The Edomites
Edom is Esau: Mt. Seir, Mt. Paran

Section I: Edom's territory and locating Kadesh Barnea during the Exodus: 1446 BC

Section II: Edom's participation in Babylonian Captivity of 605-587 BC

Section III: Historicity of Edom as a real nation just as the Bible says

Section IV: Chronology of Edom from Esau to Extinction: 2006- 500 BC

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1950 BC: Esau conquers Horites at Seir and sets up administrative presence in Edom.

 

1926 BC: Esau moves to "Edom/Seir" with family

 

605 BC: Edom invades Judah

 

587 BC: Edom burns Solomon's temple

 

500 BC: Edom goes extinct in 500 BC

 

350 BC: Arab Nabateans take over their territory and build Petra on the site of Kadesh Barnea

 

Edom unlocks the key to dating Obadiah to 586 BC

 

Exodus period Nations in Canaan

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The Amorites

The Moabites

The Edomites

 

Introduction:

  1. Quick links in this document:

a.      Section I: Edom's territory and locating Kadesh Barnea during the Exodus: 1446 BC

b.      Section II: Edom's participation in Babylonian Captivity of 605-587 BC

c.       Section III: Historicity of Edom as a real nation just as the Bible says

d.      Section IV: Chronology of Edom from Esau to Extinction: 2006- 500 BC

  1. The Origin of the Edomites at Mt. Seir as a territory dates to between 1950 - 1926 BC
    1. 1950 -1945 BC Esau conquers the Horites and sets up and administrative command center at Mt. Seir in Edom while leaving his family and flocks to graze in Canaan near Hebron.
    2. 1929 BC: When Jacob returns Esau's "home base" is already in Mt Seir (Edom) but his family and flocks are still near Hebron: Genesis 33:14-16
    3. 1929-1926 BC: Now that the "heir" of Isaac has returned, it took a few years, probably three, for Esau to realize that there was not enough room for his flocks and Jacobs.
    4. 1926 BC: Esau moves EVERYTHING out of Canaan into Mt. Seir formally founding the nation of Edom: Genesis 36:6-8
  2. Seir was the first inhabitant of the "land of Seir" (Gen 36:30) before the birth of Esau. The Horites were descended from Seir, but the origin of Seir is not recorded in the Bible. There is an extensive list of the descendants of "Seir the Horite" their rulers in Genesis 36:20-30.The etymology of Horite appears to be connected with living in caves. So Seir was a man who lived in caves: "Seir the Horite" or Seir the cave dweller.
    1. The Edomites had their origin in 2006 BC at the birth of Esau. The Edomites were descended from Esau who is the brother of Jacob and son of Isaac. "Now these are the records of the generations of Esau (that is, Edom)." Genesis 36:1; "So Esau lived in the hill country of Seir; Esau is Edom." Genesis 36:8; "These are the chiefs of Edom (that is, Esau, the father of the Edomites), according to their habitations in the land of their possession." Genesis 36:43
    2. In 1926 BC, Esau first moved to Seir (which became the land of Edom) in before the return of Jacob from Laban.
    3. When Esau moved to Seir, he killed off the Horites and took over the land. "The Horites formerly lived in Seir, but the sons of Esau dispossessed them and destroyed them from before them and settled in their place, just as Israel did to the land of their possession which the Lord gave to them.)" Deut 2:12.
    4. Esau had continuous occupation of "Seir" from the time he first moved there in 1926 BC, down to the Exodus in 1446 BC: "just as He did for the sons of Esau, who live in Seir, when He destroyed the Horites from before them; they dispossessed them and settled in their place even to this day." Deuteronomy 2:22
  1. Isaac was born in 2066 BC and died at the age of 180 in 1886 BC: Genesis 25:26.
    1. Esau and Jacob were born in 2006 BC when Isaac was 60 years old.
    2. Isaac blessed Esau and Jacob in 1950 BC.
    3. Isaac died in 1886 BC age 180: Gen 35:28.
    4. In 1950 Isaac blesses Esau and Jacob and Jacob flees from Esau to Laban from 21 years. After Jacob stole the blessing of Esau, he moved away for 21 years to live with Laban.
    5. In 1929 BC Jacob returns from Laban: Upon returning Jacob meets Esau at the crossing point of the Jabbok river. This is Transjordan. Interesting to note that at this time, Edom already was known to live in Seir: "Please let my lord pass on before his servant, and I will proceed at my leisure, according to the pace of the cattle that are before me and according to the pace of the children, until I come to my lord at Seir." Esau said, "Please let me leave with you some of the people who are with me." But he said, "What need is there? Let me find favor in the sight of my lord."
    6. So Esau returned that day on his way to Seir." Genesis 33:14-16 Therefore Esau was already living in "Edom" in 1929 BC when the two brother's reunited after Jacob returned from Laban.
