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Friday crucifixion
Sunday resurrection

Three days and three nights

Jesus said: Luke 13:32 "Behold, I cast out demons and perform cures today [Fri] and tomorrow [Sat], and the third day [Sun] I reach My goal."

God said to Moses: "Go to the people and consecrate them today [Mon] and tomorrow [Tues], and let them wash their garments; and let them be ready for the third day [Wed], for on the third day the Lord will come down on Mount Sinai in the sight of all the people." Exodus 19:10-11
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250 AD IGNATIUS: "On the day of the preparation, then, at the third hour, He received the sentence from Pilate, the Father permitting that to happen; at the sixth hour He was crucified; at the ninth hour He gave up the ghost; and before sunset He was buried. During the Sabbath He continued under the earth in the tomb in which Joseph of Arimathaea had laid Him. At the dawning of the Lord's day He arose from the dead, according to what was spoken by Himself, "As Jonah was three days and three nights in the whale's belly, so shall the Son of man also be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth." The day of the preparation, then, comprises the passion; the Sabbath embraces the burial; the Lord's Day contains the resurrection." The (Epistle of Ignatius to the Trallians, chapter 9)

150AD JUSTIN: "But Sunday is the day on which we all hold our common assembly, because it is the first day on which God, having wrought a change in the darkness and matter, made the world; and Jesus Christ our Saviour on the same day rose from the dead. For He was crucified on the day before that of Saturn (Saturday); and on the day after that of Saturn, which is the day of the Sun, having appeared to His apostles and disciples, He taught them these things, which we have submitted to you also for your consideration." (First apology of Justin, Weekly Worship of the Christians, Ch 68)

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Links within this document:

I. Bible Proof Jesus rose on Sunday

A. Mark 16:9
B. The Road to Emmaus: Lk 24: 1,13,21,46

II. Other details of the death & resurrection

A. Was Jesus discovered risen before or after sunrise Sunday?
B. Day and year Jesus died: Friday Nisan 14, 30 or 33 AD
C. 101 scholars on the day & year Jesus died!
D. Chronology of Jesus' Last week

III. The "Last Supper" was NOT a Passover meal

A. Spectrum of views regarding the last supper:
B. Passover & days of unleavened bread used interchangeably.
C. Reasons why the last supper was not the seder/lamb meal:
D. Interpreting "Passover" in the Gospel accounts:

IV. Types and anti-types of crucifixion fulfilled!

A. Day of first fruits and Pentecost always fell on a Sunday:
B. Passover the type of Christ's crucifixion
C. Wave/ sheaf/ first fruits the type of Christ's resurrection
D. Landing of Noah's ark on dry land a type of salvation.
E. Pentecost the type of the giving of God's law

V. Understanding the Jewish time system

A. Interchangeability of terms "3 days"
B. Parallel passages which prove interchangeability:
C. Actual Bible examples of calculating 3 days & 3 nights!
C1. From the mouth of Jesus!
C2. The case of Cornelius in Acts 10:3+9+23+24+30
C3. The case of Queen Esther: Esther 4:16 + 5:1
C4. The case of the faithless Jews: Matthew 27:63-64
C5. The case of the starving servant: 1 Samuel 30:12-13
D. Day as defined in Genesis
E. "Preparation", the first century word for Friday!
F. Scholars and commentaries on 3 days & 3 nights
G. Jewish usage of expression "Next Day".

VI. Two Sabbath theory: (a false view)

A. Plural "Sabbaton" in Mt 28:1 refers to weekly Sabbath ALONE!
B. "High Day" of Jn 19:31 refers to weekly Sabbath, not 1st day of unleavened bread:
C. Mary bought spices on Sunday (after sundown Saturday)

VII. Summary of 5 crucifixion positions

Calendars Used by the 5 Different Views:

VIII. Problems with Wednesday/Thursday crucifixion and Saturday Resurrection:

A. Saturday Resurrection totally unbiblical
B. Literally 3 days & 3 nights = 72 Hours impossible!

IX. Answer to objections of Friday Nisan 14 crucifixion, Sunday resurrection:

X. Historical proof of a Friday crucifixion and Sunday resurrection:

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I. Bible Proof Jesus rose on Sunday:

A. Mark 16:9: Irrefutable Sunday resurrection passage #1:

  1. These three translations absolutely state that Sunday was resurrection day:
  1. These two translations also state that Sunday was resurrection day, but because of the wording, some will take issue:
  1. The only way anti-Sunday resurrection folk can get around Mk 16:9 is by using the following argument:

What Sunday resurrection folk say

What Saturday resurrection folk say

This verse states that the very action of Jesus' resurrection occurred on Sunday. Read the verse, this is exactly what it says.

The tense of the Greek word "risen" is perfect present active ??? and that the verse is not saying that Jesus actually rose on Sunday but that he was in a state of resurrection on Sunday. This view means that Jesus rose on Saturday and after this he will be in a state of resurrection forever! For example, they would use the parallel illustration: "In the year 1997, when Jesus was risen from the dead." Or "When Jesus was risen from the dead on new years of 1996..." In both cases, Jesus actually rose in the first century, and was in a state of being "risen from the dead" in 1997.

There is no way around the obvious meaning of this verse. If this verse does not give the day of actual resurrection, then THE BIBLE IS TOTALLY SILENT as to what day Jesus actually did raise. Challenge: What verse outright states the day Jesus was risen up from the dead?

This view is an example of stretching things to an unreasonable limit.

  • It amounts to etymological gymnastics (word games).
  • The majority of translations render the verse in such a way that this "being in a state of resurrection" just won't work.
  • This view doesn't prevent the interpretation that the verse is actually saying that Jesus rose-up on Sunday.

B. The Road to Emmaus: Irrefutable Sunday resurrection passage #2:

The Road to Emmaus:
Lk 24: 1,13,21,46
Irrefutable proof Jesus rose on Sunday

Verse

Text

Comment

Lk 24:1

"But on the first day of the week, at early dawn, they came to the tomb, bringing the spices which they had prepared."

The entire events of Lk 24 occurred on Sunday, the "first day of the week".

Lk 24:13

"And behold, two of them were going that very day to a village named Emmaus, which was about seven miles from Jerusalem."

"That very day" = Sunday and refers back to Lk 24:1

Lk 24:21

"But we were hoping that it was He who was going to redeem Israel. Indeed, besides all this, it is the third day since these things happened."

"it is the third day" since Jesus was crucified and placed in the tomb. This was the day the two men were expecting Jesus to rise from the dead. This was their day of expectation.

Lk 24:46

"He said to them, "Thus it is written, that the Christ should suffer and rise again from the dead the third day"

This is not connected directly with the men on the road to Emmaus, but Luke, through inspiration of the Holy Spirit has now referred to the third day, FOUR TIMES!

1. Avoiding the truth about the Road to Emmaus passage:

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Armstrong's view of Luke 24:1-46

This wild interpretation has been awarded the S.T.I.N.C.S. trophy

2. There are four problems with this interpretation:

C. Four powerful, but inconclusive passages that indicate Jesus rose on Sunday:

Jesus Arose on Sunday

Comment

Passage

These Passages do not explicitly state that Jesus actually rose on Sunday, rather they specifically tell us when the empty tomb was discovered. However, in the absence of any Bible verse that tells us he rose on Saturday, it is quite obvious that these verses do in fact tell us that Jesus had risen only a short time before.

  • Mt 28:1 Now after the Sabbath, as it began to dawn toward the first day of the week, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary came to look at the grave.
  • Mk 16:1 And when the Sabbath was over, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James, and Salome, bought spices, that they might come and anoint Him. 2 And very early on the first day of the week, they came to the tomb when the sun had risen.
  • Lk 24:1 But on the first day of the week, at early dawn, they came to the tomb, bringing the spices which they had prepared. 2 And they found the stone rolled away from the tomb
  • Jn 20:1 Now on the first day of the week Mary Magdalene came early to the tomb, while it *was still dark, and saw the stone already taken away from the tomb.

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II. Other details of the death & resurrection

A. Was Jesus discovered risen before or after sunrise Sunday?

Wednesday 72 hour literalists maintain that Jesus died 3 PM Wednesday and rose 3 PM Saturday, but was not discovered until early Sunday morning. This means that the tomb stone was rolled away in broad day light YET NO ONE DISCOVERED IT until Sunday morning... Not even the guards! Such is quite unbelievable!

Mt 28:1 Now after the Sabbath, as it began to dawn toward the first day of the week, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary came to look at the grave. (ASV mistranslates Mt 28:1 "Now late on the sabbath day")

Mark 16:1-2 And when the Sabbath was over, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James, and Salome, bought spices, that they might come and anoint Him. And very early on the first day of the week, they came to the tomb when the sun had risen.

Lk 24:1 But on the first day of the week, at early dawn, they came to the tomb

Jn 20:1 Now on the first day of the week Mary Magdalene came early to the tomb, while it was still dark, and saw the stone already taken away from the tomb.

"as it began to dawn"

"when the sun had risen"

"at early dawn"

"while it was still dark"

Was it after sunrise as per Mt, Mk and Lk OR before sunrise as per John???
All are correct! John simply records that Mary left the house while it was still dark, went to get the other ladies and by the time they got to the tomb, Mt, Mk and Lk record the sun was up.

 

B. Day and year Jesus died: Friday Nisan 14, (April 3, 33 AD):

1. Variables we can determine with certainty from scripture:

2. Variables almost impossible to determine with certainty none of which come from scripture:

3. Perspective on determining the calendar date of Jesus death:

 

C. 101 scholars on the day Jesus died: April 3, 33 AD!

How to use the table below:

101 scholars on the day Jesus died!

.

In the YEAR (Julian) Nisan 14 fell on...

