

Gilead

22

22

1118 - 1096

Ammonites: (10:8) Oppressed 18 yrs.

1118-1100 BC

18

Transjordan

Jephthah: (12:7) Judged 6 yrs.

1100-1094 BC

Shiloh burned in 1094 BC

Gilead

6

24

1118 - 1094

Unit 3:
1118 - 1070
(48 years)

-

-

-

Ibzan: (12:8) after Jephthah judged 7

Bethlehem

7

7

1094 - 1087

-

-

-

Elon: (12:9) after Ibzan judged 10

Zebulun

10

10

1087 - 1077

-

-

-

Abdon: (12:14) after Elon judged 7

Ephraim

7

7

1077 - 1070

Philistines: (13:1) Oppressed 40 yrs.

1118-1078 BC

40

South, Gaza

Samson: (16:31)

20 yrs. 1098-1078 BC Shiloh burned 1094 BC

Dan

20

40

1118 - 1078

Unit 4:
1118 - 1078
(40 years)

Philistines

-

Central

Eli

-

-

40

1134-1094

Unit 5:
1134 - 1014
(120 years)

Philistines

-

Central

Samuel

-

-

80

1094-1014

 

Timeline, maps, chronology, sermons of Gideon
Maps of the Deborah, Timeline of Gideon
Sermons and Outlines of Gideon
Archeological evidences of Gideon

 

Gideon the Judge: 1191 - 1144 BC

 

Introduction:

1.       Chronology of Gideon:

a.         The 80 years of peace that resulted from Ehud defeating the king of Moab ended in 1204 BC: 1284-1204 BC

b.        Although not recorded in the Bible, Pharaoh Merneptah attacks Israel at the end of the 80 years of peace in 1205 BC as recorded in the famous Merneptah Stele.

c.         Before Gideon liberated Israel in 1184 BC the area from Gaza to the Jezreel Valley had suffered from annual raids of Midianites and the Amalekites for 7 years: 1191-1184 BC.

d.        In central and northern Israel the oppression under Jabin of Hazor was 20 years: 1204-1184 BC.

e.        Deborah was Judging Israel during these 20 years of oppression.

f.          Gideon only judged a single year in 1184 BC when he defeated Midianites and the Amalekites with his army of 300.

g.         In 1184 BC Deborah and Gideon liberated Israel the same year. Deborah liberated Israel north of the Jezreel Valley to Hazor and Gideon liberates Israel south of the Jezreel Valley to Gaza.

                                                               i.      In 1184 BC, Deborah liberated Israel at Mt. Tabor from Jabin, king of Hazor when Sisera was later killed while sleeping in a tent and Hazor was finally burned.

                                                             ii.      In 1184 BC, Gideonís famous army of 300 defeated the Midianites and Amalekites at Mt. Gilead. Whereas Deborah was active during the 20 years of oppression, Gideon was only active one year in 1184 BC.

h.        As a result of the concurrent liberations of Deborah and Gideon in 1184 BC, Israel had peace for the next 40 years: 1184-1144 BC.

i.           During the 40 years of peace, the mass immigration of the Philistines in 1177 BC trigger the collapse of the Late Bronze Age in the 8th year of Pharaoh Ramesses III.

2.       Sequence of events and locations:

a.         From Gaza to the Jezreel Valley, Israel was oppressed 7 years by Midianites and Amalekites: 1191-1184 BC.

b.        In 1184 BC, an army of 135,000 Midianites/Ishmaelites and Amalekites invade.

c.         Gideon visited by angel in his hometown of Ophrah. This is different from the modern town of Ophrah in Israel today because there are no archaeological finds in the modern city. Gideon was called by God in 1184 BC to form an army. Gideonís sacrifice is miraculously consumed by fire.

d.        Gideon tears down Altar of Baal & destroys Asherah.

e.        Midianites camp in near Mt. Morah in valley of Jezreel.

f.          Army of 32,000 from Manasseh, Asher, Zebulun & Naphtali.

g.         Miracle of wet and dry fleece at Ophrah. Gideonís army camps on Mt. Gilead & selects 300 men. Gideon gets 4th sign from God near Midianite camp.

h.        120,000 Midianites kill each other in a psychotic panic. Midianites flee home via Abel-meholah and Zererah.

i.           Gideon hurries to Succoth & is refused for food for army. Gideon is also refused by Penuel and vows to return.

j.          The remaining 15,000 Midianites camp in Karkor. Gideon travels east of Nobah & Jogbehah & defeats army.

k.         Gideon returns in revenge on Succoth and Penuel.

l.           Staring in 1184 BC, there was 40 years of peace: 1184-1144 BC. In 1184 BC Deborah defeats Jabin & burns Hazor.

m.      Gideon makes idolatrous ephod from Ishmaelite earrings.

n.        Gideon dies and is buried in Ophrah.

o.        Gideonís son Abimelech kills all his 70 brothers except one. Abimelech rules Israel in Shechem. Jotham curses Abimelech & Shechem who are defeated.

p.        Iron Age begins in 1177 BC with the mass arrival of the Philistines in Judea.