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  1. The Edomites are a Transjordan tribe whose territory was between Petra and the Red sea. Petra represented an east/west boundary between Edom and Moab. This is illustrated in the fact that Israel asked both Edom and Moab for permission to cross their lands from Kadesh.
  2. At the time of the Exodus, Edom did not live west of the Arabah valley. Edom remained Transjordan from 1950 BC the until after the Babylonian captivity of 605 BC. When Judea was deported, Edom moved in to fill the void.
  3. Kadesh Barnea and Mt. Hor are on the border of Edom. It is a myth that Edom lived in the Negev at the time when Israel lived at Kadesh Barnea.
  4. Since Edom was Transjordan at the time of the Exodus, Kadesh cannot be located at Ein Qudeirat, south of Beersheba and in the modern Sinai desert. Kadesh must also be located Transjordan, probably at or near Petra.
  5. Mt. Seir was their stronghold which is located just a few miles north east of Elat.
  6. Archeology proves Edom did not come into Judah until 605 BC. Therefore since Kadesh was on the border of Edom, it must be south east of the dead sea at or near Petra. This is also outside the promised land. Ein Qudeirat cannot be Kadesh because it is no where near Edom and it is 28 km inside the formal stated boundary of the promised land.
  7. Edom was a tent nation of tribal clan-chiefs:
    1. Those who reject that Edom was an organized nation before 605 BC, make a big point about finding no major cities. They insist that Edom was nomadic and living in tents, herding their flocks and use this as their proof. However is has escaped their notice that Edom was living in tents and had few sedentary living areas. This does not diminish the reality that if you set foot on their turf, they would be a real force to be feared.
    2. Kitchen has discussed this in relation with other ancient cultures like the Edomites. He describes them as "kings who lived in tents". He concludes that the lack of finding cities and other "material evidence" is "unreliable as negative evidence" to prove Edom did not exist at the same time. In other words, We know from "archeological lists" that both Mesopotamia and Edom were governed by kings. Yet apart from this we find no further evidence. Kitchen says it is invalid to reject Edom's nationhood on the basis of finding little archeological evidence during the period of 1950-1500 BC. The proof Kitchen uses that Edom was a kingdom is the list in the Bible. Kitchen points out that it is unfair for archeologists to reject Edom as a kingdom, since they accept the kingdoms of Mesopotamia with similar kinds of lists.
    3. "In western Palestine, the Execration Texts also have not only urban centres but also tribal groups linked with them. This finds a direct counterpart in contemporary Old Babylonian Mesopotamia, where it seems clear that we now have lines of kings over tribal groups (or confederations) reigning in given areas contemporaneously with rulers of urban states there. Such also would have been the Assyrian King List's early 'kings who lived in tents', and not merely fictions (Yuhong and Dailey Early Edom and Moab: The Beginning of the Iron Age in Southern Jordan 1990). Clearly, if it were not for the attestations of such tribal kings in cuneiform documents with their urban counterparts, we would (archaeologically) know nothing of them. Thus, the relatively poor, even fugitive attestation of material evidence for the Middle and Late Bronze Ages in (later) Edom and Moab is equally unreliable as negative evidence, if (as is most probable) the rulers of Shutu and clan- chiefs of Kushu were agro-pastoralists and largely nomadic pastoralists respectively. ... The side-by-side existence of settled rulers and more tribal chiefs finds a societal echo in contemporary Old Babylonian Mesopotamia, where Amorite tribal 'kings' ruled in the same general areas also subject to the dynasts reigning in specific cities; documents bear oaths sworn in the joint names of such 'complementary' rulers, for example (Yuhong and Dalley 1990)." (Early Edom And Moab, Egyptian evidence on Ancient Jordan; K. A. Kitchen, Editor: Piotr Bienkowski, 1992 AD)
    4. "This is entirely consistent with the pastoralists of Merenptah's time, and the raid on Seir by Ramesses III (an action repeating the claim of Ramesses II) may have been linked with Egyptian mining interests in Timna in both reigns, and the security of those interests. Clearly, Seir/Edom was not just a deserted wilderness in the Late Bronze/Iron Age transitional period — there were enough people there to concern Egyptian official interests, and the lifestyle was (at least in part) pastoral and (with tents) at least semi- nomadic. The consequent scarcity of tangible physical remains in the archaeological record is, therefore, not surprising; cf. above on the tented tribal kings of the Old Babylonian period. Moab, and especially Edom, should be considered mainly as 'tented kingdoms', likewise, in at any rate the 13th to perhaps the 9th centuries BC, as a result." (Early Edom And Moab, Egyptian evidence on Ancient Jordan; K. A. Kitchen, Editor: Piotr Bienkowski, 1992 AD)

