The Exodus Route: Travel times, distances, rates of travel, days of the week

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Introduction:

  1. Many Christians falsely assume there is little information contained in scripture about the 50 locations of the exodus, much less the timing. Many preachers never give this subject a look stating that we don't even know for certain any more than 4 of the 50 exodus stops.
  2. In fact, scripture specifically tells us the day they left, the day they entered the Wilderness of Sin, the day they arrived at Sinai and the total number of days the exodus took. There is a wealth of information in scripture about many of the 50 exodus locations.
  3. We know four locations for certain and using key clues in scripture, we are able to discern several others. Using careful analysis, we have calculated the distances between each of the stops. We have calculated total distances as well as daily average travel rates.
  4. An examination of the Wilderness of Sin allows us to calculate the days of the week. They left Goshen on Passover, which fell on a Thursday that year. They crossed the Red Sea on a Sunday and entered the Wilderness of Sin on a Saturday. They arrived at the Sinai on a Friday and Pentecost Sunday fell about a week later, 52 days after leaving Goshen. God descends on Mt. Sinai on the following Wednesday.
  5. Before you snort in smug disbelief, or quote Deut 29:29 and dismiss this work, we suggest you take a close look at the material provided herein. While there are some assumptions that could be wrong, the basic overall data is correct. We know where they crossed the Red Sea, Mt. Sinai and Kadesh Barnea are located.
  6. Directly below is a master summary table of the Exodus journey. There is a second table that itemizes the distances and travel rates.

Exodus Route Calendar

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sun

Mon

Tue

Wed

Thurs

Fri

Sat

-

-

-

-

1 Goshen

Nissan 14: Passover began at sundown. Depart Egypt starting at midnight Thurs.

2

Nissan 15: Num 33:3. Left before sundown Friday: Ex 12:51

3 Pentecost:

Day 1 of Pentecost. Start counting 7 more Sabbaths.

4

5

6

7

8

9 Succoth

160 km to Straits of Tiran at 28 km per day equals 6 days

10 day 8 of Pentecost

11

12

13

14

15 Migdol

16 Etham: Iyar 1

17 camped at Red Sea

18 camped at Red Sea

19 camped at Red Sea

20 camped at Red Sea

21 camped at Red Sea

22 camped at Red Sea

23 camped at Red Sea

24 camped at Red Sea

25 crossed the Red Sea

Shadow of the fulfillment of the day of First Fruits (Lev 23:10-12) which always fell on a Sunday. Israel was "saved" by coming through the Red Sea.

26 Wilderness of Shur

27 Wilderness of Shur

28 Marah

29 Elim

30 Red Sea Camp

31 Wilderness of Sin

arrive Iyar 15 Ex 16:1

Sabbath revealed that evening

32 camped at Sin,

1st Manna

33 camped at Sin

34 camped at Sin

35 camped at Sin

36 camped at Sin

37 camped at Sin

38 camped at Sin.

1st Sabbath

39

leave morning from wilderness of Sin, arrive Dophkah

40Alush

41 Arrive in evening at Rephidim (Meribah)

42 Rephidim (Meribah)

43 Rephidim (Meribah)

Amalek attacks

44 arrive

Wilderness of Sinai: Iyar 28Ex 19:1

45 Rested on

second Sabbath day 42 of Pentecost: Sivan 1

46 Moses brings water from Rock

47

48

49

50

51

52 day 49 of Pentecost, 7th Sabbath

53Pentecost day 50

Moses Ascends Mt. Sinai and returns with law (Ex 19:3-6)

54

Moses ascends Mt. Sinai 2nd time. God says be ready on the third day: Ex 19:7-14

55

56

God dawns from Seir and descends on Mt. Sinai on the morning of the third day. Moses spends 40 days on Mt. Sinai

57

58

59

Sun

Mon

Tue

Wed

Thurs

Fri

Sat

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I. Sequence of events at Sinai when they first arrived:

 

Calendar for events between Goshen and Sinai

Sun

Mon

Tue

Wed

Thurs

Fri

Sat

39th day from Egypt

40

41st day from Egypt

42

43

44

arrive in Wilderness of Sinai:Iyar 28 Ex 19:1

45

Rested on second Sabbath day 42 of Pentecost: Sivan 1

46

Moses brings water from Rock

47th day from Goshen

48th day from Goshen

49

50th day from Goshen

51

52 day from Goshen and day 49 of Pentecost, 7th Sabbath from Egypt, third sabbath actually kept by Israel.

