Exodus Route Restored!
Proving the exodus route
from the Bible: An Analysis of scriptural proof.
note: The exodus route we propose was conceived in 2005 AD, but it
is actually a restoration of the ancient view held by first century Christians.
1. Step #1: We
began with the Bible as our only guide and blueprint for locating places
connected with the exodus. We completely ignored everything EXCEPT the bible:
We ignored: maps, history, commentaries and the opinions of archeologists. From
this study, we concluded the Scriptures taught that Israel crossed the
Red Sea somewhere on the Gulf of Aqaba, forcing Mt. Sinai in Saudi Arabia.
(Paul plainly tells us Mt. Sinai is in Arabia: Gal 4:25) We were also able to
prove from scripture that Kadesh Barnea must be Transjordan, somewhere south of
the Dead Sea in modern Jordan.
2. Step #2: Only
after we had concluded our scriptural study, did we begin to consider two
important additional witnesses: history and Archaeology. Josephus and Eusebius
and others caused us to chose Mt. Lawz as the best candidate for Mt. Sinai.
Josephus and Eusebius caused us to choose the general Petra area for Kadesh
Barnea. When conflicts arose between the Scriptures , history and Archaeology,
we always chose the infallible, all-sufficient, imperishable word of God.
While this may not make Bible
doubting archeologists happy, we have more trust in the Bible then the ever
shifting opinions of archeologists who are more often looking to disprove the
Bible, rather than support it as the book of true ancient history that it
really is. Having said this, Archaeology is an important tool in validating the
Bible. I have travelled extensively throughout Israel and the Levant. I have
been directly involved in many archeological digs under the authority of the
IAA (Israel Antiquities Authority). I did not discover this exodus route, I
merely restored it to what is revealed in scripture. I hope this book will
strengthen your faith in God's inspired word. You can print the maps and glue
them into the back of your bible. You can use this material in public
presentations and sermons, as long as you do not put any part of this book on
the internet or sell it.
Rudd: Contact the author for
comments, input or corrections.
Why not visit one of our local churches?
Click here to
locate a congregation in your home town.
- The Exodus is an important and foundational fact.
million Jews left Egypt, not 5,000 or 35,000 as some modernists have
wrongly suggested based upon interpreting the Hebrew word for thousand
(elep) as clans, households or tribes.
- We propose that Israel crossed the Red sea at the Straits of Tiran,
that Mt. Sinai is Mt.
al-Lawz in Arabia and that Kadesh Barnea is at
or just north of Petra
- Below, we will prove this exodus route from the Bible.
A. New Testament Types of the Exodus:
- Many of the New Testament images have their origin in the
- The Lord's Supper is a type of the Passover mean of Ex 12.
Just as the Jews partook of the Passover mean one a year, Christians
partake of the Lord's Supper every week: Learn more about the Lord's Supper.
- God as "Our Rock" had is a type of the Rock
Moses struck for water. 1 Cor 10:4.
- Our salvation from the slavery of sin happens when we are
baptized into Christ, and is a type of the Red Sea crossing when they were
saved from the slavery of Egypt and baptized into Moses: 1 Cor 10:1-4.
Have you been baptized in water by full immersion as a believer in order
to be saved? Take this interactive online
- Mt. Sinai is a type of the heavenly Jerusalem: Hebrews
- The 38 years in the wilderness at Kadesh Barnea is a type
of our earthly life.
- Crossing the Jordan is a type of our death and passing
into a new spirit world.
- The Promised Land of Israel is a type of heaven.
B. Proving this exodus route from the Bible:
Bible proof Israel crossed the Red Sea at the Straits of Tiran
- There are so many texts in the Bible that clearly teach a
crossing point of the Red Sea somewhere on the Gulf of Aqaba, we don't
know where to start! But if you want to start... start here!
Any one of these points is sufficient to rule out the Bitter Lakes or the
Port of Suez crossing points. Ruling
out the Bitter Lakes or the North Suez, forces a crossing point on the
Gulf of Aqaba.