 

 

Section I: Edom's territory and locating Kadesh Barnea during the Exodus: 1446 BC

Quick links in this document:

Section II: Edom's participation in Babylonian Captivity of 605-587 BC

Section III: Historicity of Edom as a real nation just as the Bible says

Section IV: Chronology of Edom from Esau to Extinction: 2006- 500 BC

 

A. Transjordan territory of the Edomites

  1. Kadesh Barnea is correctly located Transjordan on the border of Edom at Petra, or just north at El Beidha.
  2. Kadesh Barnea is on the border of Edom and this refutes locating Kadesh at Ein Qudeirat.
    1. Starting in 1916 BC, all Bible maps have wrongly placed Kadesh at Ein Qudeirat which is not only 50 miles west of the border of Edom, it is 29 Km inside the promised land of Judah!
    2. Proving Edom was Transjordan until 605 BC refutes Kadesh being located at Ein Qudeirat because it is NO WHERE NEAR the border of Edom.
    3. Some map makers place Edom in the Negev near Ein Qudeirat but fail to note that this first happened 800 years after Israel was in Kadesh Barnea at Petra.
  3. The most critical issue is to firmly establish that Edom was Transjordan at the time of the Exodus.
    1. The earliest evidence from Egyptian archaeological finds, proves Edom was always Transjordan.
    2. Notice that David 1000 BC and Amaziah 797 BC, fought Edom in the Arabah valley, not in the Negev. This proves that Edom's territory was not in the Negev.
    3. Notice that Edom was still Transjordan during the time of Jehoshaphat. The southern longer route around the Dead Sea, then across in to modern Jordan then north to Moab, intersected the wilderness of Edom. This proves Edom was Transjordan: "Then he went and sent word to Jehoshaphat the king of Judah, saying, "The king of Moab has rebelled against me. Will you go with me to fight against Moab?" And he said, "I will go up; I am as you are, my people as your people, my horses as your horses." He said, "Which way shall we go up?" And he answered, "The way of the wilderness of Edom. So the king of Israel went with the king of Judah and the king of Edom; and they made a circuit of seven days' journey, and there was no water for the army or for the cattle that followed them." 2 Kings 3:7-9
  1. Edom remained Transjordan from 1950 BC the until after the Babylonian captivity of 605 BC.
    1. The Edomites moved in to the Negev for the first time in history only after 605 BC.
    2. When Nebuchadnezzar first attacked in 605 BC Edom began to move into the Judean Negev and attack Kinah and Arad as seen in the Arad ostraca.
    3. When Nebuchadnezzar destroyed Jerusalem it was Edom who lit the match to burn the temple in 587 BC.
    4. With the entire population deported to Babylon except a few, Edom had freedom in the Negev until Nebuchadnezzar and others came and destroyed Edom too as prophesied.
  1. The northern border of Edom with Moab was parallel with Kadesh (Petra) Judges 11:15-18 teaches us that the border between Moab and Edom, was and east west line that ran through Kadesh at Petra. Since Kadesh was right on the borders between Moab and Edom, they asked both Moab to pass from Petra north-east and Edom to pass south-east. Both refused.
  2. Notice when Edom's prince fled he was allied with Midian, another Transjordan nation: "Then the Lord raised up an adversary to Solomon, Hadad the Edomite; he was of the royal line in Edom. " 1 Kings 11:14 "They arose from Midian and came to Paran; and they took men with them from Paran and came to Egypt, to Pharaoh king of Egypt, who gave him a house and assigned him food and gave him land. " 1 Kings 11:18.
  3. Notice that David 1000 BC and Amaziah 797 BC, fought Edom in the Arabah valley of Salt, not in the Negev. This proves that Edom's territory was not in the Negev. These are large slaughters and prove the center of power for Edom was Transjordan and not in the Negev. If Edom was anywhere near Ein Qudeirat, as some wrongly believe, you would have records of some of these battles taking place in the Negev. The silence is important. The fact that two battles took place in the Arabah valley of Salt is as significant as it is instructive: 1000 BC: "So David made a name for himself when he returned from killing 18,000 Edomites in the Valley of Salt." 2 Samuel 8:13 800 BC: "Now Amaziah strengthened himself and led his people forth, and went to the Valley of Salt and struck down 10,000 of the sons of Seir. The sons of Judah also captured 10,000 alive and brought them to the top of the cliff and threw them down from the top of the cliff, so that they were all dashed to pieces." 2 Chronicles 25:11-12. Amazingly, after defeating Edom, Amaziah started worshipping the Edomite idols: 2 Chronicles 25:14-16.
  4. Nelson Glueck recognized that Edom was Transjordan: "Why it was that an inspired handful of religious geniuses in Israel and Judah developed the idea of one great God, and that the people of the Book has maintained itself to this very day, while Edom and the Edomites, and the other contemporary kingdoms and peoples of Transjordan have long since disappeared into the limbo of the past, is explained by the rational as an accident of history, and by the religious as the result of the handiwork of God." (The Civilization of the Edomites, Nelson Glueck, 1947 AD)
  5. This map put from Biblical Archeological Review, (Dec 1996) proves that all archeologists know Edom did not move into the Negev any earlier than 800 BC. Note that the blue text on the map was added by us and it not on the original map. The blue words, however, summarize the essence of the BAR article.
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  6. The Edomites were living at Petra at the time Judah went into Babylonian captivity. When Judah was deported, only then, for the first time, did the Edomites move into the Negev: "The Petrans' revenge on Judah: In the late 600 BCE, the smaller kingdoms of the Middle East were gripped by fear of the aggressive might of Babylonia (modern Iraq), the super-power at the head of the Persian Gulf. In the face of this threat the Triad worshippers of Petra actually became allies of the Judaeans for a brief time, but this alliance was only superficial and when Jerusalem (then held by the Judaeans) fell to Babylon in 586 BCE after a two-year siege, the Petrans could not resist their glee as the city was burned and everything reduced to rubble. At last they were seeing their revenge for their ancient grievances. The Judaeans who managed to flee from the city were hunted down and shown no mercy. Their lamentations also contained a warning to the triumphant Petrans, who assisted the Babylonians in the decimation of the city and its inhabitants: "Our pursuers were swifter than the vultures in the sky, they chased us on the mountains, they lay in wait for us in the wilderness . . . [you may] rejoice and be glad, O daughter of Edom, dweller in the land of Uz; but to you also the cup shall pass!" (Lam. 4:18-22). The Petrans jubilantly chanted "Down with it! Even to the foundation" as the Babylonians systematically destroyed Jerusalem. Psalm 137 records the cry of one aggrieved Judaean against the Babylonians: "Blessed be he who shall deal with them as they dealt with us! Blessed be he who shall take their little ones and dash their heads against the rocks!" If the Petrans had truly helped or encouraged the Babylonians to seize fleeing infants and kill them in this horrific manner, one can understand the curses against them that were to follow. But any retribution for the Judaeans was not yet - they were carried off captive, and the Petran Edomites immediately moved into the derelict territory and set up a new kingdom, known as Idumaea (now the Negev in Israel)." (Rolalyn Maqsood, Petra: A traveler's Guide, 1994 AD)
  7. In 1884 AD, Henry Trumbull popularized the idea that Kadesh was not at Petra, as had been believed for 2000 years before him, but at Qedeis. He comments on how there is a need to redefine the land of Edom in a new way. He suggests that Edom was not limited to the Transjordan, but right beside Kades in the land of Judah: " "This identification, with its linkings, necessitates the re-shaping of much of the geography of the southern border of Palestine and the neighboring regions, as indicated in the maps, cyclopedias, commentaries, and guide-books, now in common use. For example, as the westernmost limit of Edom is not indicated in the Bible except by its relation to Kadesh-barnea, that limit now passes from an unknown to a known quantity, by the fixing of a site which is described as just beyond it. So, also, the traditional Mount Hor must be recognized as an impossible Mount Hor; and the central and northern Arabah must no longer be counted a main camping-ground of the Israelites in their wanderings." (Kadesh-Barnea, Henry Clay Trumbull, 1884 AD, p 320)
  8. Here is a "map of errors" that is based solely on mistake of locating Kadesh at Ein Qudeirat. Since the Bible says that Kadesh and Mt. Hor were on the border of Edom, they just move Edom west into the Negev without any Biblical, historic or archeological basis. It is one of the worst cases of circular reasoning we have seen, and perhaps one of the more damaging. By rewriting maps to bring Edom into the Negev, where they never lived before 800 BC, it gives false support to Kadesh Barnea being located at Ein Qudeirat. They know they must do this, because if Edom was not Transjordan at the time of the Exodus, then so was Kadesh. It also automatically disqualifies Kadesh and Mt. Hor to be located at Ein Qudeirat. These amateur mappers are not content to just move Edom, they also move the Negev so far north, that none of the Negev is in the Negev! The Negev is actually located from the Ramon Canyon south to Elat and edges on the Arabah valley. Then they just start randomly choosing no less than three locations for Mt. Hor, none of which are correct. They also randomly pick a location for Mt. Seir at Jebel esh-Shera (or Shairah) located about 16 km west of Elat. None of these locations have the slightest historic or archeological basis. However, they do correctly identify Mt. Hor beside Petra, which is the historic location of Aaron's tomb since the time of Josephus.
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B. Edom and Moab denied Israel permission to cross their land:

  1. "From Kadesh Moses then sent messengers to the king of Edom "Thus your brother Israel has said, 'You know all the hardship that has befallen us; that our fathers went down to Egypt, and we stayed in Egypt a long time, and the Egyptians treated us and our fathers badly. 'But when we cried out to the Lord, He heard our voice and sent an angel and brought us out from Egypt; now behold, we are at Kadesh, a town on the edge of your territory. " Numbers 20:14-16
  2. "For when they came up from Egypt, and Israel went through the wilderness to the Red Sea and came to Kadesh, then Israel sent messengers to the king of Edom, saying, "Please let us pass through your land," but the king of Edom would not listen. And they also sent to the king of Moab, but he would not consent. So Israel remained at Kadesh. 'Then they went through the wilderness and around the land of Edom and the land of Moab, and came to the east side of the land of Moab, and they camped beyond the Arnon; but they did not enter the territory of Moab, for the Arnon was the border of Moab. Judges 11:16-18
  3. "They journeyed from Ezion-geber and camped in the wilderness of Zin, that is, Kadesh. They journeyed from Kadesh and camped at Mount Hor, at the edge of the land of Edom. " Numbers 33:36-37
  4. "It is eleven days' journey from Horeb by the way of Mount Seir to Kadesh-barnea. " Deuteronomy 1:2
  5. ""Then we set out from Horeb, and went through all that great and terrible wilderness which you saw on the way to the hill country of the Amorites , just as the Lord our God had commanded us; and we came to Kadesh-barnea. " Deuteronomy 1:19
  6. "Then the sons of Israel, the whole congregation, came to the wilderness of Zin in the first month; and the people stayed at Kadesh. Now Miriam died there and was buried there. " Numbers 20:1
  7. "for in the wilderness of Zin, during the strife of the congregation, you rebelled against My command to treat Me as holy before their eyes at the water." (These are the waters of Meribah of Kadesh in the wilderness of Zin.)" Numbers 27:14
  8. "They journeyed from Ezion-geber and camped in the wilderness of Zin, that is, Kadesh. " Numbers 33:36

 

C. God "dawned from Seir", from the north at Sinai

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  1. God came from the North (Seir and Edom) and from the distance grew larger and closer then finally descended upon mount Sinai. This proves Mt. Sinai is nearby Seir and Edom.
  2. ""Lord, when You went out from Seir, When You marched from the field of Edom, The earth quaked, the heavens also dripped, Even the clouds dripped water. The mountains quaked at the presence of the Lord, This Sinai, at the presence of the Lord, the God of Israel. " Judges 5:4-5
  3. "He said, "The Lord came from Sinai, And dawned on them from Seir; He shone forth from Mount Paran, And He came from the midst of ten thousand holy ones; At His right hand there was flashing lightning for them. " Deuteronomy 33:2
  4. Here is a detailed study of how God dawned from the North.

 

Section II: Edom's participation in Babylonian Captivity of 605-587 BC

Quick links in this document:

Section I: Edom's territory and locating Kadesh Barnea during the Exodus: 1446 BC