Scholar or Authority

27 AD

28 AD

29 AD

30 AD

31 AD

32 AD

33 AD

34 AD

Study Graph, 1976 James L. Boyer, Chronology of the crucifixion. Bracketed date [--] indicates if no intercalary month was inserted in the previous year

-

Wed Apr 28 [or Tue Mar 30]

Mon Apr 18

*Fri April 7*

Wed Apr 25 [or Tue Mar 27]

Mon Apr 14 or Sun Apr 13

Sat May 2 [or Fri Apr 3]

Thu April 22 [or Wed Mar 24]

Church of God, Talent Ministries

Tue Apr 8

Sat Mar 27

Fri Apr 15

*Wed* Apr 4

Sun Mar 25

Sat Apr 12

Wed Apr 1

Mon Mar 21

Bill Mclenney
using computer lunar projections program and math.

Thu Apr 23

Mon Apr 10

Mon Apr 30

Fri Apr 19

*Wed Apr 9*

Tue April 26

Fri April 15

Wed April 5

Zonervan Pictural Encycolpeia Vol 1, P 831, 1977

Thu or Fri Apr 11

-

Thu or Fri Mar 18

*Fri Apr 7*

-

-

Thu or Fri Apr 3

-

Jeremias (JEWJ 38) and Oxford scholars Humphresy and Waddington, in Death of the Messiah, Raymond Brown, Anchor, Vol 2, Pg 1376

Thu with some chance on Fri

-

-

*Fri April 7* with less chance on Thu

-

-

*Fri April 3*

-

Dictionary of the Bible, James Hastings, Vol 1 p, 411, 1899, Chronology of NT

-

-

*Fri*

Fri

-

-

Fri

-

Bible Almanac, Packer, Tenny, White, 1980, Pg 64, Bible chronology

-

-

-

*Fri April 7*

-

-

-

-

New Bible dictionary, 2nd edition, 1985, P 202 Chronology of NT

Fri

-

-

*Fri April 7*

-

-

*Fri April 3*

-

ISBE, 1939, Chronology of NT, pg 647

-

-

-

*Thu or Fri April 7*

-

-

-

-

Anchor Bible Dictionary, Vol 1, p 1016, Chronology

-

-

-

*Fri April 7*

-

-

Fri April 3

-

A. T. Robertson

-

-

-

*Fri April 7*

-

-

-

-

The Narrated Bible, NIV, F. LeGard Smith, 1984, p1454 comments final week-Wednesday crucifixion and p1693 Chronology

-

-

-

*Thurs*

-

-

-

-

World Wide church of God, Herbert W. Armstrong, Various Church of God other Sabbath keeping churches.

-

-

-

-

*Wed Apr 9*

-

-

-

In the YEAR
(Julian)

27 AD

28 AD

29 AD

30 AD

31 AD

32 AD

33 AD

34 AD

100 scholars choices by year: Blinzler, Prozess 101-2 in Death of the Messiah, Vol 2, Pg 1374.

3 or Less

3 or Less

13

53

3 or Less

3 or Less

24

-

Note: The date of 30 AD was wrongly chosen and favored only because the eclipse spoken of by Josephus that marked the birth of Jesus (death of Herod) was wrongly thought to be in 4 BC rather than Jan 10, 1 BC.
Read more about the eclipse of Jesus birth.

 

D. Chronology of Jesus' Last week

This chronology is based upon:

  1. Friday crucifixion on Nisan 14
  2. Year of crucifixion: 33 AD
  3. Sunday resurrection
  4. Last supper not seder/Passover meal
  5. Christ crucified at same time as Passover lambs

Friday

Nisan 7

33 AD

  • John 12:1 Jesus came to Bethany to visit Lazarus, Mary and Martha. A dinner is served in his honor
    Jesus' feet anointed with Nard by Mary
  • Chief priests and Pharisees plotting to arrest Jesus

Saturday

Nisan 8

33 AD

  • John 12:2-5 In Bethany, Jesus ate a supper with Mary, Martha and Lazarus.
  • John 12:3 Mary ointments Jesus' feet with Spikenard, Judas objects
  • Mt 26:6-13, Mark 14:3-9, Luke 7:36-38, John 12:2-11

Sunday

Nisan 9

33 AD

Triumphal Entry

  • John 12:1-13: Triumphal Entry into Jerusalem and Palm Sunday
  • Jesus weeps over Jerusalem and curses it and the temple
    Chief priests plotting to kill Jesus
  • Mt 21:7-9, Mark 11:8-10, Luke 19:35-38, John 12:12-16.

Monday

Nisan 10

33 AD

Temple cleansed

  • Mark 11:12 Next day when they came from Bethany
  • Mt 21:12: Jesus cleanses temple second time. (Mark records the actual sequence whereas Matthew's account combines the whole story into one factual account and is not chronological)
  • Passover lamb selected on Nisan 10: Ex 12:3. It may well be that the act of entering the temple and cleansing it was anti-typical of Ex 12:3. Jesus symbolically presented Himself in the Temple as the Lamb to be slain four days later.
  • Mk 11:19 Jesus leaves for Bethany again
  • Matt 21:13, Luke 19:46

Tuesday

Nisan 11

33 AD

Destruction of Jerusalem foretold

  • Mark 11:20 And in the morning, as they passed by, they saw the fig tree dried up from the roots.
  • Mark 11:27-13:37 Jesus authority Questioned
  • Leaders ask many questions but ask no more after being refuted
  • Widows mite
  • Matt 24:1 Destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD foretold
  • Matt 21:23-23:39; Luke 20:1-21:4.

Wednesday

Nisan 12

33 AD

  • Sunset, 6 PM Tues - Sunset, 6 PM Wed, Roman (our) time
  • This was "two days before Passover", chief priests plot to kill Jesus Mt 26:2-5, Mark 14:1-2, Luke 22:1-2.
  • Judas bargains with leaders
  • Jesus retires to the Mount of Olives

Thursday

Nisan 13

33 AD

  • Sunset, 6 PM Wed - Sunset, 6 PM Thurs Roman (our) time
  • Disciples sent to prepare upper room for 8 day Passover feast- Mat 26:17-19, Mark 14:12-16, Luke 22:7-13.

Friday

Crucifixion

Nisan 14

33 AD

Lord's Supper

And

Preparation for the Passover

"Preparation day" for Feast of unleavened bread

  • Friday the 14th of Nisan is the day before the Passover meal. Remember the Passover began after Sunset of Nissan 14, which would be Nissan 15. Nissan 14 started at sundown of what we call today 6 PM Thursday and ended at sundown Friday 6 PM our (Roman) time. Lev 23:5
  • Friday is also Preparation day for the Feast of unleavened bread. Some are confused by the expression: "day of preparation for the Passover" as used in Jn 19:14; Matt. 27:62
  • Judas identified as the betrayer- Mat 26:21-25, Mark 14:18-21, Luke 22:21-23, John 13:21-30.
  • Jesus did not eat the Passover meal with his disciples, but a had a common meal and then instituted the Lord's Supper- Mat 26:26-29, Mark 14:22-25, Luke 22:14-16. The Passover meal was not eaten until sundown after he was crucified 24 hours after he instituted the Lord's Supper.
  • Around 12 PM Roman time, Jesus retires to Gethsemane and is arrested- Mat 26:30-56, Mark 14:26-52, Luke 22:39-53, John 18:1-12.
  • 12 AM- 6 AM Roman time, (but still Nisan 14) the trials took place in the darkness of the morning.
  • 6 AM Roman time ("sixth hour" Jn 19:14). Jews tell Pilate: "We have no king but Caesar."
  • Crucifixion began at about 9 am (the third hour- Mark 15:25). Jesus died at the very moment the Passover lamb was to be slain at the Temple, the ninth hour on the 14th of Nisan (our Friday 3 PM). From the moment Jesus was laid in the tomb, until sunset, the Jews reckoned to be the first day in the grave, even though it was only a few hours. All of this took place on what was the preparation day - not only for the 7th day Sabbath, but also for the upcoming Feast of Unleavened Bread.
  • From Noon to 3 PM Roman time (6th-9th hour Jewish time) the sky is dark. This may have been a very literal fulfillment of Ex 12:6 where the Passover lamb was to be killed "between the evenings".
  • Between 3-5 PM thousands of lambs are being slain for Passover at the same Jesus dies.
  • John 19:31 Thieves legs broken because it was the preparation day and a Saturday was a "high day"
  • At 6 PM the sun sets as the eclipsed blood moon rises: Read more about the eclipse of Jesus birth.
  • 2 Mary's watch Joseph and Nicodemus bury Jesus

Saturday

Nisan 15

33 AD

Sabbath

  • Sunset, 6 PM Fri - Sunset, 6 PM Sat, Roman Time
  • The week day of the Passover changed from year to year as do our birthdays. In the year 33 AD Passover lamb was killed on a Friday.
  • After all the lamb had been killed and Jesus was in the tomb Friday afternoon the day before (a few hours before sunset at 3PM Friday) all the Jews at the Seder meal that included lamb and unleavened bread according to Ex 12.
  • Chief priests and Pharisees ask Pilate to put a guard on tomb about 7 PM (4 hours after Jesus died and one hour into the Sabbath but our Friday night) Matthew 27:62
  • John 19:31 it was a "high" Seventh day (Saturday) Sabbath because it was ALSO the 15th of Nisan, a feast day: Lev 23:6-7 "On the first day you shall have a holy convocation; you shall not do any laborious work."
  • The Messiah rests in the tomb, observing the Sabbath day rest the entire day. This is the second day in the grave.
  • No Bible verse outright states that Jesus was risen on Saturday.