53 day from Goshen
Pentecost day

1st ascension
Ex 19:3-6

Moses Ascends Mt. Sinai and returns with law

54

2nd ascension
Ex 19:7-14

Moses ascends Mt. Sinai 2nd time. God says be ready on the third day

55

56

God dawns from Seir and descends on Mt. Sinai on the morning of the third day.

3rd ascension
Ex 19:20

57

4th ascension
Ex 19:21

Moses descends to warn people 2nd time, ascends with Aaron.

58

5th ascension
Ex 24:9-11

Moses descends with Aaron and ascends with Aaron, Nadab, Abihu, 70 elders.

59

4th Sabbath kept by Israel since wilderness of Sin

60
6th ascension
Ex 24:18
Moses spends 40 days at summit

61 - 100
40 days Moses was on the Mt. Sinai
God reveals for the first time, the 10 Commandments and the plan for the tabernacle.
The people party and build the Golden calf. from day 56 to day 96 when Moses returns.
So about 100 days after leaving Egypt, Moses descends Mt. Sinai.
Moses physically throws 10 commandments at the people who had made the golden calf.

95-99

Moses still on Mountain at then end of which he descends.

100
7th ascension
Ex 32:30-35
God tells Moses is to take them into promised land.

101

Sabbath

101 - 140 days from Goshen
8th ascension
Ex 34:1-9
Moses spends another forty more days on the mountain, then returns. God replaces 2 tablets, God passes by while Moses was in the cleft of the rock. God said he would perform new miracles and Moses face is shining in view of the people so he puts a veil over his face. Ex 34:1-9; 2 Cor 3.

"Now in the second year, in the second month, on the twentieth of the month, the cloud was lifted from over the tabernacle of the testimony;" Numbers 10:11

Israel departs from Sinai for promised land after spending 11 months, 5 days at Sinai.

Since they left on the 14th day of the first month, this means they had been traveling one year, one month and one week, since leaving Egypt. (57 weeks) So they left Sinai on 1:1:1! (year:month:week)

They navigated about 20 stops over a period of between 10.5 and 11 months between Sinai and Kadesh Barnea

"Then the sons of Israel, the whole congregation, came to the wilderness of Zin in the first month; and the people stayed at Kadesh." Numbers 20:1

They arrived at Kadesh Barnea in the first of the month of the third year or exactly 24 months after leaving Egypt.

They celebrated their second Passover at Sinai, then leave almost immediately afterwards for Kadesh. They arrived at Kadesh and immediately celebrated their third Passover.

They spend 38 continuous years at Kadesh Barnea (they do not leave and come back), then depart for the Jordan in the 40th year.

 

 

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A. Bible timing from Ramses to Mt. Sinai is 44 days:

  1. The Bible tells us that it was a 44 day journey from Goshen to Sinai. They left Goshen on Passover (14th day of the first month) and arrived at the Wilderness of Sin on the 15th day of the second month and arrived at the Wilderness of Sinai on the 1st day of the third month. This equals 44 days.
  2. It took 24 days to travel 490 km to the Red Sea and they spent 8 days camped there waiting for Pharaoh's army to come. It took 20 days to travel 260 km to Sinai after the Red Sea including 7 days camping in the wilderness of Sin and 2 days battling the Amalekites at Rephidim.
  3. Exodus 12:51 tells us Israel was driven out of Egypt by Pharaoh on Passover night (Nissan 14): "In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at twilight is the Lord's Passover." Leviticus 23:5. "Then Pharaoh called for Moses and Aaron at night and said, "Rise up, get out from among my people, both you and the sons of Israel; and go, worship the Lord, as you have said." Exodus 12:31. "And on that same day (Passover) the Lord brought the sons of Israel out of the land of Egypt by their hosts." Exodus 12:51
  4. Exodus 16:1 tells us that when they entered the Wilderness of Sin on the 15th day of the second month (Iyar 15). This means they were only 15 days away from reaching the Mt. Sinai. "Then they set out from Elim, and all the congregation of the sons of Israel came to the wilderness of Sin, which is between Elim and Sinai, on the fifteenth day of the second month (Iyar 15) after their departure from the land of Egypt." Exodus 16:1
  5. Exodus 19:1 tells us they ended the trip when they reached the Wilderness of Sinai on the 1st day of the third month (Sivan 1): "In the third month (Sivan 1) after the sons of Israel had gone out of the land of Egypt, on that very day they came into the wilderness of Sinai." Exodus 19:1