- Contrary to popular myth, the Bible tells us that it took 25
days before they crossed the Red Sea, not 3 days! The only reason
people assume three days, is because there were three stops between Goshen
and the Red Sea. But the Bible says that they traveled day and night with supernatural help from
- The Sinai Peninsula is called "The
Wilderness of Egypt". The Bible says that there was a long
journey through the wilderness BEFORE they
reached the Red Sea. (Ezekiel 20:36; Judges 11:16; Exodus 13:18). In 50
of Alexandria understood this and wrote: "a long and desolate journey
through the wilderness, destitute of any beaten road, at last arrived at
the sea which is called the Red Sea". There is no wilderness west of
the bitter lakes or northwest of the Gulf of Suez, so they must both be
rejected as crossing points.
- The crossing point had to be far enough away from Goshen
to justify their bitter complaints about being in the wilderness (Exodus
14:11-12) and to guarantee security from Egypt. We can rule out the Bitter
lakes as utterly absurd since it was only 30 km from Goshen. The
Bitter lakes were so close to Goshen, that the Hebrews probably spent
their days off fishing and having romantic walks the beaches of the Bitter
lakes. "Hey honey, I got tomorrow off, lets pack the kids into the
chariot and have a nice day at the Bitter lakes!" If the Gulf of Suez
Bitterlakes was the crossing point, the Hebrews would not endure hardship,
starve and complain: they would sleep in their own cottages and already
know the best fishing holes for food. Need we remind you that the
Bitterlakes was an endless supply of fresh water?
- The Port
of Suez is only 100 km from Goshen, making it far too close. But there
is another huge problem: The exit point of the Gulf of Suez crossing
brought the Hebrews only 4 km from a major Egyptian sea port. The Egyptian
soldiers could easily see the entire crossing route from the nearby
mountains. When the angel of the Lord prevented them from crossing the Red
Sea until Israel had finished, they would move around to wait for them on
the other shore. If I had just crossed the Red Sea and came out next to
the Port of Suez, I would not start singing the Song of Moses, I would keep running!
- To learn why the Bitterlakes and the Gulf of Suez must be
rejected as the crossing point of the Red Sea. Click
- At the time of the exodus, the entire Sinai Peninsula was
controlled by Egypt and considered part of their formal territory. Egypt
began west of the Wadi
el-Arish and west from Timna.
Israel was not "out
of Egypt" in the Sinai Peninsula. However a crossing of the Red
Sea at the Straits of Tiran puts them out of Egypt into Arabia. That's
where they started singing the Song of Moses and knew they were safe!
- Etham provides
a critical scriptural detail overlooked by everyone. Correctly
understanding what happened at Etham is why the Straits of Tiran
are the only crossing point on the Gulf of Aqaba that fits scripture.
After camping at Etham God commanded: "Tell the sons of Israel to
turn back" [from Etham and retrace their steps and camp at the crossing
point of the Red Sea]. This will bait Pharaoh into sending his army
because he will think, 'They are wandering aimlessly in the land; the
wilderness has shut them in.'" (Exodus 14:2-3). Amazingly, at the
Straits of Tiran, there is a mountain range that
traps Israel from going any further. No other crossing point has this
critical feature. The crossing point at the north end of the Gulf of Suez
has no such geographic feature that forced Israel to turn back and retrace
their steps! These Scriptures quite certainly force a Red Sea
crossing at the Gulf of Aqaba into Modern Saudi Arabia. The Straits of
Tiran is the only place that 100% harmonizes with scripture.
- You might wonder why a crossing point at the Gulf of Aqaba
had not been proposed until now? You might wonder why Bible students over
the last 2000 years had always considered a north Suez crossing or the
Bitter Lakes? The answer may shock you, but quite simply, they didn't know the Gulf of Aqaba even existed
until the 18th century. The very first map we could find that even showed
the Gulf of Aqaba was in 1750 AD by William Albert Bachiene. They could
not propose a crossing point at a place they never knew existed!
Geographers and mappers drew the Red
Sea as a single finger of water and had no concept of the existence of
the Gulf of Aqaba. They also had no concept of the Sinai Peninsula! Here
is just one example by John Speed in 1626 AD:
- How could they not know about
the Gulf of Aqaba until the 18th century?
There is a unique shape of the Red Sea that was mapped by Sebastian
Munster's map in 1545 AD and others like Mercator (1584), Blaeu (1629), La
Rue (1651), Visscher (1660), Moxon (1671), Wells (1700), Vaugondy (1743).