Sunday

Nisan 16

33 AD

  • Sunset, 6 PM Sat - Sunset, 6 PM Sun, Roman (our) Time
  • The resurrection takes place just at day break about 6 AM
  • The day of first fruits/ wave/ sheaf offering

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III. The "Last Supper" was NOT a Passover meal:

A. Spectrum of views regarding the last supper:

  1. We take the view that the last supper could not and was not the Passover meal (seder) with the lamb. The Passover lamb was not served because it would not be normally slaughtered until later that same day when Jesus was crucified (Friday at 3 PM). This is the simplest view and one that perfectly harmonizes all the data and Jesus exactly fits the anti-type of the Passover lamb. If the last supper was the actual lamb meal, then Jesus fails to fulfill the anti-type of the Passover lamb, since he died exactly 24 hours (Nisan 15) after all the other Passover lambs were killed on Nisan 14. Yet Jesus is strongly typified as THE PASSOVER LAMB and the first fruits! What a weak anti-type if he died 24 hours AFTER the actual Passover lambs were killed!
  2. The traditional view is that this was the normal time for the Passover meal and that the lambs were normally slaughtered several hours before Jesus had the last supper. The problem with this view is that Jesus death did not exactly coincide with the slaughter of the Passover lambs, but was exactly 24 hours too late. Thus Jesus doesn't exactly fit the anti-type of the Passover lamb. Two basic mistakes that are made by those who view the last supper to be the actual seder/lamb/Passover meal: 1. They fail to realize that the term "prepare the Passover" refers specifically to "preparing for the entire 8 day feast of unleavened bread" purchasing a lamb to be slaughtered the following day would have been one small part of these preparations. 2. That the upper room was been "rented/used" for the entire 8 day festival (Passover + 7 days of unleavened bread). These two misunderstandings are the primary impediments to the truth that the last supper was not a Passover meal.
  3. Some believe Christ held His personal Passover a night early, knowing that He would be crucified before the evening of the fourteenth, thus it was not the ACTUAL lamb/seder meal but replica one day early. A lamb was served, but not one that was slaughtered at the time Moses said on Nisan 14.
  4. Some believe Christ and His followers held to a different calendar, reckoning the fourteenth to be a day earlier than the calendar of the official Jerusalem priesthood. This may have been the revised calendar observed by the Essenes at Qumran. This view is difficult to accept, since there is no indication of such calendar differences in the gospels. At least one of the gospel writers would explain such an obvious problem of the timing of the Passover meal being 24 hours too soon. With this view, we must accept that God said nothing and we must guess this to be the case. It also means that the entire Jewish community had been killing the Passover lamb and eating the meal 24 hours too late for thousands of years. This is highly unlikely since Ezra and Nehemiah restored the law in about 400 BC.

B. Passover & days of unleavened bread used interchangeably.

  1. Absolute Proof the Passover was used interchangeably with the celebrating the whole 8 Day spring festival, including the feast Unleavened Bread: Ezekiel 45:21; Mt 26:17; Lk 22:1; Jn 2:23; Jn 6:4
  2. Passover could refer to the killing of the lamb: 2 Chron 30:15; 35:1, 11; Ezra 6:20; Jn 19:14,31; 1 Co 5:7; Heb 11:28
  3. Passover could refer to the eating of the lamb after sunset: Ex 12:8-9; 2 Chron 30:18; John 13:1; John 18:28
  4. Passover must have been used interchangeably with the celebrating the whole 8 Day spring festival, including the feast Unleavened Bread in these passages although we must determine this by deduction: Mark 14:12-16; Lk 22:7-15; Mt 26:18; Acts 12:4; Mt 26:2; Mk 14:1; Lk 2:41; Jn 2:13; Jn 11:55; Jn 18:39
  5. These passages could refer to either the Passover day on Nisan 14 OR the Passover day, plus the 8 day feast of unleavened bread, it doesn't matter which: Jn 12:1; Jn 19:14; Mt 26:2; Mk 14:1

C. Reasons why the last supper was not the seder/lamb meal:

  1. Christ literally fulfilled the Passover lamb symbolism to the exact time of the day! I Cor 5:7-8. He was slain when the Passover lambs were being slain! If the lambs were supposed to be slain the evening before, then Jesus did not fulfill the perfect anti-type and would not be our true Passover lamb! This one fact alone is enough to prove that the "last supper" was not the eating of the Passover lamb (seder) meal.

o    1 Cor 15:20 "Christ has been raised from the dead, the first fruits of those who are asleep"

o    1 Cor 5:7 "Clean out the old leaven, that you may be a new lump, just as you are in fact unleavened. For Christ our Passover also has been sacrificed. 8 Let us therefore celebrate the feast [a reference to the Lord's supper]"

o    Jn 1:29 "Behold, the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world!"

o    Jn 1:36 "Behold, the Lamb of God!"

o    1 Jn 1:7 "blood of Jesus His Son cleanses us from all sin"

o    1 Jn 2:2 "He Himself is the propitiation for our sins"

o    Jn 19:33+36 and Ex 12:46 "but coming to Jesus, when they saw that He was already dead, they did not break His legs" ... "For these things came to pass, that the Scripture might be fulfilled, "Not a bone of Him shall be broken." ... "nor are you to break any bone of it."

o    Anti-typical of Lord's supper in 1 Cor 11:23ff "For as often as you eat this bread and drink the cup, you proclaim the Lord's death until He comes."

o    1 Pe 1:19 "redeemed ... with precious blood, as of a lamb unblemished and spotless, the blood of Christ."

o    Rev 5:6-14 "And I saw between the throne ... a Lamb standing, as if slain"

  1. The last supper meal is no where called the actual Passover meal of Ex 12.
  2. There no specific mention of any lamb at the "last supper".
  3. Judas was supposed to have bought stuff "for the feast". This proves that "the feast" was not that night! John 13:29 "For some were supposing, because Judas had the money box, that Jesus was saying to him, "Buy the things we have need of for the feast""
  4. Paul's instructions to the Corinthians (1 Cor 11:23ff) do not mention the (seder) lamb meal but refer to "the night in which the Lord was betrayed"
  5. It is quite clear that that the term Passover can refer to the entire 8 day festival (Passover + 7 day feast of unleavened bread) See below.
  6. The Passover lambs for the Ex 12 Passover meal were to be chosen on Nisan 10 and killed on Nisan 14 around 3-5 PM and it would be cooked and eaten after sundown on Nisan 15 (which starts at 6 PM our time). If "last supper" was this Passover lamb then it was exactly 24 hours early according to both the Bible and universal recorded Jewish custom.

o    The lambs were not slain until the afternoon of Nisan 14, "between the two evenings" Ex 12:6 and "you shall sacrifice the Passover in the evening at sunset, at the time that you came out of Egypt." Deut 16:6.

o    Number who partook of Passover: 1. Josephus said: "So these high priests, upon the coming of their feast which is called the Passover, when they slay their sacrifices, from the ninth hour to the eleventh, but so that a company not less than ten belong to every sacrifice . . . and many of us are twenty in a company, found this number of sacrifices was 256,500 which, upon the allowance of no more than ten that feast together, amounts to two million seven hundred thousand and two hundred [2,700,200] persons that were pure and holy" (Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book VI, 9:3). 2. J. Jeremias reduced Josephus's number to what he calls more realistic - 180,000 (Jerusalem in the Time of Jesus, 1969, p83f)

o    According to Gesenius' Hebrew Lexicon of O.T. the word used in Ex. 12:6, # 6153 called 'ereb means: "evening . . . in the phrase "between the two evenings" Ex 16:12; 30:8; used as marking the space of time during which the Paschal lamb was slain, Ex 12:6; Lev 23:5; Num 9:3; and the evening sacrifice was offered, Ex 29:39, 41; Num 28:4; i.e., according to the opinion of the Karaites and Samaritans (which is favoured by the words of Deut. 16:6), the time between sunset and deep twilight. The Pharisees, however, and the Rabbinists considered the time when the sun began to descend [similar to an Arabian word which means 'little evening' for when it begins to draw towards evening] to be called the first evening and the second evening to be the real sunset." Therefore the time between when the sun began to descend [early afternoon] and sunset, i.e., the 9th hour according to Jewish time or 3 PM Roman time.

o    For 1,500 years the Jews had been killing the Passover on Nisan 14 and eating the Passover on Nisan 15. Would Jesus change this time-honored custom, based upon specific Mosaic law? NO!

The "Last Supper" was NOT a Passover meal

John 13:1 Now before the Feast of the Passover, Jesus knowing that His hour had come that He should depart out of this world to the Father, having loved His own who were in the world, He loved them to the end. And during supper the devil having already put into the heart of Judas Iscariot"

John plainly states the "last supper" was the day before the actual Passover lamb meal (seder) of Ex 12.

John 18:28 They led Jesus therefore from Caiaphas into the Praetorium, and it was early; and they themselves did not enter into the Praetorium in order that they might not be defiled, but might eat the Passover.

Notice the Jews had not yet eaten the Passover lamb meal (seder) of Ex 12 when Jesus was arrested. Jesus had already eaten the "last supper" a few hours before this.

Jn 19:14,31 "Now it was the day of preparation for the Passover; it was about the sixth hour. [6 AM Roman time used here by John] And he said to the Jews, "Behold, your King!"... "because it was the day of preparation, so that the bodies should not remain on the cross on the Sabbath (for that Sabbath was a high day)"

"preparation for the Passover" This is a reference to the preparation that included the Passover lamb (seder) of Ex 12. The lambs would be killed about 9 hours later. Yet Jesus had eaten the "last supper" about 9 hour BEFORE this.