Section III: Historicity of Edom as a real nation just as the Bible says

Section IV: Chronology of Edom from Esau to Extinction: 2006- 500 BC

Edom burned Solomon's Temple: 2006 -500 BC

  1. Edomites burned Solomon's temple at the hands of the Babylonians:
    1. Nebuzaradan wanted to burn the temple of Solomon and the Edomites volunteered to light the match as delegated agents of destruction:
    2. "You [Cyrus] also vowed to rebuild the temple which the Edomites set on fire when Judah was devastated by the Chaldeans." (1 Esdras 4:45)
    3. "Now on the tenth day of the fifth month, which was the nineteenth year of King Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, Nebuzaradan the captain of the bodyguard, who was in the service of the king of Babylon, came to Jerusalem. He burned the house of the Lord, the king’s house and all the houses of Jerusalem; even every large house he burned with fire." (Jeremiah 52:12–13)
  2. The Arad ostraca and the Edomite Threat: 605 - 587 BC
    1. Arad ostraca inscription number 40 and Arad ostraca inscription number 24 are an amazing window into the world of Zedekiah in 597 BC and the encroachment of Edom into the Judean Negev for the first time in history.
    2. Dating to 597 BC, the Arad ostraca fully document the invasion of Edom into the Judean Negev for the first time starting in 605 BC
    3. "In a series of Hebrew letters recovered from the excavation of the fortress at Arad by the late Yohanan Aharoni, the Edomites are also mentioned. Aharoni notes that the letters came from stratum VI and suggest that this stratum was destroyed by the Edomites in 595 B.C. According to Aharoni, the letter mentioning the Edomites is addressed to the Judahite commander of the Arad fort, who is ordered to send soldiers to reinforce the garrison at Ramat Negeb in the eastern Negev, because an attack by the Edomites is anticipated—“lest the Edomites come,” to use the language found on the Hebrew ostracon (an inscribed pottery sherd)." (New Light on the Edomites, Itzhaq Beit-Arieh, BAR 14:02, 1988)
    4. Arad ostraca 40 and 24 illustrate the serious Edomite threat in the Judean Negev to Zedekiah in 597 BC, when local fort command­ers disobeyed, under threat of death, a strict order of King Zedekiah. Arad ostraca #40 was written first and #24 is the reply.
    5. The two ostraca [Arad inscription 40 and inscription 24] illustrate the state of emer­gency in the Negeb of Judah in the last years of the kingdom of Judah, when the high command found it difficult to impose its authority on the local fort command­ers and was obliged to issue strict orders and even threaten them with the death pen­alty for its commands to be obeyed." (Ostracon 40 from Arad reconsidered, Nadav na'aman, 2003 AD)
    6. This is important because it proves Kadesh Barnea CANNOT be located at Ein Qudeirat in the Sinai, but rather at Petra.
    7. Kadesh Barnea is located ON THE BORDER with Edom and because Edom was never anywhere near Quderat (see map below) in 1406 BC this forces Kadesh into modern Jordan.
    8. Only after 605 BC did Edom, for the first time in history, move into the Judean Negev.

    1. The current location of Kadesh Barnea in every almost Bible map today is wrong. Take note that before 1916 AD, most Bible scholars located Kadesh Barnea either at Petra or nearby.
    2. Outline on the HISTORICAL SEARCH FOR KADESH BARNEA

  1. Condemnation for Edom for its role in the 587 BC destruction of Judah and Temple: Obadiah 10-14, Ps. 137:7; Lam. 4:21; Ezek. 25:12-14; 32:29; 35:1-15. 1 Esdras 4:45. Jer 27:1-3; 49:13, 16-18.
    1. "the day of Jerusalem’s fall, how Edom said, “Tear it down! Tear it down! Down to its foundations!”" (Psalm 137:7)
    2. "Edom acted revengefully against the house of Judah" (Ezekiel 25:12–14)
    3. "Edom cherished an ancient enmity, and gave Israel to the power of the sword at the time of their calamity, at the time of their final punishment" (Ezekiel 35:5)
    4. "Edom said, ‘These two nations [Israel and Judah] and these two lands will be mine, and we will possess them'" (Ezekiel 35:10)
    5. "“As you rejoiced over Israel because it was desolate" (Ezekiel 35:15)
    6. "“Because of violence to your brother Jacob, on the day that you stood aloof, on the day that strangers carried off his wealth, And foreigners entered his gate And cast lots for Jerusalem- You too were as one of them. “Do not gloat over your brother’s day, “Do not enter the gate of My people In the day of their disaster. And do not loot their wealth In the day of their disaster. Do not stand at the fork of the road To cut down their fugitives; And do not imprison their survivors In the day of their distress." (Obadiah 10-14)
    7. "Cyrus vowed to rebuild the temple which the Edomites set on fire when Judah was devastated by the Chaldeans." (1 Esdras 4:45)
    8. Referencing Cyrus' decree in 536 BC "Then the king said to him, “Ask what you want, above what was proposed, and we will give [it] to you inasmuch as you have been found to be the wisest; you shall sit next to me and be called my kinsman.” 43 Then he said to the king, “Remember the vow you made, on the day you received the kingdom, to rebuild Jerusalem 44 and to restore all the vessels taken from Jerusalem and expropriated by Cyrus when dhe vowed to make an end of Babylon and vowed to send [them] back there. 45 You also vowed to rebuild the temple which the Edomites set on fire when Judah was devastated by the Chaldeans. 46 Now this is what I request, O lord king, and what I beg of you, for this is [in accord] with your generosity; I beg of you now that you perform the vow you made to the King of heaven with your own mouth to perform.” 47 Then Darius the king arose and kissed him, and wrote letters on his behalf to all the stewards, subordinate district magistrates, commanders, and governors to grant safe conduct to him and all those who were going up with him to rebuild Jerusalem. 48 He also wrote letters to all the subordinate magistrates in Coelesyria and Phoenicia, and especially to those in the Libanus, who were to transport cedar logs from the Libanus to Jerusalem and so help him rebuild the city. 49 He further issued letters of immunity for all the Jews who were going up from his kingdom to Judah to the effect that no official, governor, subordinate district magistrate, or steward should force his way into their doors; 50 that all the land which they were to occupy should be free from tribute for them, that the Edomites give up the villages which they took over from the Jews; 51 that twenty talents be given yearly for the reconstruction of the temple until it is finished; 52 that ten talents [be given] yearly toward the daily burnt offering—inasmuch as they are commanded to offer seventeen—; 53 that freedom be given to all who come up from Babylon to build the city, to them and to their children, as well as to all the priests who come up. 54 He stipulated that expenses [be provided] along with the priestly vestments which they use in the [worship] service. 55 He decreed that the expenses of the Levites be paid until the day when the house [of God] was completed and Jerusalem rebuilt. 56 He also allocated land and wages to all the guards of the city. 57 He sent back all the vessels that Cyrus had expropriated from Babylon—everything that Cyrus had ordered to be done, he commanded to be done and sent back to Jerusalem." (1 Esdras 4:42–57, Translation, AYBC, 2008, 539 BC)
  1. Edom will become an extinct nation:
    1. "Bozrah will become an object of horror, a reproach, a ruin and a curse; and all its cities will become perpetual ruins.” (Jeremiah 49:13)
    2. "The arrogance of your (Edom's) heart has deceived you, Though you make your nest as high as an eagle’s, I will bring you down from there,” declares the Lord. “Edom will become an object of horror; everyone who passes by it will be horrified and will hiss at all its wounds. “Like the overthrow of Sodom and Gomorrah with its neighbors,” says the Lord, “no one will live there, nor will a son of man reside in it." (Jeremiah 49:16–18)
  1. The Nabateans who rebuilt tomb city of Kadesh Barnea occupied by Moses during the exodus (1444-1407 BC) into the Petra we see today are a mystery.
    1. The Nabateans come onto the world stage for the first time about 350 BC.
    2. Edom went extinct about 550 BC when they were destroyed by Babylon.
    3. Some speculate that the Nabateans are the remnant of Edom.
    4. The origin of the Nabateans remains a mystery but it is certainly not Edom.
  1. God said that Edom would become an extinct nation and we can see the huge boundaries of the Nabatean kingdom in 50 BC at its greatest extent.