When you compare this shape to a satellite map, you will notice they
sailed right by the two narrow openings that led up the Gulf of Aqaba and
missed it! They wrongly assumed that Ezion Geber/Elat were located at the
bay to the east of where the Gulf of Aqaba opens onto the Red Sea. This
explains the mystery of how they missed the long finger of water we know
as the Gulf of Aqaba. It is not so much that the sailors who mapped these
waters were careless or incompetent. Rather they mapped exactly what they
saw. But they sailed right past the tiny Straits of Tiran, likely 5 or ten
miles to the west simply missed the Gulf of Aqaba. If you take Munster's
map and simply add the Gulf of Aqaba, it becomes quite accurate in shape!
Remember, the sailors were not familiar with the local geography but were
from Europe, France, Italy, England, Spain, and Netherlands. I have spent
many weeks sailing and navigating on a ship and can attest first hand, to
how difficult it is to map a shoreline from a boat.
- Since the Bible teaches that they crossed the Red Sea
somewhere on the Gulf of Aqaba (we suggest the Straits of Tiran), this
forces the location of Mt. Sinai to be in modern Saudi Arabia. We propose
Mt. Sinai at Mt. Al-Lawz. But we do not need to reply upon this
"domino effect" to prove Mt. Sinai is in Saudi Arabia, we have
explicit statement of Paul in Gal 4:25: "Mount Sinai is in Arabia".
Bible proof Mt. Sinai is in modern Saudi Arabia
Gal 4:25: "Mount Sinai is in
- Very few Christians know the history of how the
traditional location for Mt. Sinai in the middle of the Sinai desert was
chosen. In fact it was chosen by Constantine's mother, Queen Helena, in a
dream! Helena claimed that God revealed to her in a dream that Mt. Sinai was
located at Mt. Musa where St. Catharine's Monastery was later build in the
middle of Sinai Peninsula. This has been the traditional location of Mt.
Sinai on almost all Bible maps since 325 AD. Historically, Queen Helena
deliberately chose many places in the Promised Land and Jerusalem that
were politically expedient or to her taste. Today, through Archaeology, we
know most of the places she chose were wrong. But a later Pope, who is
considered infallible by Roman Catholics, sanctified Mt. Musa as the location
of Mt. Sinai. That kind of makes it difficult for any good Catholic to
even consider other options. As the saying goes, "You never find
that, which you never search for."
- The first time in history that the Sinai Peninsula was
called, "The Sinai Peninsula" was only after Helena decided it
was where Mt. Sinai was located. No one before this ever referred to it as
the Sinai Peninsula.
- Today, as a result of the infallible Pope's claim that Mt.
Sinai is located at Mt. Musa in the middle of the Sinai peninsula,
Catholic theologians have come up with a number of rather clever (false)
arguments to harmonize Paul's Statement that "Mount Sinai is in
Arabia". (Gal 4:25). The Sinai Peninsula is not Arabia! Many
non-Catholic Bible students have become parrots in teaching these
- To prove to you just how effective this
"brainwashing" has been on the mind of almost all Christians
living today, we simply ask this question: "At the time of the
Exodus, which country owned and controlled the Sinai Peninsula"? Their
answer, if they can even think of one,
is "I don't know" or "no one" or "it was a barren
waste land nobody wanted" or "it was a caravan crossroads
between nations" or "it is kind of like asking who owns the
Atlantic Ocean: everyone and no one at the same time". These
misinformed souls suggest that the Sinai Peninsula was a kind of
"desert ocean" no one controlled. The true answer is that Egypt
has always controlled the Sinai. They control it now. They controlled it
in 1446 BC. Sure there was time when the Nabataeans edged in, and of
course the Roman annexed the "Sinai" in 106 AD. Mt. Sinai cannot
be in the Sinai Peninsula, because this was still in Egypt.
- You might ask the same question another way: "What
country was on the west side of the eastern border of Israel?" Even
the Bible teaches that the formal boundary line between Egypt and Israel
is called the "River
of Egypt" or wadi el-Arish. If you were standing in Judah and
walked across the Wadi el-Arish, you would not be in some, "desert
ocean, caravan crossroads, no man's land", you would be in Egypt. The
Bible explicitly teaches this.