  1. No one has ever produced any evidence that the Jews sacrificed Passover lambs in the afternoon of Nisan 13; such an act would have violated the LAW. If there were ANY justification for such an act, then it would have had to be written in the Mishnah (the oral law), since it is not in the Torah (written law, books of Moses). The Mishnah also is silent as to any such thing, thus this concept is unfounded.
  2. The flesh from the lambs could not be left over after that night, but any remaining had to be consumed (Deut 16:4; Ex 12:10). If the last supper was indeed the actual Passover (seder) lamb meal then Jesus was killed as the "Lamb of God" after all the other Passover lambs were burned with fire the morning of His death.
  3. The Passover (seder) meal was to be a family meal with close relatives. It violates the intent of the meal for 12 men to abandon their wives and children on Passover night. Ex 12:3 "take a lamb for themselves, according to their fathers' households, a lamb for each household."
  4. The evening they ate the seder/lamb meal, they must remain in their houses till daylight. "none of you shall go out of the door of his house until the morning." Ex 12:22. Yet Jesus did go out to the garden of Gethsemane after the meal.
  5. The "last supper" on the eve of Nisan 14 (18 hours before he died) would be considered the FIRST meal for the entire 8 day Passover festival. It was still considered a very special meal by the Jews, for it was the first one of many.
  6. Jesus did keep part of the Feast of Passover with His disciples, but knew He would miss the Passover meal (seder), since He would be in the tomb Friday night, at the very time the Jewish nation were eating the lamb killed at 3 PM a few hours before. Jesus knew He was going to die and that HE was the Passover: I Cor 5:7-8. Jesus was NOT changing the Passover meal (seder) from the 15th to the 14th! Such would violate the Law of Moses! Jesus was obviously using the term "Passover" in to refer to the whole Passover season.
  7. Jesus sent Peter and John to prepare the upper room for the Passover, this is the room where the disciples would spend THE ENTIRE 8 DAYS of the Passover festival not just the Passover meal with the lamb (seder). The disciples knew they needed the room for 8 days not just 2 for the actually eating of the lamb (seder). It is likely, (but speculative) that the upper room of Acts 1:13 on Pentecost was the same upper room of the last supper: Mark 14:15; Luke 22:12.
  8. The Passover lamb (seder) meal, is certainly anti-typical with the Lord's supper (communion). The Lord's supper was not instituted by Jesus at the very Passover lamb (seder) meal, but about 24 hours before.

Jesus, Our Passover Lamb

1 Cor 5:7

 

Jewish Passover (type)

Lord's Supper (anti-type)

Meaning

Remember Egypt Ex 12:26-27

Remember Lord 1 Cor 11:25

Lamb

1 Yr. Unblemished Ex 12:5

Sinless Jesus Jn 1:29; 1 Pe 1:19

Flesh

Eat, Ex 12:8

Eat 1 Cor 11:27

No bones broken

Ex 12:46; Num 9:12

Jn 19:33,36 (Ps 34:20)

Blood

On mercy seat for sins Ex 12:7

For forgiveness Mt 26:27-28

Participants

Circumcised Ex 12:43

Baptized 1 Cor 10:16-17; 11:29

Frequency

Every Nisan 14: Ex 12:6

Every Sunday: Acts 20:7

D. Interpreting "Passover" in the Gospel accounts:

Narratives interpreted: our comments in green brackets [---], otherwise direct quotes from Bible. Our comments below perfectly explain

  1. Mt 26:17-19 "Now on the first day of Unleavened Bread [we know this was Nisan 14, yet it is called the first day of the feast of unleavened bread] the disciples came to Jesus, saying, "Where do You want us to prepare for You to eat the Passover [entire 8 day feast]?" And He said, "Go into the city to a certain man, and say to him, 'The Teacher says, "My time is at hand; I am to keep the Passover [entire 8 day feast] at your house with My disciples."'" And the disciples did as Jesus had directed them; and they prepared the Passover [entire 8 day feast]."
  2. Mk 14:12-16 "And on the first day of Unleavened Bread [we know this was Nisan 14, yet it is called the first day of the feast of unleavened bread], when the Passover lamb [this is certainly Nisan 14] was being sacrificed, His disciples said to Him, "Where do You want us to go and prepare for You to eat the Passover [entire 8 day feast]?" 13 And He sent two of His disciples, and said to them, "Go into the city, and a man will meet you carrying a pitcher of water; follow him; 14 and wherever he enters, say to the owner of the house, 'The Teacher says, "Where is My guest room in which I may eat the Passover [entire 8 day feast] with My disciples?"' 15 "And he himself will show you a large upper room furnished and ready; and prepare for us there." 16 And the disciples went out, and came to the city, and found it just as He had told them; and they prepared the Passover [entire 8 day feast].
  3. Lk 22:7-15 Then came the first day of Unleavened Bread [we know this was Nisan 14, yet it is called the first day of the feast of unleavened bread] on which the Passover lamb [this is certainly Nisan 14] had to be sacrificed. 8 And He sent Peter and John, saying, "Go and prepare the Passover [entire 8 day feast] for us, that we may eat it." 9 And they said to Him, "Where do You want us to prepare it?" 10 And He said to them, "Behold, when you have entered the city, a man will meet you carrying a pitcher of water; follow him into the house that he enters. 11 "And you shall say to the owner of the house, 'The Teacher says to you, "Where is the guest room in which I may eat the Passover [entire 8 day feast] with My disciples?"' 12 "And he will show you a large, furnished, upper room; prepare it there." 13 And they departed and found everything just as He had told them; and they prepared the Passover. [entire 8 day feast] 14 And when the hour had come He reclined at the table, and the apostles with Him. 15 And He said to them, "I have earnestly desired to eat this Passover [entire 8 day feast not the seder lamb meal the following evening] with you before I suffer; 16 for I say to you, I shall never again eat it until it is fulfilled in the kingdom of God."

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IV. Types and anti-types of crucifixion fulfilled only with a Sunday resurrection!

A. Day of first fruits and Pentecost always fell on a Sunday:

1. New Bible dictionary, Passover:

2. Still fell on Sunday in 33 AD!

B. Passover the type of Christ's crucifixion

  1. Friday: Exodus = Passover meal = Christ crucified type of the crucifixion day Nisan 14

C. Wave/ sheaf/ first fruits the type of Christ's resurrection

  1. 1 Cor 15:20 But now Christ has been raised from the dead, the first fruits of those who are asleep.
  2. Sunday: First fruits = Christ raised (the Omer, or day of first fruits, a clear type of the resurrection day, but not a Sabbath day!) Lev 23:10-12
  3. The Israelites were instructed to be ready to leave Egypt at daybreak on the 15th (morning of the 15th). (Ex 12:1-13) They then traveled day and night for about 25 days via Etham and then to Pi Hahiroth where they encamped by the sea. (Ex 13:20-14:2) After the Egyptians appeared, the Lord parted the Red Sea all that night (Ex 14:21) from which the Israelites emerged on the other side as the day was dawning and at which time the sea covered the Egyptians. (Ex 14:27) This event is a shadow of the fulfillment of the day of First Fruits. Therefore the people of Israel were "saved" by coming through the Red Sea on the same day of the week (Sunday) that Jesus rose from the dead as the "savior" of all who will turn to him: Nisan 16, before dawn.

D. Landing of Noah's ark on dry land a type of salvation.

  1. This is not a sure antitype, but is a curiosity worth noting.
  2. Gen 8:4 "And in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month, the ark rested upon the mountains of Ararat."
  3. This would have been around the time of Passover, possibly on Nissan 16, the very day Jesus arose. It is difficult, if not impossible to determine it exactly, so caution is needed here. But we can generally determine that the Ark rested on dry ground around the time of the death and resurrection of Christ!
  4. 1 Pe 3:20-21 "in the days of Noah, while the ark was a preparing, wherein few, that is, eight souls were saved by water. And corresponding to that, baptism now saves you"

E. Pentecost the type of the giving of God's law

  1. Pentecost: Giving of law at Sinai = Christ sends Holy Spirit: Lev 23:15-21
  2. Compare what happened to the Israelites 50 days after they were "saved" from the Egyptians in Ex. 19:16-19 with Acts 2:1-8 50 days after Christ had risen.

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V. Understanding the Jewish time system:

  1. Luke 13:32 'Behold, I cast out demons and perform cures today and tomorrow, and the third day I reach My goal.'
  2. Even during the Exodus there is an excellent example of Jewish inclusive time keeping. The Bible says: "The Lord also said to Moses, "Go to the people and consecrate them today and tomorrow, and let them wash their garments; and let them be ready for the third day, for on the third day the Lord will come down on Mount Sinai in the sight of all the people." Exodus 19:10-11

Intro: The purpose of this section:

    1. The term, three days and three nights is: Absolutely equivalent with "after three days", "on the third day", three days later"
    2. The term, three days and three nights: Does not require three literal days and three literal nights.
    3. The term, three days and three nights: Does not require 72 literal hours.
    4. That a Friday crucifixion at 3 PM with at Sunday resurrection at 6 AM would have been considered three days and three nights by the Jewish people of the day.

A. Interchangeability of terms: (All Bible data on Resurrection)

Bible Term

Duration in grave

Until the third day

Mt 27:64 give orders for the grave to be made secure until the third day

In three days

Mt 26:61 rebuild it in three days

Mt 27:40 rebuild it in three days

Mk 14:58 in three days I will build another made without hands.

Mk 15:29 rebuild it in three days

Jn 2:19-20 in three days I will raise it up

On the third day

Mt 16:21 raised up on the third day

Mt 17:23 raised on the third day

Mt 20:19 on the third day He will be raised up

Lk 9:22 be raised up on the third day

Acts 10:40 God raised Him up on the third day

1 Cor 15:4 raised on the third day

The third day

Lk 18:33 the third day He will rise again

Lk 24:7 the third day rise again

Lk 24:21 it is the third day since these things happened

Lk 24:46 rise again from the dead the third day

Three days later

Mk 9:31 rise three days later

Mk 10:34 and three days later He will rise again

After three days

Mt 27:63 After three days I am to rise again

Mk 8:31 after three days rise again

Three days and three nights

Jonah 1:17 in the stomach of the fish three days and three nights.

Mt 12:40 for just as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the sea monster, so shall the Son of Man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth.

B. Parallel passages which prove interchangeability:

1. Old Testament parallel passages #1

"Depart for three days, then return to me." 1 Ki 12:5

"all the people came to Rehoboam on the third day as the king had directed, saying, 'Return to me on the third day.'" 1 Ki 12:12; 2 Chron 10:12

"Return to me again in three days." 2 Chron 10:5

"For three days" and "in three days" and "on the third day"
are identical and used interchangeably because these four verses are parallel.