 

 

Section III: Historicity of Edom as a real nation just as the Bible says   

Quick links in this document:

Section I: Edom's territory and locating Kadesh Barnea during the Exodus: 1446 BC

Section II: Edom's participation in Babylonian Captivity of 605-587 BC

Section IV: Chronology of Edom from Esau to Extinction: 2006- 500 BC

 A. Edomite nation 1800 BC: "The archeologist debate"

  1. Both scripture and Egyptian archeological sources, confirm beyond any doubt, that the Edomites were a nation in 1800 BC. However archeologists who reject the Bible as God's word, do not believe the Edomites were an organization nation until about 800 BC. K. A. Kitchen, however, has supplied clear proof that Edom was a nation in 1800 BC, just as the Bible says:
    Click to View
  2. K. A. Kitchen's map of Egyptian evidence for Edom being nation from 1900 - 1800 BC:
    "There are now three series of Egyptian 'Execration Texts' that list lands and rulers on both sides of the Jordan: the Mirgissa series (Koenig 1990:111-112) of c. 1870 BC (at very latest, c. 1840 BC)1, the Berlin series (Sethe 1926) coming closely after these with identical phraseology, of c. 1850 BC (at latest, c. 1840 BC), and then the Brussels series (Posener 1940), near the end of the 12th Dynasty c. 1800 BC (at latest, c. 1760 BC). From these texts, limited but valuable facts about Jordan in Middle Bronze Age II can be gleaned.2 Locations east of the Jordan can be viewed in three groups (Figure 3.1): SHUTU is a region named in a Beni Hasan tomb, the Mirgissa texts and the Berlin texts as an area (having three rulers in the Berlin texts), later specified as Upper and Lower Shutu in the Brussels texts. The identification of this name with Sheth of 'the Sons of Sheth' as an ancient synonym for Moab(ites) in Numbers 24:16 is widely accepted and fits wel1.3 We have a virtual succession of local rulers, thus: 1. Saripu(m) (Mirgissa), c. 1870 BC (Koenig 1990:111, F.4) Abisharru visiting Egypt c. 1863 BC (Year 6 of Sesostris II; Newberry 1893:p1.28) 2. Ayyabum ('Job'; Sethe 1926:46, e-4; Albright 1928:239; 1954:225-227, 232:1), Koshar (cf. Kothar; Sethe 1926:46f., e-5; cf. Helck 1962:50), and Zabilunu ('Zebulon; Sethe 1926:47, e-6; Albright 1928:239; 1954:225-232; Helck 1962:50), being three contemporary rulers within Shutu, c. 1850 BC. 3. Shumu-abu (Posener 1940:89-90; Helck 1962:60) ruling Upper Shutu, and Yalanis-`ammu5 in Lower Shutu, c. 1800 BC. These rulers should be compared with `Ammi-inshi (or -nasi), ruler of 'Upper Retenu' in south Syria (north-west of Jordan) in the story of Sinuhe, ruling agricultural and pastoral territories within definite political boundaries with other polities.6 Some would claim (Rainey 1972:376 and n.38 [following Mazar]; Aharoni 1979:19, 143, 186, n.20) that Sinuhe's enclave within his area, 133 or 'Araru, coincides with the Araru of the later Amama Letters (EA 256), east of the Sea of Galilee and along the north side of the Yarmuk. 2. KUSHU occurs in the story of Sinuhe (c.1900 BC) and in the Brussels texts. In the former, Sinuhe summons the leader (? -hnty) Ya`ush from out of Kushu7 (Sinuhe B 220). The man's name is identical with the Ya`ush ('Jeush') of Gen. 36:5, 15 (are), 18, among the sons of Esau traditionally said to have decamped to Edom in the late patriarchal age (c. 17th century BC). In the Brussels texts (c. 1800 BC), it is of special interest that we find not 'rulers' (hew) but instead 'chiefs' (wrw) of clans (whywt) of (the territory) Kushu (Posener 1940:88-89, E 50-51)." (Early Edom And Moab, Egyptian evidence on Ancient Jordan; K. A. Kitchen, Editor: Piotr Bienkowski, 1992 AD)
  3. "In summary, the Egyptians of the early 2nd millennium BC clearly knew of, and had contacts with, the whole line of territory east of the Jordan valley from east of Huleh south to what became Edom. Up north, Maacah is shadowy, but Araru was probably already an entity. Certainly Ashteroth, Busruna and Sur(-Bashan) were settlements on and near important routes. In later Gilead (latiore sensu), inland east of Pella, were perhaps Ramith, certainly Haram, and faraway Qarqur. Bordering south of this, Upper Shutu may have occupied the later Ammonite territory while Lower Shutu held the later Moab. South again roamed the clans of Kushu. The proper names of all the local rulers belonged to the familiar range of West Semitic ('Amorite/Canaanite') types so well-attested from the vast Mari archives and reaching back into Ur III records even before the start of the 2nd millennium BC." (Early Edom And Moab, Egyptian evidence on Ancient Jordan; K. A. Kitchen, Editor: Piotr Bienkowski, 1992 AD)
  4. K. A. Kitchen's map of Egyptian evidence from 1406 - 1180 BC:
    Click to View