B. Jewish solar calendar had 28 days per month: 44 Days

We need to make allowances for the fact that the Jewish Solar calendar has only 28 days:

  1. From Passover when they departed Egypt, Nissan 14 - Nissan 28 = 15 days
  2. The second month of Iyar = 28 days
  3. The 1st day of the third month = 1 day
  4. Total: 44 days using the Jewish solar calendar of 28 days for each month.

C. Jewish days started at sundown not midnight:

  1. The entire world today uses the Roman method of reckoning days from Midnight to Midnight.
  2. Jewish days began at sundown. This means that if it is 5 pm on a Friday night and you are just getting off work, two hours later (Roman time 7 PM) would actually be Saturday.
  3. This is helpful to know because in the Wilderness of Sin they arrived on a Saturday, and after sunset, that evening while they were in the camp, God revealed the Sabbath for the first time using manna as an instructor. So from Roman time, God revealed the Sabbath on Saturday evening 8 PM, but to the Jews, it was a the 1st day of the week (Sunday).
  4. We are very glad because the Jewish method of time keeping would be awkward to implement today.

D. Jewish inclusive reckoning method of counting days:

  1. Biblical Jews counted days differently from how we count today. Jews used the inclusive counting system.
  2. Jesus was crucified on a Friday and rose from the dead on the first day (Sunday) Three days and three nights: Friday crucifixion - Sunday resurrection. For us this would only be two days, but for Jews it was three days.
  3. On the Friday before "Palm Sunday", exactly one week before Jesus died, Jesus said: Luke 13:32 "Behold, I cast out demons and perform cures today [Fri] and tomorrow [Sat], and the third day [Sun] I reach My goal."
  4. Even during the Exodus there is an excellent example of Jewish inclusive time keeping. The Bible says: "The Lord also said to Moses, "Go to the people and consecrate them today and tomorrow, and let them wash their garments; and let them be ready for the third day, for on the third day the Lord will come down on Mount Sinai in the sight of all the people." Exodus 19:10-11
  5. Notice that even Jesus counted three days as a duration from Friday to Sunday. He started counting today as day one.
  6. We don't count this way. Today is day 0. For the Jews today is day 1.
  7. We need to keep this in mind when calculating days the way the Jews did.
  8. For example, when it says they went three days into the wilderness of Shur after crossing the Red Sea, this would be a Monday to Wednesday duration for the Jews.
  9. They counted a day even if there was only one hour left in that day.
  10. For a full discussion about Jewish time keeping see this.