2. Synoptic parallel passages #2

Mark

Matthew

Luke

After three days 8:31

On the third day 16:21

on the third day 9:22

After three days 9:31

On the third day 17:23

---

After three days 10:34

On the third day Mt 20:19

on the third day 18:33

"On the third day" and "After three days"
are identical and used interchangeably because these two verses are parallel.

3. Synoptic parallel passages #3

Matthew

Mark

Luke

4:2 "And after He had fasted forty days and forty nights"

1:13 "And He was in the wilderness forty days being tempted by Satan"

4:2 "for forty days, being tempted by the devil. And He ate nothing during those days"

forty days and forty nights

forty days

forty days

"forty days and forty nights" and "forty days"
are identical and used interchangeably because these two verses are parallel.

C. Actual Bible examples of calculating 3 days & 3 nights!

Summary of passages

Bible Text:

Actual literal time frame:

Jewish time:

Crucifixion

Friday 3 Pm - Sunday 6 AM

three days and three nights

Jesus words: Lk 13:32

A literal duration from Friday to Triumphal entry (Sunday) mirroring perfectly Jesus time in the tomb from Friday to Sunday!

"today, tomorrow and the third day" v32

God's Words: Ex 19:10-11

Monday - Wednesday

"today, tomorrow and the third day" v11

Cornelius: Acts 10:3,9, 23,24,30

Literal 72 hour period v3+9+23+24 (Exactly 3 days, but parts of four days)

Four days ago v30

Starving servant: 1 Sam. 30:12,13

Three days and three nights v12 (Literally less than 72 hours but parts of three days)

Three days ago v13

Queen Esther 4:16; 5:1

for three days, night or day 4:16 (Literally less than 72 hours but parts of three days)

On the third day 5:1

Faithless Jews: Mt 27:63,64

After three days v63 (Literally less than 72 hours but parts of three days)

Until the third day v64

C1. From the mouth of Jesus!

Luke 13:32 'Behold, I cast out demons and perform cures today and tomorrow, and the third day I reach My goal.'

  1. What this proves is that the expression "the third day" represents a literal duration of Friday - Sunday!!! Jesus spoke Lk 12:32 ON A FRIDAY, which was exactly one week before He died. And He entered Jerusalem on the Sunday following." This he called, Today (Friday) Tomorrow (Saturday) and the third day (Sunday).
  2. This proves, by Jesus own words, that Friday - Sunday = less than 72 hours and that the expression "3 days and 3 nights" is Friday - Sunday!!!
  3. This is an irrefutable argument

 

FRIDAY

SATURDAY

SUNDAY

Jesus words: Lk 13:32

"today" (one week before Jesus died)

"tomorrow"

"the third day" (triumphal entry day)

Jesus words: Lk 18:33

.

.

the third day (Sunday)

Cleopas words: Lk 24:21

.

.

the third day (Sunday)

Lk 13:32 is so powerful, that it alone completely refutes the literal 72 hour in the grave theory. Only the dishonest, or those driven with an agenda to maintain modern Sabbath keeping, would not be convinced!

C2. The case of Cornelius in Acts 10:3+9+23+24+30

This is an irrefutable argument

10:3, "ninth hour of the day," 3 PM -

10:9, "on the next day" -

10:23, "on the next day" -

10:24, "on the following day" - 3 PM

Day 1 Jewish count but day 0 Roman count

Day 2 Jewish count but day 1 Roman count

Day 3 Jewish count but day 2 Roman count

Day 4 Jewish count but day 3 Roman count

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Saturday

Ninth hour (3 PM)

-

-

Ninth hour (3 PM)

Part of 1 day (3 PM-sundown) + 1 night

1 day + 1 night

1 day + 1 night

Part of 1 day (sunup to 3 PM)

Notice total time elapsed is: exactly 72 hours, exactly 3 days and 3 nights

Yet Cornelius called this FOUR DAYS - "Four days ago to this hour" Acts 10:30

What the case of Cornelius proves:

    1. This proves that the Jews method of reckoning time provides the key to understanding Jesus expression that He would be in the tomb 3 days and three nights.
    2. It proves that Jews started counting today as day one and tomorrow as day two, WHEREAS we today (Modern Roman time) start counting today as Zero and tomorrow as day one. It is important to note that both Jewish and Romans of the first century counted the days EXACTLY the same way, where today is zero and tomorrow is day one. However TODAY we, in the 20th century count the days differently from ALL first century peoples! Whereas, we have adopted the ancient Roman practice of the days starting at midnight, we differ from the ancient Romans, in the way we count the days off! Both ancient Romans and Jews would count one week as being "eight days".
    3. Amazingly these religious groups (WCG, Armstrong groups and sabbatarians) are themselves guilty of doing the EXACT thing they accuse others of doing... namely they accuse others of Imposing Roman time standards (the 20th century time standard) upon the ancient Jewish time standard. Yet as we can see here, those who maintain that Jesus was crucified on Wednesday and raised on Saturday FAIL TO APPLY THE JEWISH METHOD of reckoning this time span to be 4 DAYS NOT THREE!!!
    4. It proves that the Apostles would count Wednesday 3 PM - Saturday 3 PM as 4 DAYS NOT THREE!!!
    5. It proves the truth that Jesus was indeed crucified on Friday and raised on Sunday and that the Apostles would count this time period AS 3 DAYS.
    6. It proves that the very time frame that WWCG, Armstrong groups and sabbatarians maintain that Jesus was in the tomb between 3 PM Wednesday - 3 PM Saturday, WOULD HAVE IN FACT BEEN CONSIDERED TO BE 4 DAYS not three by the Apostles of Jesus!!!
    7. We believe that this specific time table in Acts 10 above, was supplied by the Holy Spirit, to equip non-Jewish cultures with an EXACT DUPLICATE EXAMPLE to show us that Jesus did die on Friday 3PM and was raised some time on Sunday and it would have been counted as three days and three nights by the Apostles.
    8. It proves that the Bible literally calls the exact time period of 3 days and 3 nights (72 hours) FOUR DAYS.
    9. It proves that the Bible would call the period between Friday and Sunday THREE DAYS.

2. The case of Cornelius: Sabbatarian position:

DAY 1 (Wed)

DAY 2 (Thurs)

DAY 3 (Fri)

DAY 4 (Sat)

Sabbatarians call this 3 days

Jesus died at 3 PM

One day passes

One day passes

Jesus raised 3 PM

Cornelius saw vision at 3 PM

One day passes

One day passes

Cornelius speaks at 3 PM Acts 10:30

Bible calls this "Four days ago to this hour" Acts 10:30

Who will you believe? The Sabbatarians or the Holy Bible?
If Jesus really was in the tomb from Wednesday to Saturday THIS WOULD HAVE BEEN COUNTED AS 4 DAYS BY THE APOSTLES!

3. If Jesus died on Wednesday, and was resurrected at 3:00 PM on Saturday, He was in the ground 4 days and 3 nights as the Jews counted time.

This is 4 days and 3 nights!

Wednesday
Jesus Died 3 PM

Day 1: 3-6 PM

Night 1: 6 PM - 6 AM

Thursday

Day 2: 6:00 am - 6 PM

Night 2: 6:00 am - 6 PM

Friday

Day 3: 6:00 am - 6 PM

Night 3: 6:00 PM -

Saturday
Jesus raised 3 PM

Day 4: after 6:00 am - 3PM

Raised

Those who affirm that Jesus died Wednesday and was raised Saturday violate the literalness of 3 days and 3 nights by having 4 days and 3 nights!

4. The Case of Cornelius: Actual Truth of the Bible

 

Friday
Jesus died at 3 PM

Saturday

Sunday
Jesus raised

Bible time system calls this three days

Day 1

Day 2

Day 3

Sabbatarians using today's Roman time system call this 2 days

Day 0

Day 1

Day 2

Whose time system will you use? The Bible's or modern Roman system?
The apostles would have counted Friday to Sunday as THREE DAYS.

C3. The case of Queen Esther: Esther 4:16 + 5:1

Esther 4:16

Esther 5:1

"Go, assemble all the Jews who are found in Susa, and fast for me; do not eat or drink for three days, night or day. I and my maidens also will fast in the same way. And thus I will go in to the king,"

"Now it came about on the third day that Esther put on her royal robes and stood in the inner court of the king's palace"

three days, night or day

on the third day

Regardless of the exact literal time, these two expressions are identical and used interchangeably

C4. The case of the faithless Jews: Matthew 27:63-64

Mt 27:63

Mt 27:64

"Sir, we remember that when He was still alive that deceiver said, 'After three days I am to rise again.'"

"Therefore, give orders for the grave to be made secure until the third day, lest the disciples come and steal Him away and say to the people, 'He has risen from the dead,'

After three days

until the third day

Regardless of the exact literal time, these two expressions are identical and used interchangeably
Therefore, three days and three nights, according to this Jewish method of reckoning, included any part of the first day; the whole of the following night; the next day and its night; and any part of the succeeding or third day.

C5. The case of the starving servant: 1 Samuel 30:12-13

1 Sam. 30:12

1 Sam. 30:13

"For he had not eaten bread or drunk water for three days and three nights."

13 "I am a young man of Egypt, a servant of an Amalekite; and my master left me behind when I fell sick three days ago."

Three days and three nights v12

Three days ago v13

Regardless of the exact literal time, these two expressions are identical and used interchangeably

D. Day as defined in Genesis:

Day as defined in Genesis: Gen 1:5 "And God called the light day, and the darkness He called night. And there was evening and there was morning, one day."

  1. Notice that light = one day
  2. Evening (night) and morning (daylight) = one day
  3. Which of these two definitions was Jesus using when he said "after three days?"
  4. While we agree that the expression "evening and there was morning, one day" always means a literal 24 hour day, (because it has a double modifier- "evening/morning" and "one") but we have already seen that every time "three days and three nights" is used in scripture where literal computation is present, IT NEVER MEANS 72 hours!

