Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry, Hales, Yudofsky, 2003 AD


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"No biological markers for any classic psychiatric disorders (such as major depression, schizophrenia, or bipolar disorder) have yet been confirmed as having a clearly defined utility in routine clinical practice. Nevertheless, psychiatrists and clinical neuroscientists continue their search for biological markers that will be useful to clinicians in making diagnostic, treatment, and prognostic determinations for psychiatric patients. The promise of research involving potential biological markers is that they may help elucidate the underlying pathophysiology of psychiatric illness, suggest useful new diagnostic approaches and subtyping strategies, and lead to more efficacious treatment approaches." (Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry, Hales, Yudofsky, 2003 AD, p 250)



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