E. Calculating the days of the week at the Wilderness of Sin:

  1. The primary way we have used to calculate the days of the week for the exodus journey is based solely on their visit to the Wilderness of Sin. It is there God first revealed the Sabbath.
  2. We believe with some level of confidence, that we have enough information to actually calculate the days of the week for the journey between the Red Sea and Mt. Sinai.
  3. In Ex 16:1 God revealed the Sabbath for the very first time in world history. Contrary to the unbiblical ravings of Seventh-day Adventists, Adam and Abraham never kept the weekly seventh day Sabbath (Saturday). In fact the word Sabbath is never even used once in the book of Genesis. The Sabbath was a Jewish holy day that was abolished by God when he nailed the first covenant to the cross. Col 2:14-17 clearly teaches that the Law of Moses, including the 10 commandments, were nailed to the cross. The New Testament passage specifically states that Christians are free to eat "unclean foods" (pork) and that all the system of Jewish holy days, yearly (Passover), monthly (new moon) and weekly (7th day Sabbath) are all nailed to the cross. Christians do not keep the Jewish Sabbath, but worship on the first day of the week: Sunday. Christians assembled every 1st day (Sunday) for the Lord's Supper: Acts 20:7 and are commanded to give every Sunday: 1 Cor 16:2.
  4. Now from the narrative of Ex 16, it seems that Moses revealed the six days of rest and the 7th is the Sabbath starting on a Sunday. In other words, when God said to Moses: "Behold, I will rain bread from heaven for you; and the people shall go out and gather a day's portion every day, that I may test them, whether or not they will walk in My instruction. On the sixth day, when they prepare what they bring in, it will be twice as much as they gather daily." Exodus 16:4-5. These words would have been spoken on the Sabbath they arrived and grumbled about having no food. The very next day had to be a Sunday, or the 1st day of the week.
  5. What is clear, is that God used Manna to teach them, for the first time, about the weekly Sabbath day. In order to do this, it would mean that they are camped in the Wilderness of Sin for the full week (Sunday - Saturday).
  6. Since manna fell in the early morning and melted by mid day, this also proves that God instructed Moses the words of Exodus 16:4-5 on the day before the first morning Manna fell: Saturday.
  7. From this, we can quite safely determine that they arrived in the Wilderness of Sin on a Saturday and grumbled about being hungry. God gave them Manna for 6 days, then on the Sabbath they rested for the first time in world history. Then they departed early Monday morning to continue the journey in stages, since the terrain ahead was difficult and narrow.
  8. The only variable is if God spoke the words of Exodus 16:4-5 on a Saturday or not. However, since we know the Holy Spirit has told us in Exodus 16:1, that they arrived in the Wilderness of Sin on the 15th day of the second month, we also know that they only had 15 more days to make it all the way to the Wilderness of Sinai. We know this because we are told they arrived in Sinai on the 1st day of the third month. This means there is little time to spare, so it is likely we are correct that God spoke the words of Exodus 16:4-5 on a Saturday, not one or two days earlier. This urgency of 15 days to arrive at Mt. Sinai, also means it is very reasonable to have them leave early Sunday morning after the first Sabbath is over. They might have even traveled at night. The Bible says that they travel by night by the pillar of fire.
  9. Now that we have determined the day they arrived and left the Wilderness of Sin, we can use this as a benchmark to determine the days of the week before and afterwards.

F. Calculating the day of the week they crossed the Red Sea: Sunday

  1. In a most natural calculation backwards from the wilderness of Sin, we discover something incredible, that they crossed the Red Sea on a Sunday. This would fit the New Testament antitype of water baptism very well. Paul tells us in 1 Cor 10:1-4 that passing through the Red Sea with the wall of water on either side and the cloud over head was an antitype of our full immersion into Christ for the remission of our sins. Israel was "baptized into Moses" and Christians are Baptized into Christ. The Hebrews were saved from the slavery of Egyptian bondage, Christians are saved from the slavery to sin. Any Hebrew who refused to cross the Red Sea and be Baptized into Moses would be killed the Egyptian army. Likewise anybody today who is not water baptized will be lost in hell because their sins are not forgiven. See these verses: Mk 16:16; Acts 2:28; 22:16; Rom 6:2-4; 1 Pet 3:21 and take this on line interactive study on water baptism.
  2. Rom 6:3-4 tells us that our baptism is a symbol of the death burial and resurrection of Christ and that we are raised from the dead to new life when we rise from the waters of Baptism. Since Christ was raised from the dead on a Sunday and since water baptism is a symbol of this resurrection and since the crossing of the Red Sea was an antitype of water baptism, it is most natural to expect that God would orchestrate, through his power and providence, that Israel would be baptized into Moses on a Sunday.
  3. Israel crossed the Red Sea on a Sunday.

G. Calculating the day of the week of Passover: Thursday

  1. Since the Bible tells us the fact that the entire trip was 44 days from Goshen to Sinai, we can now calculate the day of the week that Passover fell upon when they left Goshen.
  2. This is done by knowing they arrived on a Saturday at the Wilderness of Sin, which the Bible tells us is 15 days before they reached the Wilderness of Sinai (Ex 16:1)
  3. If 15 days before the end of a 44 day journey fell on a Saturday, then it turns out that the first Passover fell on a Thursday.