E. "Preparation", the first century word for Friday!

  1. Charles C. Torrey explains, In Aramaic, "the middle days of the week were designated by numbers, 'third, fourth, fifth,' but Friday was always arubta; there was no 'sixth day' of the week; . . . Its Greek equivalent, paraskeue-Friday, was likewise adopted, from the first, by the Greek Church."
  2. The Didache, dated between A.D. 70 to 120, enjoins Christians to fast on "the fourth day and Preparation" (8:1), that is, Wednesday and Friday. It is noteworthy that Friday is designated simply as "Preparation-paraskeuen," without the article or the noun "day," thus indicating the technical usage of the term. By the time of Tertullian (c. A.D. 160-225) paraskeue had already become such a fixed name for Friday that he even argues that this had been the name for Friday since creation. This clearly indicate that Christians adopted the Jewish practice of numbering the first five days of the week and of naming the sixth and the seventh as paraskeue and sabbaton—Preparation and Sabbath.
  3. 250 AD IGNATIUS: "On the day of the preparation, then, at the third hour, He received the sentence from Pilate, the Father permitting that to happen; at the sixth hour He was crucified; at the ninth hour He gave up the ghost; and before sunset He was buried. During the Sabbath He continued under the earth in the tomb in which Joseph of Arimathaea had laid Him. At the dawning of the Lord's day He arose from the dead, according to what was spoken by Himself, "As Jonah was three days and three nights in the whale's belly, so shall the Son of man also be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth." The day of the preparation, then, comprises the passion; the Sabbath embraces the burial; the Lord's Day contains the resurrection." The (Epistle of Ignatius to the Trallians, chapter 9)
  4. Mark, in writing to Gentile Christians, unfamiliar with Jewish terms of the week-days, clarified the term "paraskeue-preparation," by adding the qualifying phrase, "that is, the day before the sabbath" (Mark 15:42).
  5. Additional and conclusive evidence that "paraskeue-Preparation" is used in the Gospels to designate "Friday" and not "Wednesday" is provided by the sequence in which the days of the Passion weekend are given: "Preparation, Sabbath, first day" (Matt 27:62; 28:1; Mark 15:42; 16:1; Luke 24:54-55; 24:1). Both Mark and Matthew explicitly place the beginning of the first day at the end of the Sabbath (Mark 16:1; Matt 28:1). The latter could hardly have been a Thursday Passover Sabbath, because Thursday is not followed by the first day of the week.
  6. Wednesday Crucifixionists argue that in John 19:14 "the day of Preparation" means not Friday but the Wednesday preceding the Passover day, which supposedly fell on a Thursday. This conclusion ignores the fact, cogently stated by Norval Geldenhuys, "that at the time when John wrote, the Greek term paraskeue ('preparation') was already for a long time the technical term used to indicate 'Friday,' the equivalent of the Hebrew erebh shabbath." The recognition of this fact is evident in the right translation which is found in the A.V., R.S.V., and N.I.V., namely "the day of Preparation of the Passover." This means, as Geldenhuys explains, "that the day of the Lord's crucifixion was the Friday of the Passover, the Friday that falls during Passover week, i.e., Passover Friday (Good Friday). It is a grammatically correct rendering and all the evidence is in favor of it."
  7. The foregoing considerations make it abundantly clear that in the Gospels, as stated by Moulton and Milligan, noted authorities on the Greek language: "paraskeue is a technical designation for Friday." Thus, the first reason, which claims that "the day before the weekly Sabbath was never called a 'preparation' in the Bible" must be regarded as false, because, as we have shown, the very opposite is true. An additional indication that John meant "Friday" by the phrase "Preparation of the Passover" (v. 14) is provided by the usage of the same term "paraskeue" twice again in the same chapter. In verse 31 John explains that the Jews did not wish the bodies to remain on the Cross "on the Sabbath, because it was Preparation" (literal translation). Here John not only mentions the Sabbath explicitly, but also refers to the preceding day by the technical term "paraskeue—Preparation" without the article, thus meaning: "because it was Friday." (preparation = Friday discussion taken from: "The time of the crucifixion and resurrection", S. Bacchiocchi, chapter 3)

F. Scholars and commentaries on 3 days & 3 nights

  1. Lange's Comm., p. 226. "In the Jerusalem Talmud (cited by Lightfoot) it is said 'that a day and a night together make up a "nuchthemeros" (day), and that any part of such is counted as the whole." Lange's Comm., p. 226.
  2. Clarke on Mt. 16:40: Three days and three nights] Our Lord rose from the grave on the day but one after his crucifixion: so that, in the computation in this verse, the part of the day on which he was crucified, and the part of that on which he rose again, are severally estimated as an entire day; and this, no doubt, exactly corresponded to the time in which Jonah was in the belly of the fish. Our Lord says, As Jonah was, so shall the Son of man be, &c. Evening and morning, or night and day, is the Hebrew phrase for a natural day, which the Greeks termed nuxyhmeron, nuchthemeron. The very same quantity of time which is here termed three days and three nights, and which, in reality, was only one whole day, a part of two others, and two whole nights, is termed three days and three nights, in the book of Esther: Go; neither eat nor drink THREE DAYS, NIGHT or DAY, and so I will go in unto the king: #Es 4:16|. Afterwards it follows, #Es 5:1|. On the THIRD DAY, Esther stood in the inner court of the king's house. Many examples might be produced, from both the sacred and profane writers, in vindication of the propriety of the expression in the text. For farther satisfaction, the reader, if he please, may consult Whitby and Wakefield, and take the following from Lightfoot:
  3. Lightfoot "I. The Jewish writers extend that memorable station of the unmoving sun, at Joshua's prayer, to six and thirty hours; for so Kimchi upon that place: 'According to more exact interpretation, the sun and moon stood still for six and thirty hours: for when the fight was on the eve of the Sabbath, Joshua feared lest the Israelites might break the Sabbath; therefore he spread abroad his hands, that the sun might stand still on the sixth day, according to the measure of the day of the Sabbath, and the moon according to the measure of the night of the Sabbath, and of the going out of the Sabbath, which amounts to six and thirty hours.' "II. If you number the hours that pass from our Saviour's giving up the ghost upon the cross to his resurrection, you shall find almost the same number of hours; and yet that space is called by him three days and three nights, whereas two nights only came between, and one complete day. Nevertheless, while he speaks these words, he is not without the consent both of the Jewish schools and their computation. Weigh well that which is disputed in the tract Sabbath, concerning the separation of a woman for three days; where many things are discussed by the Gemarists, concerning the computation of this space of three days. Among other things these words occur: R. Ismael saith, Sometimes it contains four hwnwa onoth, sometimes five, sometimes six. But how much is the space of an hnwa onah? R. Jochanan saith, Either a day or a night. And so also the Jerusalem Talmud: 'R. Akiba fixed a DAY for an onah, and a NIGHT for an onah.' But the tradition is, that R. Eliazar ben Azariah said, A day and a night make an onah: and a PART of an onah is as the WHOLE. And a little after, R. Ismael computed a part of the onah for the whole." Thus, then, three days and three nights, according to this Jewish method of reckoning, included any part of the first day; the whole of the following night; the next day and its night; and any part of the succeeding or third day.

G. How Jews and Romans used the expression "Next Day:

Here are 7 passages that prove the usage of "next day" was the normal way for both Jews and Romans to describe a 9 PM to 9 AM duration. In other words, if it was 9PM on a Saturday night, "the next day" referred to the daylight period starting at 6AM Sunrise, Sunday morning, 9 hours later.

  1. In the LXX (Septuagint: The LXX was translated by Jews in 250 BC, even though the event of Lot was 2000 BC.) at Gen 19:34: "So they made their father drink wine that night, and the firstborn went in and lay with her father; and he did not know when she lay down or when she arose. On the following day, the firstborn said to the younger, "Behold, I lay last night with my father; let us make him drink wine tonight also; then you go in and lie with him, that we may preserve our family through our father." " (Genesis 19:33-34) (v33 says it was night when they went in. v 34 the exact same Greek word for "next day" is used in Acts 20:7 and Gen 19:34 LXX. v34 again says, "last night".)
  2. "The people spent ALL DAY AND ALL NIGHT and all the NEXT DAY, and gathered the quail " (Numbers 11:32) (here next day follows the night, even though it was the same day of the week.)
  3. "David slaughtered them from the TWILIGHT UNTIL THE EVENING OF THE NEXT DAY " (1 Samuel 30:17) (twilight is after the sun has set, yet the next day, was technically the same day as twilight, yet, evening of the next day was really the dark period after the daylight.)
  4. "When IT WAS EVENING, there came a rich man from Arimathea, named Joseph, who himself had also become a disciple of Jesus. " "NOW ON THE NEXT DAY, the day after the preparation, the chief priests and the Pharisees gathered together with Pilate, " (Matthew 27:57, 62) (Here, evening and next day, are the technically the same day, yet it is called the next day!)
  5. "And he called to him two of the centurions and said, "Get two hundred soldiers ready by THE THIRD HOUR OF THE NIGHT to proceed to Caesarea, with seventy horsemen and two hundred spearmen." So the soldiers, in accordance with their orders, took Paul and BROUGHT HIM BY NIGHT TO ANTIPATRIS. But THE NEXT DAY, leaving the horsemen to go on with him, they returned to the barracks. " (Acts 23:23-32) (here we have an interesting dilemma: either #1: Romans were counting the hours the same as Jews: third hour of the night was 9PM according to Jews, but called the next morning the next day anyway. Or #2 they were using roman time and the 3rd hour would have been 3 AM, but they called the morning the next day anyway!)
  6. "On that day, when evening came, He said to them, "Let us go over to the other side ." " (Mark 4:35) (Here the evening after the day is called the same day! Mark never uses roman time anywhere else! Obviously this was the natural way both Romans and Jews described the evening.)
  7. "So when it was evening on that day, the first day of the week, and when the doors were shut where the disciples were, for fear of the Jews, Jesus came and stood in their midst and said to them, " Peace be with you." " (John 20:19) (here is the crunch passage: the evening of the first day of the week was when Jesus was in the tomb! Yet the night after the day light of the first day of the week was called "evening ON THAT DAY.)