- A brand new approach has been developed by the advocates
of Mt. Musa to defend their sacred mountain in the Sinai. When someone
quotes Paul's "Mount Sinai in Arabia " (Gal 4:25), they with
brazen faces say, "The Sinai Peninsula is Arabia". As you stand
there thoughtfully twitching in disbelief, they add these facts:
"Look at these maps that have the words, 'Arabia' on top of the Sinai
Peninsula." Of course, the answer is quite simple. The Romans did
annex the Sinai Peninsula away from Egyptian control in 106 AD and the
Romans did name the land that was Egypt, "Arabia". But that was
in 106 AD and Paul wrote the book of Galatians some 50 years earlier. Even
good Bible students can be fooled with this slight of hand trick. When
Paul wrote Galatians 4:25, Arabia was east of the Gulf of Aqaba. In one
final futile attempt to make the Sinai Peninsula into "Arabia",
they will quote some "ancient geographers" before Paul's time,
who thought Goshen bordered next to Arabia. What they don't tell you is
that these same "ancient geographers", like the mappers from the
1500's mentioned above, also did not even know of the existence of the
Gulf of Aqaba and the Sinai Peninsula! Take a look for yourself!
- Paul not only said that Mt. Sinai is in Arabia, he also
equated the location of Mt. Sinai as being in the traditional land of the
children of Hagar: The
Ishmaelites. The allegory of Galatians 4 draws a geographical parallel
between specific nations of known territories. Everybody, Jew and Greek,
that read what Paul wrote understood that the land of the Ishmaelites was
Transjordan and in North Saudi Arabia AND NOT in the Sinai Peninsula. At
the time Joseph was sold into slavery, the Ishmaelites lived in Midan with
the Midianites. Everyone knows that the Midianites lived in North Saudi
Arabia AND NOT in the Sinai Peninsula.
- In fact, the teaching of Paul is so clear, that we could
locate Mt. Sinai by saying: Mount Sinai is located in the land where
Ishmael lived: Midian
- Since the Wilderness
of Shur and the Wilderness of
Paran was the land in which Ishmael lived, this forces it to be
located in Saudi Arabia, somewhere on the eastern shore of the Gulf of
Aqaba. Take note that this is an independent line of reasoning from Paul's
Statement in Gal 4:25. The Bible explicate says that Ishmael lived in Shur
and Paran. This forces these two wildernesses to be Transjordan. Since
Kadesh Barnea borders on the wilderness of Paran, this forces Kadesh
Barnea to be Transjordan. (Gen 16:12; 21:21; 25:18)
- The Bible says that Moses was in Midian when he saw the
burning bush: "Now Moses was pasturing the flock of Jethro his
father-in-law, the priest of Midian; and he led the flock to the west side
of the wilderness and came to Horeb, the mountain of God. The angel of the
Lord appeared to him in a blazing fire from the midst of a bush; and he
looked, and behold, the bush was burning with fire, yet the bush was not
consumed." (Exodus 3:1-2) Now those intent on keeping Mt. Musa sacred
and in the Sinai Peninsula have quite a dilemma here and are forced to
read the passage this way: "It doesn't say that while he was
pasturing his flock in the land of Midian he saw a burning bush."
True, but it also doesn't say, "Moses traveled 250 km away from
Jethro in Midian, around the Gulf of Aqaba and into the middle of a rugged
mountain range to pasture his sheep that was owned by another man."
The fact remains that the context of Exodus 3 begins with Moses living in
the land of Midian, tending his flock, in a normal manner within a
reasonable distance from home. A 500 km, 50 day round trip to pasture
sheep that belonged to another man (Jethro) is a little extreme. The
casual, natural reading of the text is that Moses was pasturing Jethro's
sheep near or in Midian. To suggest that Moses traveled 350 miles to Mt.
Musa in the Sinai Peninsula is absurd. Some in desperation suggest that
the Midianites lived in the Sinai Peninsula, but this is unfounded and
Wyatt has made many wild, fanciful and irresponsible archeological
claims about Mt. Lawz. None of the evidence he uses to support Mt. Lawz as
Mt Sinai are valid. All are to be rejected AND WE MEAN all. These false
- the discovery of the rock Moses struck for water.
- the altar of the golden calf.
- the cave Elijah hid in.
- The very place the 70 elders stood.
- the altar Moses erected.
- the twelve pillars erected by Moses.