 

B. "Hittitus" The minimalist archeologist disease: Edom a mythical Bible nation (not!)

"Hittitus": Rejecting the history of the Bible as false until man can confirm it with his own eyes

 

"Edomititus": Rejecting the Bible's statement that Edom was a sophisticated organized nation of domesticated shepherds at the time of the Exodus.

 

Learn more about this terrible disease.

1.      Many archeologists suffer from a disease called, "Hittitus". The majority of archeologists are Bible trashers, namely they reject the Bible as an accurate historic and reliable record of history.

a.      At the turn of the century, skeptics viewed the Bible as myth rather than real world history . For example, the Bible makes over 40 references to the great Hittite Empire.

b.      You see, in the 1800's, no archaeological evidence had ever been found to prove it really did exist. "Just another Bible myth!" skeptics charged in an attempt to destroy our faith in the Bible.

c.       This, however, cannot be said today, for in 1906, Hugo Winckler uncovered a library of 10,000 clay tablets. These ancient records fully documented the long lost Hittite Empire and confirmed the reliability of the Bible. Later excavations uncovered Boghazkoy, the capital city of this "mythical" empire. These discoveries not only authenticate Scripture, but also illuminate many aspects of biblical culture. Abraham's purchase of Ephron's field records the following: "So Ephron's field, which was in Machpelah, which faced Mamre, the field and cave which was in it, and all the trees which were in the field, that were within all the confines of its border, were deeded over to Abraham for a possession in the presence of the sons of Heth." (Genesis 23:17), This reflects the standard Hittite real estate procedure of counting the trees involved in any purchase or sale of land. Note also that the witnesses to Abraham's purchase were the "son's of Heth" -i.e. the Hittites.

d.      Today, so many Bible cities, names and events have been unearthed through archaeology that the Bible is considered the single most important historical document in existence. Many lost cities have been located using the Bible as a road map. So startling and impressive are some of the finds that one archaeologist was compelled to say, "They are digging up Bible stories!" The shovel and spade have confirmed that the historical information of the Bible is both accurate and reliable. Skeptics once rejected the Bible's claim that the Hittite Empire existed until they saw the evidence with their own eyes.

e.      Today, skeptics reject the Bible's claim that God himself exists or that the Bible is a divinely written book. Perhaps the only way they will believe in God is after they have seen him with their own eyes when they stand before Him in the judgment day. Only, then it will be too late!

f.        Learn more about this terrible disease.

2.      These Bible trashing archeologists debate among themselves whether Edom existed as a nation either in 1000 BC or not until 700 BC. This is absurd, since the Bible says Edom descended from Jacob in 1950 BC and immediately settled in their historic lands east of the Arabah valley between Petra and the Red Sea: "Now these are the records of the generations of Esau (that is, Edom)." Genesis 36:1; "So Esau lived in the hill country of Seir; Esau is Edom." Genesis 36:8

3.      The Bible clearly identifies a succession of Kings of Edom starting with Esau: "Now these are the names of the chiefs descended from Esau, according to their families and their localities, by their names: chief Timna, chief Alvah, chief Jetheth, chief Oholibamah, chief Elah, chief Pinon, chief Kenaz, chief Teman, chief Mibzar, chief Magdiel, chief Iram. These are the chiefs of Edom (that is, Esau, the father of the Edomites), according to their habitations in the land of their possession." Genesis 36:40-43

4.      In spite of this clear, inspired by God information, that Esau lived in Mt. Seir from about 1950 BC, faithless archeologists have determined that the nation of Edom got its identity from a land area merely named Edom. They teach that first there was the Transjordan land area named Edom, but there were no Edomites. The land was just called Edom. Then, over time, nomads moved into this area and became known as the Edomites. The truth is, that Esau moved into a previously uninhabited area that was named Edom because of the people living there. For archeologists, the land came first, then the people were named after the land. For the Bible believer, Esau moved into this land, which was then named after him.

5.      At the birth of Esau, he was stated to be a nation: "The Lord said to her, "Two nations are in your womb; And two peoples will be separated from your body; And one people shall be stronger than the other; And the older shall serve the younger."" Genesis 25:23

The Bible

Bible trashing archeologists
Disease: Hittitus

At the very beginning of civilization, Cain was a farmer of grain and Abel was a herder of sheep. Esau and Jacob were herders and breeders of domesticated animals in 1950 BC.

Man had not evolved enough from the "blob in the sea", to understand about herding animals until about 1000 BC. Even in 1000 BC they were only hunters of wild animals and picked wild fruits and nut for food.

The Edomites got their name from Esau after he moved there and occupied the land. The land "Edom" was named after the descendants of Esau moved there.

The land was first called Edom, then a group uncivilized "hunter/gatherers" started roaming the land and they took the name "Edomites" from the land.

Edom was an organized nation headed by a king at the time of the exodus in 1446 BC.

Edom did not exist as a nation until about 700 BC.