H. Jewish boys born on the Sabbath, are circumcised the following Sabbath: the 8th day.

  1. Leviticus 12:2-3 says boys are to be circumcised on the eight day.
  2. It is common knowledge, that the Jewish practice was to circumcise exactly one week after the child was born. If born on Sabbath, he was circumcised on the Sabbath. If born on a Tuesday, he was circumcised on the following Tuesday.
  3. This proves that Jewish time system counted what we call one week or 7 days, as 8 days.
  4. Thus a Friday - Sunday duration was three days.

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VI. Two Sabbath theory: (a false view)

Introduction:

  1. The two Sabbath theory is a false view taken by those who say Jesus was not crucified on Friday.
  2. Wednesday crucifixion advocates use three invalid arguments in an effort to prove that an annual Sabbath (1st day of unleavened bread) fell on Thursday, followed by an ordinary weekday Friday then the ordinary weekly Sabbath on Saturday.
  3. The truth is that in the years 30 and 33 AD, the "1st day of unleavened bread" fell on the weekly Sabbath day, thus making such a two Sabbath theory both unnecessary and impossible! (They say Jesus was not crucified in either 30 AD or 33 AD)

A. Plural "Sabbaton" in Mt 28:1 refers to weekly Sabbath ALONE!

  1. Wednesday crucifixion advocates, in order to escape the obvious fact that Jesus was crucified on Friday, tell us that the word "sabbath" in Mt 28:1 is plural and refers to 1. Annual Sabbath: The first day of the feast of unleavened bread and 2. The weekly Sabbath.
  2. We openly agree that the Greek word is plural, however their conclusion is certainly invalid. This is because there are in fact 6 places in the Greek, where the plural "sabbaton" is used and all of them (with the exception of the disputed Mt 28:1 passage) refer to a single weekly Sabbath day.
  3. In light of these facts, the evidence powerfully supports the fact that Mt 28:1 refers to the weekly Sabbath alone.
  4. Here are the 6 main passages, all of which refer to the weekly Sabbath:

The Plural "Sabbaton" refers to 7th Day Sabbath by itself

Text

Sabbath is Plural in original Greek

Exodus 20:8 (in Septuagint)

Remember the Sabbath day (4th commandment)

Luke 4:16

He entered the synagogue on the Sabbath

Acts 13:14

on the Sabbath day

Acts 16:13

And on the Sabbath day

Col 2:16

festival or a new moon or a Sabbath day

Matthew 28:1

Now after the Sabbath

B. "High Day" of Jn 19:31 refers to weekly Sabbath, not 1st day of unleavened bread:

John 19:31 "The Jews therefore, because it was the day of preparation, so that the bodies should not remain on the cross on the Sabbath (for that Sabbath was a high day), asked Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away."

  1. It was a special Sabbath, the one that fell within the feast of unleavened bread. More importantly, the Sabbath within "Passover week" was the one they used determine the Wave/ sheaf/ First fruits offering on the day after the Sabbath- always Sunday (Leviticus 23:11); AND to start counting down for the Feast of Weeks (Pentecost) Leviticus 23:15. Pentecost always fell on a Sunday. (see notes within this document: Pentecost always fell on Sunday and "New Bible dictionary, Passover"). Even if the Sabbath of Lev 23:11&15 are not the weekly Sabbath, but a reference to the first day of unleavened bread, being the Sabbath, the Wave/sheaf offering AND Pentecost still fell on Sunday in 33 AD, the year Jesus was crucified!!!
  2. Some, in an effort to deny that Jesus arose on Sunday, invent the "double Sabbath" theory. Here they believe that Jesus was crucified on a Wednesday and that Thursday was the "high day" John referred to since it was the first day of the feast of unleavened bread. Here is how they say it: "Just what is a "high day"? Ask any Jew! He will tell you it is one of the annual holy days, or feast days." Of course the problem with this is that it is completely wrong. We agree that the first day of unleavened bread was special to the Jew, but we deny that John's phrase "that Sabbath was a high day" could possibly refer to the first day of unleavened bread.

Feast days NEVER referred to as "sabbaths" outside the books of Moses

 

Yearly (Passover)

monthly

weekly

1 Chronicles 23:31

fixed festivals

new moons

sabbaths

2 Chronicles 31:3

fixed festivals

new moons

sabbaths

2 Chronicles 8:13

three annual feasts—the Feast of Unleavened Bread, the Feast of Weeks, and the Feast of Booths

new moons

sabbaths

2 Chronicles 2:4

appointed feasts

new moons

sabbaths

Nehemiah 10:33

appointed times

new moon

sabbaths

Isa 1:13

calling of assemblies, solemn assembly

new moon

sabbath

2 Ch 2:4

appointed feasts

new moons

sabbaths

Isa 66:23

-

new moon to new moon

sabbath to sabbath

Lam 2:6

appointed feast

-

sabbath

Ezek 44:24

appointed feasts

-

sabbaths

Ezekiel 45:17

appointed feasts

new moons

sabbaths

Eze 46:1
Eze 46:3

-

day of the new moon
new moons

sabbath day

sabbaths

Hosea 2:11

festal assemblies

new moons

sabbaths

Am 8:5

-

new moon

sabbath

Galatians 4:10

years

months

days

Colossians 2:16

Festival

new moon

Sabbath day

Sabbath was an exclusive term that referred only to the weekly Sabbath!

Colossians 2:14-16: all nailed to the cross, Christians don't keep any!

C. Mary bought spices on Sunday (after sundown Saturday)

1. Two key verses:

2. Here is the invalid argument used by those who deny Jesus was crucified on Friday:

False view:
Based upon Calendar where Jesus was crucified in 33 AD when Nisan 14 was on a Wednesday

 

Wednesday

Thurs

Friday

Saturday

Sunday

Invalid argument by those who reject Friday crucifixion

Jesus crucified 3 PM (Nisan 14, based upon calendar in 33 AD) preparation day

Annual Sabbath- 1st day of unleavened bread

Ordinary day

Nisan 16

Weekly Sabbath

Jesus raised at 3PM

Although raised Saturday, this fact was not discovered until Sunday a daybreak

They incorrectly say Mary buys and prepares spices on same day: Friday.

..

..

Bought spices after High Sabbath Thursday. Mk 16:1 Then Lk 23:56 states they prepared their spices then rested according to the weekly Sabbath, Saturday.

..

Sunday morning at daybreak they come to the tomb to anoint the body.

3. Here is the Bible truth that Jesus was crucified on Friday:

Bible Truth:
Based upon Calendar where Jesus was crucified in 33 AD when Nisan 14 was on a Friday

 

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Saturday

Sunday

Bible Truth

Ordinary day

Ordinary day

Jesus crucified 3PM (Nisan 14, based upon calendar in 33 AD) preparation day

Weekly Sabbath

Jesus raised at day break

Bible Truth: Mary prepares spices she already had on Friday (Lk 23:56), then Sunday (literally after sundown Saturday night Roman time) She bought more spices. (Mk 16:1)

.

.

Lk 23:56 states Mary prepared spices on the same day Jesus was buried then rested according to the weekly Sabbath, Saturday. She could have bought them this day or already had them in her house.

.

Jewish Sunday begins at sundown Saturday night (6PM Roman time Saturday) Immediately after sundown on the Sabbath, Mary bought more spices since the market would open again Saturday night Roman time: Mk 16:1. Then the next morning at daybreak (still Sunday) they come to the tomb to anoint the body.

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VII. Summary Of 5 Crucifixion Positions:

View #1 is correct

.

View #1

last supper not Passover

View #2

Crucified on Nissan 15

View #3

Two Passovers

View #4

Thursday crucifixion

View #5

Wednesday crucifixion

Weekday of death

Friday

Friday

Friday

Thursday

Wednesday

Date of death

Nisan 14

Nisan 15

Nisan 14

Nisan 14

Nisan 14

Year of death

33 AD

33 AD

33 AD

34 AD

31 AD (or 28 or or 34)

Weekday raised

Sunday

Sunday

Sunday

Sunday

Saturday

Date of Triumphal entry/ Palm day

Sunday, Nisan 9

Sunday, Nisan 10

Sunday, Nisan 9

Sunday, Nisan 10

Saturday, Nisan 10

Triumphal entry/palm branches breaks Sabbath

NO

NO

NO

NO

YES

Fulfills Passover lamb anti-type?

YES

NO

YES

YES

YES

Fulfills wave offering anti-type of resurrection on Nisan 16?

YES

NO

YES

YES

NO

Last supper is the seder/ lamb Passover meal?

NO

YES

YES

NO

NO

Fulfills possible Noah's Ark anti-type Passover: Gen 8:4

YES

YES

YES

YES

YES

Adopts two Sabbath theory?

NO

NO

YES

YES

YES

Adopts two Passover theory because Christ used Essenes Jubilee calendar at Qumran

NO

NO

Some do but not all

NO

NO

Adopts two Passover theory because Num 9:10-11 allowed exceptions

NO

NO

some do but not all

NO

NO

Adopts two Passover theory because Christ followed the Pharisee calculations instead of Sadducees which temple followed.

NO

NO

some do but not all

NO

NO

Literal 72 hours in grave?

NO

NO

NO

NO

NO
(84 hours)

Churches that hold to this view

View defended by the author of this document.

(Some individuals from all churches believe this)

Traditional view held by Catholics and many others

Some individuals from all churches

Some individuals from all churches

Some Sabbatarians, H. W. Armstrong & splinter groups, (The WWCG, Worldwide Church of God, accepts 1st day resurrection)

Calendars Used by the 5 Different Views:

Calendar Used by Views

.