- The truth is, all of this is highly speculative and
although we can be certain that Mt. Sinai is in Arabia, not the Sinai
Peninsula, we cannot be sure that Mt. Lawz is Mt. Sinai. However, is it
the best choice that we know. The impossible Red Sea crossing As
proposed by Ron Wyatt: The video "Exodus Revealed" and
"The Exodus Case" by Lennart Mueller are all Wyatt's
- "Ron Wyatt is neither an archaeologist nor has he
ever carried out a legally licensed excavation in Israel or Jerusalem. In
order to excavate one must have at least a BA in archaeology which he
does not possess despite his claims to the contrary. ... [Ron Wyatt's work] fall into the category of trash
which one finds in tabloids such as the National Enquirer, Sun etc."
(Archaeologist Joe Zias of Israel Antiquities Authority, IAA.)
- Bob Cornuke's The Exodus Decoded, and video,
"The Exodus Conspiracy" are as worthless as the work of Ron
Wyatt and must be discarded.
- The "Gold of Exodus" video is worthless to
- Wyatt's archeological work on Mt. Sinai is also
worthless, without any factual basis and must be rejected.
- One of the hidden blessings of wrongly locating Mt. Sinai
at Mt. Musa in the Sinai Peninsula, is that almost no archeological
research has been done at Mt. Lawz in north Saudi Arabia. Muslims are
notorious for excavating with a pick axe (Madaba Map 700 AD), a
bulldozer and a gravel making machine (Temple mount
2001 AD). Now since Mt. Sinai has been in Saudi Arabia all this time, the
place where Mecca and some of the most radical Muslims on the face of the
planet are located, Mt. Lawz has never really been seriously excavated or
vandalized! It is just sitting there, waiting for the modern world to
investigate for signs of the Exodus. Of course the Muslims do believe
Moses was a prophet who stood on Mt. Sinai, but with the President of Iran
(Mahmoud Ahmadinejad) on formal record that he wants Israel wiped off the
face of the earth, we do not believe that they would allow any excavations
whose purpose is to verify the Jewish Exodus and claim to the Promised
Land since 1406 BC. Any such evidence would end up as gravel on Saudi
- We propose Mt. al-Lawz as the best candidate for Mt. Sinai
in Arabia. It is the "highest mountain in the area", just as Josephus
Bible proof Kadesh Barnea is Transjordan, south of the Dead Sea
In 325 AD, Eusebius
taught Kadesh was at Petra. Everyone believed Kadesh was at or near Petra
- The Bible teaches that the Kadesh Barnea is Transjordan,
south of the Dead Sea. This is done through a simple study of how to draw
border of Judah, in relation to Kadesh.
- Since 1916 AD, Kadesh has been wrongly located at Ein-Qudeirat.
Nothing has been found earlier than the 10th century and the exodus
happened in 1446 BC. Qudeirat is also 27 km inside the formal boundary of
el-Arish). Israel did not spend 38 years in the wilderness at Kadesh
INSIDE the Promised Land. Qudeirat is one of the network
of border fortresses built by Solomon. If you believe the Bible
doesn't contradict itself, then Kadesh cannot be located at Qudeirat. Yet
this is where every Bible map has located Kadesh since 1916 AD. Take a
look for yourself in your own Bible!
- There are two key passages that describe in great detail,
how to draw the southern border of Judah: Numbers 34:3-5 and Joshua
15:1-4. It's all there in black and white in your Bible! Here is our
detailed exegesis of these passages: click
here. There is only one way to draw the southern border, so that
Kadesh remains outside the boundary of the Promised Land and that is to
put Kadesh Transjordan, at or near Petra.
Geber is a critical location everybody overlooks in their exodus route
maps. Ezion Geber is one of the few places on the Exodus route, that we
can be certain of its location at the north tip of the Gulf of Aqaba. It
is located on the eastern shore of the Gulf of Aqaba, under modern Aqaba
in Jordan. It is also to note that it is located in the land of Edom. (1
Kings 9:26) Since Jezirat
Faraun was an Egyptian sea port to facility mining at Timna, Ezion Geber must be located
on the Arabian (eastern) side of the northern tip of the Red Sea. This was
historically the land of Edom, so we can be rather certain Ezion Geber was
located under modern Aqaba.