H. Calculating the day of the week of Pentecost: Sunday

  1. Pentecost means "the 50th day" after Passover. But the counting did not always start immediately after Passover as we will see.
  2. Recent Jewish tradition states that the Law was given on Pentecost, which is 50 days after the first Sabbath following Passover. Although we cannot trace this Jewish tradition very far back in history, it is very likely correct. On the other hand even the Jews of Jesus' time were notorious at adding to or changing God's Law.
  3. Pentecost always fell on a Sunday. Pentecost was calculated by counting 50 days, where day #1 is the first Sabbath after Passover. Since Passover could fall on any day of the week, sometimes there was up to a 6 day wait until the first Sabbath came by and you started counting the 50 days. When that Sabbath came, it was day one, then you would count seven additional Sabbath days for a total of 49 days. They next day after the seventh Sabbath was Pentecost.
  4. This means that if Passover fell on a Sunday, for example, they would not start counting the fifty days until the next Sabbath 6 days later.
  5. Therefore the actual number of days between Passover and Pentecost could vary from exactly 50 days if Passover fell on a Friday to as many as 56 days if Passover fell on a Sunday.
  6. After they arrived in the Wilderness of Sinai on a Friday, day 44 of their journey from Goshen. They had arrived at their destination. The next day they rested on the second Sabbath day of world history. But this Sabbath was only day 42 of Pentecost. So they had an entire week to settle in at Mt. Sinai.
  7. That last week before Pentecost, Moses gave them water out of the Rock at Mt. Sinai that was promised several days earlier at Rephidim (Meribah).
  8. Pentecost fell on the Sunday after the next Sabbath day. This was day 52 after leaving Goshen.
  9. On Pentecost, Moses ascended ascends Mt. Sinai and returns with law (Ex 19:3-6). Jewish tradition fits very nicely into this time scale.

I. Calculating the day of the week of God "Dawned from Seir on Mt. Sinai": Wednesday.

  1. The day after Pentecost (Monday) after Moses had told the people their message from God, Moses ascends Mt. Sinai 2nd time to give God the people's reply. This time God says be ready on the third day because God will dawn from Seir and descend upon Mt. Sinai: Ex 19:7-14.
  2. Moses told them that God would descend on Mt. Sinai three days later and to prepare themselves during these three days.
  3. The Bible says: "The Lord also said to Moses, "Go to the people and consecrate them today and tomorrow, and let them wash their garments; and let them be ready for the third day, for on the third day the Lord will come down on Mount Sinai in the sight of all the people." Exodus 19:10-11
  4. This means the duration would be a Monday - Wednesday. This method of counting is typical of the inclusive counting system of the Jews. This further illustrates how Jesus was in the tomb three days, yet it was a duration of Friday 3 PM to Sunday 6 AM.

J. Calculating distances between stops:

Bible texts

Day # from Red Sea

week day

distance from last stop

Crossing Red sea:

 

0

Sunday

19 km

Wilderness of Shur

Marah

bitter waters: Exodus 15:22-23; Num 33:8; Luke 13:32

3

Mon - Wed

67 km

Elim

12 springs, 70 palms

4

Thursday

15 km

Red Sea Camp

 

5

Friday

18 km

Wilderness of Sin

Exodus 16:1 tells us they arrived on the 15th day of the second month.

Journeyed in stages between Sin and Rephidim: Ex 17:1 (difficult terrain)

6-14

Saturday - Sunday (8 days)

Manna came on Sunday, day 7

20 km

Dophkah

 

15

Monday

24 km

Alush

 

16

Tuesday

17 km

Rephidim (Meribah) Fought Amalekites, Jethro's council)

Exodus 17:1-9; 18:27

17-19

Wednesday- Thursday

30 km

Wilderness of Sinai

Exodus 19

20

Friday

38 km

K. Map of distances between stops after the Red Sea crossing:

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L. Rates of travel from Ramses to Mt. Sinai: 750 km in 44 days.