 

Synchronisms between the Bible, Chronology and Archeology:

 A.     Merneptah Stele in 1205 BC: Although not recorded in the Bible, the Merneptah Stele documents Egyptís invasion of Israel in 1205 BC, precisely at the end of the 80 years of Peace under Ehud (1204 BC) and at the begging of the oppression of the Canaanites in Judges 4:3 from 1204-1184 BC. Notice that those who misdate the death of Joshua to 1384 BC (29 years too early), put the Merneptah Stele in 1205 BC directly inside the 40 years of peace under Deborah which started in 1213 BC. The Merneptah stele fits perfectly with high precision in the Judges chronology when you set the date of Joshua correctly at 1356 BC.

 

B.      Deborah burns Hazor in 1184 BC: Deborah burned Hazor in 1184 BC. Deborahís final liberation act of burning Hazor was at the beginning of the 40 years of peace in 1184 BC. The 20 years of oppression under the Canaanites started in 120 and ended in 1184 BC. Those who misdate the death of Joshua to 1384 BC (29 years too early) make a double mistake in dating Deborahís burning of Hazor. They misdate Deborahís burning of Hazor to the beginning of the 20-year Canaanite oppression in 1204 BC rather than the end in 1184 BC. When you add these 20 misdated years to the 29-year error of when Joshua died, it is easy to see how their date for the burning of Hazor by Deborah in 1230 BC is a whopping 46 years too early.

 

C.      Deborah and Gideon concurrent 40 years of peace: A spectacular chronological discovery is that Deborah and Gideon delivered Israel from two different armies 30 km apart the same year. Deborahís battle at Mt Tabor and Gideonís army 30 km south at Mt Gilead happened the same year. We have a synchronism between Deborah and Gideon because their respective 40 years of peace of began in 1184 BC and end in 1144 BC. It was during these 40 years of peace that Philistines arrived in Judah in 1177 BC in 8th yr. of Ramesses III. Although Deborah is in Indivisible Chronology Unit #1 and Gideon is in Indivisible Chronology Unit #2 each defeated a different enemy of Israel the same year, using the same tribal armies of Zebulun and Naphtali. Both Deborah and Gideon completed their liberation the same year in 1184 BC. Deborah began to fight the king of Hazor in central Israel at Mt Tabor then the battled moved north to Hazor. Gideonís famous army of 300 defeated the annual incursion of the Midianites and Amalekites at Mt. Gilead which is 30 km south of Deborahís battle at Mt. Gilead. When the Midianites fled Transjordan, Gideon pursued them towards Amman and defeated them. This is confirmation that our approach is correct.

 

D.     Philistines trigger the Collapse of the Late Bronze Age in 1177 BC: The LB age ended in 1177 BC, which marked the beginning of the Iron Age. This well documented event is recorded in the wall reliefs of pharaoh Ramesses III when in year 8, there was a mass immigration of the Philistines into Canaan. Deborah witnessed the arrival of the Philistines and the collapse of the LB age in times of peace. During Deborahís 40 years of peace which ended in 1144 BC in northern Israel, the Philistines were establishing themselves in southern Israel, but did not start oppressing Judah until 1118 BC. Samson battled the Philistines (Judges 13:1) during the entire 40 years they oppressed Judah until he died in 1078 BC. It would not be until the time of David that the Philistines were fully subdued.

 

Conclusion:

When you get the chronology right, the cartography right and the archaeology right, you get the Bible text right!

 

  

Old Testament Chronology and Timelines

Chronology

of the Flood outline

Chronology

of Egypt outline

Chronology

of the Exodus outline

Chronology

of Judges outline

Chronology

of Ruth outline

Chronology

Eli-Solomon outline

Chronology

of Kings outline

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Judges Sermon Outlines

Conquest

Othniel, Ehud, Ruth

Deborah

Gideon

Jephthah

Samson

Eli, Samuel, Saul, David

1406-1399

1350-1204

1204-1144

1191-1144

1118-1094

1118-1078

1128-1004

Josh 1-15

Judges 3, 17-21, Ruth

Judges 4-5

Judges 6-9

Judges 10-12

Judges 13-16

1 Samuel 1-31

Canaanites

Mesopotamia, Edom

Hazorites

Ishmaelites, Midianites

Ammonites

Philistines

Philistines, Ammonites, Amalekites

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Outline

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By Steve Rudd: Contact the author for comments, input or corrections.

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