View #1

last supper not Passover

View #2

Crucified on Nissan 15

View #3

Two Passovers

View #4

Thursday crucifixion

View #5

Wednesday crucifixion

Year of death

33 AD

34 AD

33 AD

34 AD

28 or 31 or 34 AD

Friday

Nisan 7

Nisan 8

Nisan 7

(Qumran Nisan 10)

Nisan 8

Nisan 9

SABBATH

Nisan 8

Nisan 9

Nisan 8

(Qumran Nisan 11)

Nisan 9

Nisan 10
Triumphal entry

Sunday

Nisan 9
Triumphal entry

Nisan 10
Triumphal entry

Nisan 9

(Qumran Nisan 12)
Triumphal entry

Nisan 10
Triumphal entry

Nisan 11

Monday

Nisan 10

Nisan 11

Nisan 10

(Qumran Nisan 13)

Nisan 11

Nisan 12

Tuesday

Nisan 11

Nisan 12

Nisan 11

(Qumran Nisan 14)

Nisan 12

Nisan 13

Wednesday

Nisan 12

Nisan 13

Nisan 12

(Qumran Nisan 15)

Nisan 13

Nisan 14
Cross

Thursday

Nisan 13

Nisan 14

Nisan 13

(Qumran Nisan 16)

Nisan 14
Cross

Nisan 15

Friday

Nisan 14
Cross

Nisan 15
Cross

Nisan 14

(Qumran Nisan 17)
Cross

Nisan 15

Nisan 16

SABBATH

Nisan 15

Nisan 16

Nisan 15

(Qumran Nisan 18)

Nisan 16

Nisan 17
Raised

Sunday

Nisan 16
Raised & Discovered

Nisan 17
Raised & Discovered

Nisan 16

(Qumran Nisan 19)
Raised & Discovered

Nisan 17
Raised & Discovered

Nisan 18
Discovered

Monday

Nisan 17

Nisan 18

Nisan 17

(Qumran Nisan 20)

Nisan 18

Nisan 19

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VIII. Problems with Wednesday/Thursday crucifixion and Saturday Resurrection:

A. Saturday Resurrection totally unbiblical

  1. The fact that Mary did not anoint body on Friday when she had time, and chose to wait for two more days till Sunday morning to anoint the body.
  2. Nisan 10 (according to "View #5 Wednesday crucifixion") would also have been a Sabbath and hundreds or thousands of people would have broken the Sabbath on that day by cutting palm branches. Christ also would have broken the Sabbath by making the donkey carry a burden.
  3. Another reason this date is not acceptable is because it would have eliminated Christ rising on the day of First Fruits/Wave Sheaf
  4. Since you reject that Mk 16:9 gives the actual time of Jesus resurrection, you must accept that the Bible never actually tells us what day Jesus arose. Where is YOUR Bible verse that says (or even hints at) your belief that Jesus was actually raised on Saturday? In light of such emphasis the Bible places upon the first day of the week are you comfortable knowing that you must admit that GOD NEVER SPECIFICALLY TOLD US the day Jesus was raised. We view this as completely unacceptable to consider and believe this one fact alone proves that Mk 16:9 is giving the actual time Jesus was raised, rather then just stating that he "had been risen before Sunday and thus was in his resurrected stated on Sunday".
  5. Why did the two men on the road to Emmaus feel that Sunday was "the third day" since Jesus was crucified. How do you account for the fact that these two men were EXPECTING JESUS TO RAISE (Sunday-the third day) that very day they walked on the road while talking to Jesus.
  6. How do you explain the fact that the universal uninspired history record of Christians before 300 AD teaches that Jesus died on Friday and was raised on Sunday?
  7. If Jesus was in the tomb from Wednesday to Saturday, BUT NO ONE SAW HIM TILL SUNDAY MORNING, then no man was really a true to the fact that Jesus was not in the tomb LONGER THAN 72 hours or 3 1/2 days literal days if Jesus died on Wednesday, and was resurrected at 3:00 PM on Saturday, He was in the ground 4 days and 3 nights as the Jews counted time?

B. Literally 3 days & 3 nights = 72 Hours impossible!

  1. Those who insist that we must literally interpret 3 days & 3 nights = 72 Hours "It is the sign of Jonah" they say, haven't understood that it is impossible to harmonize LITERALLY all the data.
  2. If Jesus was resurrected If he rose AFTER the third day, after 72 hours, then all the above verses would read on the FOURTH day.
  3. "On the third day" vs. "after three days" are literally quite different:
  1. Notice that the chief priests and Pharisees wanted the tomb guarded only until the third day, because that is when the resurrection was to occur, NOT on the fourth day! And remember, the watch at the tomb began at the end of the seventh day Sabbath, so that it could be guarded for all of the third day, which Sabbatarians say is Saturday. It was at the end of the duration of 3 days, using their own literalness, that guards STOPPED guarding the tomb. This proves that Jesus was going to raise before, not AFTER 72 hours had elapsed!
  2. Since we have irrefutable Bible evidence that 3 days & 3 nights may in fact be literally less than 72 hours or 3 days & 2 nights or 3 nights & 2 days (Cornelius: Acts 10:3,9, 23,24,30; Starving servant: 1 Sam. 30:12,13; Queen Esther 4:16; 5:1) we must call into question the literal length of time Jonah was in the sea monster!!! In light of the Bible passages, how can we be sure that Jonah was literally (Roman time thinking) 72 hours in the sea monster??? We come full circle to the well established point that the Jews would have viewed Friday 3 PM to Sunday 6 AM as being 3 days & 3 nights!

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IX. Answer to objections of Friday Nisan 14 crucifixion, Sunday resurrection:

(no known valid objections)

1. False objection: If Christ had been crucified on a Friday then he and all his disciples would have broken the Sabbath by traveling to Lazarus' house on the Sabbath. see John 12:1.

2. False objection: Why is there a blank day in your chronology the last week of Jesus life? Wouldn't at least one of the gospel writers make mention of this in the midst of an action packed week? Doesn't this prove your chronology is wrong?

3. If you have an objection, let us know, we will post it and answer it!
Send your comments to us about this document

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X. Historical Proof Of A Friday Crucifixion And Sunday Resurrection:

A. Notice that the following expressions are used interchangeably within these historical quotes:

  1. Day of Lord's resurrection
  2. Lord's Day
  3. Eighth day
  4. Sunday
  5. The day after the Sabbath
  6. First day of the week
  7. AND THE DAY CHRISTIANS WORSHIPPED!

B. Actual Historical References

Note: There is no historical data to the contrary, If you know of any, send it to us! Don't send us some encyclopedia quote written in the last 100 years, we will only accept original writings of the "church fathers" prior to 400 AD as listed below. These are not inspired or authoritative, but do reflect the universally held position of the early church that Jesus died on Friday and rose on Sunday.

View more of these original quotes that Christians always worshipped on Sunday

  1. 250 AD IGNATIUS: If, therefore, those who were brought up in the ancient order of things have come to the possession of a new hope, no longer observing the Sabbath, but living in the observance of the Lord's Day, on which also our life has sprung up again by Him ... let every friend of Christ keep the Lord's Day as a festival, the resurrection-day, the queen and chief of all the days of the week. (Ignatius, Epistle to the Magnesians, chp 9. Ante-Nicene Fathers , vol. 1, pg. 62-63.)
  2. 130AD BARNABAS: Moreover God says to the Jews, 'Your new moons and Sabbaths 1 cannot endure.' You see how he says, 'The present Sabbaths are not acceptable to me, but the Sabbath which I have made in which, when I have rested from all things, I will make the beginning of the eighth day which is the beginning of another world.' Wherefore we Christians keep the eighth day for joy, on which also Jesus arose from the dead and when he appeared ascended into heaven. (15:8f, The Epistle of Barnabas, 100 AD, Ante-Nicene Fathers , vol. 1, pg. 147)
  3. 150AD JUSTIN: But Sunday is the day on which we hold our common assembly, because it is the first day of the week and Jesus our saviour on the same day rose from the dead. (First apology of Justin, Ch 68)
  4. 150AD JUSTIN: We all make our assembly in common on the day of the Sun, since it is the first day, on which God changed the darkness and matter and made the world, and Jesus Christ our Savior arose from the dead on the same day. For they crucified him on the day before Saturn's day, and on the day after (which is the day of the Sun) he appeared to his apostles and taught his disciples these things. (Apology, 1, 67:1-3, 7; First Apology, 145 AD, Ante-Nicene Fathers , Vol. 1, pg. 186)
  5. 150AD JUSTIN: ...through the resurrection from the dead on the first day of the week of Jesus Christ our Lord. For the first day of the week, although it is the first of all days, yet according to the number of the days in a cycle is called the eighth (while still remaining the first). (Dialogue 41:4)
  6. 180AD GOSPEL OF PETER: Early in the morning when the Sabbath dawned, a multitude from Jerusalem and the surrounding country came to see the scaled sepulchre. In the night in which the Lord's day dawned, while the soldiers in pairs for each watch were keeping guard, a great voice came from heaven. [There follows an account of the resurrection.] Early in the morning of the Lord's day Mary Magdalene, a disciple of the Lord .... came to the sepulchre. (9:34f.; 12:50f.)
  7. 190AD CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA: He does the commandment according to the Gospel and keeps the Lord's day, whenever he puts away an evil mind . . . glorifying the Lord's resurrection in himself. (Ibid. Vii.xii.76.4)
  8. 250AD CYPRIAN: The eight day, that is, the first day after the Sabbath, and the Lord's Day." (Epistle 58, Sec 4)
  9. 300AD EUSEBIUS: [The Ebionites] were accustomed to observe the Sabbath and other Jewish customs but on the Lord's days to celebrate the same practices as we in remembrance of the resurrection of the Savior. (Church History Ill.xxvii.5)

Copyright by Steve Rudd

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