  1. You must also keep in mind the supernatural help that God gave the Hebrews during the exodus.
  2. Exodus 13:21 says they traveled day and night by the light of the pillar of fire. "He spread a cloud for a covering, And fire to illumine by night. " Psalm 105:39
  3. There are only a few stops mentioned in the Bible between Goshen and the Red Sea: Succoth, Etham, Pi-Hahiroth, Migdol, then they crossed the Red Sea.
  4. Most people falsely assume the trip took only seven days. This assumption is based upon an inference about the 7 days of unleavened bread which was a memorial of when Israel left Egypt so quickly, that they did not have time for their bread to rise. But nowhere does the Bible say they ate unleavened bread for 7 days, only that there would be a seven day period to remember that first day they left with unleavened bread. Day two, they ate leavened bread again.
  5. The Bible does not say, "Because you ate unleavened bread for 7 days after leaving Egypt, you will east unleavened bread for 7 days each year as a memorial." Instead the Bible says, (paraphrased) "You will not eat leaven for 7 days in remembrance of that one day you ate unleavened bread, when you first left Egypt.
  6. Now even if it was 7 days, there are only 3-4 cities mentioned. Yet they would be moving every day. This proves that there are "cities" missing in the list of places they rested each night.
  7. Herodotus (450 BC) said that the 150 km trip from the Mediterranean sea to the Red Sea was a four days journey. This means they traveled 38 km (23 miles) per day. "Psammetichus left a son called Necos, who succeeded him upon the throne. This prince was the first to attempt the construction of the canal to the Red Sea - a work completed afterwards by Darius the Persian - the length of which is four days' journey, and the width such as to admit of two triremes being rowed along it abreast. (Herodotus 2.158)
  8. The Bible does tell us that the entire 750 Km trip from Egypt to Mt. Sinai took 44 days. It was day 25 when they crossed the Red Sea and day 44 when they reached Sinai. So it took 24 days to travel 490 km to the Red Sea and they spent 8 days camped there waiting for Pharaoh's army to come. It took 20 days to travel 260 km to Sinai after the Red Sea including 7 days camping in the wilderness of Sin and 2 days battling the Amalekites at Rephidim.
  9. Distance traveled from Egypt to Jebel Al-Lawz based upon actual route, not line of sight is 750 Km. From Goshen to the crossing point of the Red Sea is 490 KM. These distances include the Etham and back the way they came, to the camp at the Red Sea before they crossed. Etham was 30 km past the point where they crossed, so the round trip was 60 km extra. The distance Pharaoh's army traveled from Goshen to where the pillar of cloud stopped them is 400 km. It was 19 km across the Straits of Tiran. After they crossed into the wilderness of Shur, the distance to the camp in the wilderness of Sinai was 260 km.
  10. Average rates of travel must be based upon the total distance and the actual days they were moving. The total distance is 750 km and the total number of travel days is 28. (44 days less 8 at the Red Sea, less 7 in wilderness of Sin, less 2 in Rephidim) This gives an overall daily rate of travel of 27 km (16 miles) per day.
  11. The average daily rate from Goshen to the Red sea is 490 km / 17 actual travel days = 29 km (17 miles) per day. This is very realistic especially considering they traveled day and night.
  12. The average daily rate from the red sea to Sinai was 260 km / 11 actual travel days = 23 km (14 miles) per day. We would predict that their rate of travel would be lower after crossing the Red Sea, given the urgency of fleeing Egypt was gone. So the rate of travel figures are realistic easily possible for a large crowd.
  13. Remember Herodotus said that the same basic area was traveled at a rate of 38 km per day.

Trip

Distance

Total days

Camp days

Travel days

Daily rate of travel

Double back distance from the camp by the Red Sea at the crossing point to Etham and back again (30 km x 2)

60 km

-

-

-

-

Goshen to Sinai (including Etham double back)

750 km

44

17

27

28 km/day

Goshen to Red Sea (including Etham double back)
(8 days camped at red sea)

490 km

24

8

16

30 km/day

Red Sea to Sinai
(Camp days: 7 days in wilderness of Sin, 2 days at Rephidim)

260 km

20

9

11

23 km/day

Message from Pharaoh's military "Migdol" to Egypt by homing pigeon at 80 km/hour: "They are moving aimlessly and the wilderness at Etham has shut them in."

380 km

5 hours

-

-

80 km/hr

Pharaoh's army pursued Israel with horses and 600 chariots from Egypt to where the pillar of fire stopped them.

435 km

8

0

7

54 km/day

Herodotus (450 BC): Mediterranean to Gulf of Suez

150 km

4

-

-

38 km/day

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By Steve Rudd: Contact the author for comments, input or corrections.

 

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