Geber is very bad news for those who hold to the traditional Exodus
route between Mt. Musa and Qudeirat. Two Bible
passages give a lot of trouble to those who still cling to the traditional
Exodus route. (Numbers 33:35-36 and Deuteronomy 1:2) First, we
are explicitly told in Numbers 33:35-36, that Israel passed through Ezion
Geber in the route between Mt. Sinai and Kadesh. Second, Deut 1:2
indicates that Ezion Geber is near Mt. Seir. We also learn from Num 33:35
that Ezion Geber is the last stop before Kadesh in the route. Putting this
information into focus, there are 22 stops between Sinai and Kadesh, Ezion
Geber is stop 22! Now look at the map below and notice that Ezion Geber is
a midway point. So from Sinai to Ezion Geber there are 22 stops. From
Ezion Geber to Kadesh there are no stops in between! With Kadesh located
at Petra instead of Qudeirat, it makes sense that there were no stops
between Ezion and Petra because they simply walked up the Arabah valley.
Look at the direct line of travel between Mt. Musa and Qudeirat. Ezion
Geber is way out of the way of the direct line from Mt. Musa to Qudeirat.
However our proposed Mt. Sinai at Lawz in Arabia and Kadesh at Petra
perfectly harmonizes Numbers 33:35-36 and Deuteronomy 1:2. Our exodus
route is a perfect fit!
- Mt. Seir is the capital of the Edomites. (Gen
36:8) Edomite territory is the Transjordan mountains just north of the Red
Sea. Mt. Seir is located Transjordan in modern Jordan. The Edomites never
lived west of the Arabah valley, in the Sinai peninsula or the Negev
before the Babylonian captivity of 586 BC. The Bible tells us that took 11
days to journey from Mt. Sinai to Mt. Seir to Kadesh: "It is eleven
days' journey from Horeb by the way of Mount Seir to
Kadesh-barnea." (Deuteronomy 1:2) For the
traditional exodus route advocates, this verse has caused them a lot of trouble.
Look at the yellow route in the map above. Israel must first travel due
north of Mt. Musa because of the mountains, then travel north east, then
through the middle of a major mount range to get to Ezion Geber. All this
was 22 stops. Then they leave Ezion Geber and travel north and immediately
must pass through a second major mountain range to Qudeirat. Phew! That
was a lot of extra, unnecessary travelling. If we could just remove Num 33
and Deut 1 from out Bible, we could just travel from Mt. Musa to Qudeirat
in almost a straight line (green route above) and save 90 km of
unnecessary travelling. A direct the trip (green route) would only be 250
km long. The traditional route (yellow route) through Ezion Geber is 340
km long just doesn't work. However our proposed route (white route) from
Mt. Sinai at Lawz in Arabia and Kadesh at Petra perfectly harmonizes
Numbers 33:35-36 and Deuteronomy 1:2.
- Many exodus routes ignore the need to pass through Ezion
Geber between Sinai and Kadesh and randomly pick a nearby mountain as
their Mt. Seir. Here is an example of just such a proposed Exodus Route by
Emanuel Anati in 1985 AD. He retains Kadesh Barnea at Qudeirat, but
Karkom as his Mt. Sinai. His 11 day journey map (see the blue line)
completely ignores Numbers 33:35-36 and the need to pass through Ezion
Geber. Of course Mt. Karkom and Qudeirat are both well inside the Promised
Land, so both must be rejected. You can see where he randomly chose a
location for Mt. Seir at Jebel el-Arif Naqa. This kind of blindfolded
"pin the Mt. Seir on the Map" approach is simply unacceptable.
Keep in mind that many others have put the blindfold on and choose at
least 10 other locations for Mt. Seir in the Sinai and Negev. Do also
remember that there are actually 22 stops between Sinai and Kadesh, not 11
as Anati suggests. Deut 1:2 says that if someone was to make the trip, it
is only a distance of 11 days. However we can see from Num 33 that Israel
took at least 22 days to make the journey.
- None of the exodus took place in the Negev. No Bible verse
indicates Israel set foot in the Negev during their 40 years in the
wilderness. This fact has created a dilemma that has caused modern map
makers to create the mythical "Biblical Negev region" which is a
small crescent moon shaped area near Beersheba. In other words, the Negev
is not the large area south of Beersheba to the Gulf of Aqaba, but a tiny
area that includes Beersheba. All this to account for the fact that Israel
never set foot in the Negev before crossing the Jordan. Neither, Kadish
Barnea or Mt. Sinai, were in the Negev: Numbers 13:17; Deuteronomy 1:7.
Both Ein el-Qudeirat and Mt. Karkom are in the Negev. Here in an example
of what I call, "the map of errors". This is because advocates
of the traditional exodus route believe Kadesh is located at Qudeirat,
they must move a lot of stuff around to make it work. Since the Bible says
that Kadesh was beside Edom, near Mt. Hor and not in the Negev, they just
relocate it. Notice in this map, they played, "Pin the Mt. Hor on the
map" in 4 different places! Josephus
said Mt. Hor was located beside Petra. The Bible and Archaeology says that
Edom was not in the Negev at the time of the Exodus. But notice how they
have defined the Negev as this tiny area around Beersheba. They cannot
have the Negev any further south of this, or else their Kadesh (at
Qudeirat) is in the Negev. Well they can't have that... so they just
randomly redefine it! Such is counterproductive to truth and confusing to
the average Christian. It is just wrong.
- In 325 AD, Eusebius
taught Kadesh was at Petra and that Aaron was buried on Mt. Hor at
- Historically, when the Israelites vacated Petra in 1406 BC
to enter the Promised Land, Petra was taken over by the Edomites, then the
Nabataeans who carved the famous "treasury" and the city of
tombs we see today about between 300 BC -100 AD.
- Everyone believed Kadesh was at or near Petra until
1831 AD. This can be seen in historic maps. Petra was not rediscovered
until 1812 AD. Even though the maps of
the 1500's did not know where Petra was located, they always placed Kadesh
and Mt. Hor near or at Petra. Here is an example of a map from 1630 AD by
Jan Jansson. Notice that the Sinai Peninsula and Gulf of Aqaba missing.
Notice he has Ezion Geber on the Red Sea. He has the entire exodus route
from Egypt in a line. Notice Stop 32 is Ezion Geber, stop 33 is Kadesh
Barnea (cades) and stop 34 is Mt. Hor. Both Kadesh and Hor are
Transjordan. Kadesh is at Petra. What is important, is that Jan Jansson
(like almost everyone before 1831 AD) placed Kadesh Transjordan even
before he knew the location of Petra which was rediscovered in 1812 AD by
Burckhardt. They didn't where Kadesh or Petra were on the map. But their
Bible led them to believe they were beside each other and Transjordan.
Click on any of the maps on this page for a higher resolution image.
- Petra has an ancient tradition associated with Kadesh
Barnea. The very name "Petra" [literally: rock] is derived from
the rock that Moses struck. Eusebius even reported, that in his day, (325
AD) you could still see
the rock that Moses struck for water. The 1 km long Siq ravine that
runs through Petra is called "Wadi Musa" or the river of Moses.
The very unusual Nabataean city of tombs is a carryover from the fact that
2 million Hebrews died and were buried near Petra.
- We propose that Kadesh Barnea is
either at Petra or
just north of Petra.
Bible proof the ascent of scorpions is Transjordan, south of the
Judges 1:34-36 "The border
of the Amorites ran from
of Akrabbim, from Sela [Petra] and upward."
- The ascent
of Akrabbim has been wrongly located inside the land of Judah at
Ma'ale Aqrabim, just south east of the bottom of the Dead Sea. It is well
inside the boundary of Judah. It was named Ma'ale Aqrabim by the Romans
who paved the road in the about 135 AD, likely by Hadrian.
- Judges 1:34-36 proves that the ascent of Akrabbim is
Transjordan: "The border of the Amorites ran from the ascent
of Akrabbim, from Sela [Petra] and upward."
- This passage describes the territory of the Amorites in
about 1350 BC. It describes how the Amorites were displaced out of Judah
and the Promised Land. The Amorites took over the southern half of the
territory of Moab. Moab was displaced north.
- If the ascent of Akrabbim is located at Ma'ale
Aqrabim, it means that the Amorites controlled the most important
sections of Judah north to Engedi. This was not the case, so the ascent of
Akrabbim must be located on the Transjordan side of the Arabah valley.
- The information above, is just a highly condensed version
of the reasons why we chose the route we did.
- We propose that Israel crossed the Red sea at the Straits of Tiran,
that Mt. Sinai is Mt.
al-Lawz in Arabia and that Kadesh Barnea is at
or just north of Petra,
- We invite your comments, questions, criticisms and input. Contact the author.
Steve Rudd: Contact the author for
comments, input or corrections.
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