 

C. Kitchen exposes and refutes Bible trashers who teach Edom and Moab were not a nation earlier than 1000 BC:

  1. Many people do not realize that just as there are dishonest evolutionists who deliberately teach debunked "science" to prove man came from an ape, so too in archeology. Most Christians do not realize that most Biblical archeologists are Bible trashers: They do not believe the Bible is God's inspired word. They reject the flood story, believe that the exodus is a myth, David and Solomon were never kings as described in the Bible, that the book of Deuteronomy was written in 600 BC rather than 1446 BC.
  2. K. A. Kitchen is a an archeologist who is a defender of scripture. Below we have given you his refutation of Bible trashers who do not believe Edom or Moab were nations earlier than about 700 BC.
  3. Specifically the discussion is about an inscription from the time of Ramesses II that says: "Town (dmi) that Pharaoh's arm [captur]ed: Tibunu." Kitchen, being a world authority on Egyptian history, shows that Tibunu is the town of Dibon, in Moabite territory. This is a huge problem for Bible trashers because if Tibunu is the town of Dibon, then it proves Moab was an organized kingdom at about 1250 BC (the time of Ramesses II). Kitchen exposes their deceptive and unscholarly attempt to mislead the world (an unsuspecting Christians) into believing that this evidence is invalid.
  4. "Town (dmi) that Pharaoh's arm [captur]ed: Tibunu. In this strictly Moabite context, this name is, and can only be, Dibon. In the third scene, no further names are readably preserved. There is, therefore, no factual doubt whatsoever about the readings of the names Moab, Butartu, Tibunu, and no convincing alternative to interpreting these three names as standing for Moab, (Raba) Batora and Dibon. That is — or should have been — the end of the matter, if normal scholarly standards were to prevail. Unfortunately, in biblical studies, they do not; and a veritable 'ignoramus choir' has done its best to evade the clear impact of this evidence. First came Ahituv (1972) in a paper swarming with careless inaccuracies,37 wrongly locating Tibunu in Galilee, in the wake of Aharoni's placement of Tuthmoside Tpn, itself now ruled out by Redford's study (Redford 1982a, 1982b:118-119). Ahituv's blunders were completely refuted soon afterwards by this writer (Kitchen 1976), a fact conveniently ignored by some commentators.38 Totally misleading were the remarks by Miller (1977:250-251), entirely wrongly claiming that this writer's readings were 'open to question' and that 'the names "Moab" and "Dibon" could be read only after prolonged study which involved some reconstruction of the text'. As has been made clear already above, exactly the opposite is true. There is no doubt about the physical readings of Moab, Dibon or Butartu; prolonged study and recollations were devoted to the wall specifically to ensure that no fundamental error could creep into its decipherment; and there was no 'reconstruction' of the text other than in minor details. In any future edition of that work, Miller's remarks require to be publicly retracted. In turn in 1979, Weippert indulged in equally misleading speculations (1979:27 and n.44). First, the type of fort shown (be it 2b or whatever) is irrelevant; whenever the places named on such forts can be identified, they were proper settlements — and the term dmi, 'town', means a proper settlement (even if small), not merely a few tents of moving nomads. Therefore, we do know that Ramesses II did capture either a fort or a settlement, if of unknown size, contrary to Weippert's misleading remarks. Second, Weippert blindly follows Ahituv over Tibunu, in total disregard of the relevant facts about context, spelling, etc., set out by the writer in 1976. Third, Weippert's ideas about *Yud-hamelek for Yni?]d[...] are worthless; the probable n would preclude his idea completely, and the alternative w, likewise. Thus, his denials of a Moabite locale are totally without factual foundation and must be dismissed. Then in 1981, Weinstein blindly and wholly uncritically followed the errors of Ahituv, in total ignorance of the refutation of those errors (1981:21). Aliituv in 1984 merely repeated his mistakes of over a decade before, without the slightest attempt to discuss any other views or contrary facts, in a work damned by others for its incompetence.39 His excuse (shared by others) that no Late Bronze remains are attested at Dibon is facile (cf. below), and — curiously — is an excuse that rarely prevents him from accepting other identifications that suit him; cf. his pp.103 (Gibeon), 115/6 (Hashabu), 116 (Hasi), 131 and n.33 (Labwe), and 147 (Na'aman). Clearly, double standards rule here. Finally, we have F.M. Cross who, in a hasty and ill-conceived addendum to a footnote, peremptorily rejected the clear equation of Tibunu — Dibon on the say-so of Ahituv, Weippert and Weinstein, without the slightest attempt to verify the facts (Cross 1988:58f., n.41, second part). 'I've got my pet theory, don't confuse me with contrary facts' represents his approach and the absolute nadir of scholarship. The whole tissue of nonsense, therefore, may be set aside in favour of the facts. Moab was a real entity in the 13th century BC, sufficiently to engage the attentions of Ramesses II. While it (like Edom) may have had a considerable pastoral/semi-nomadic element, it also had a certain number of settlements, and some — including Dibon and (Raba) Batora — are named by Ramesses. The 'Mount Mrrn' is some strategic spur whose name has simply not come down to us in any continuous tradition.40 The date of Ramesses II's campaign into Moab is unknown; it is probably best dated after Year 9, as recently suggested." (Early Edom And Moab, Egyptian evidence on Ancient Jordan; K. A. Kitchen, Editor: Piotr Bienkowski, 1992 AD)

 

Section IV: Chronology of Edom from Esau to Extinction: 2006- 500 BC

Quick links in this document:

Section I: Edom's territory and locating Kadesh Barnea during the Exodus: 1446 BC

Section II: Edom's participation in Babylonian Captivity of 605-587 BC

Section III: Historicity of Edom as a real nation just as the Bible says

Edomite history: 2006 - 500 BC

 

Historical survey of Edom:

God foresaw the hatred between Edom and Israel in 1406 BC: "You shall not detest an Edomite, for he is your brother; you shall not detest an Egyptian, because you were an alien in his land." (Deuteronomy 23:7)

 

2006 BC: Origin of Hostility between Edom and Israel:

  1. Isaac was 60 years old when Jacob and Esau were born.
  2. "But the children struggled together within her; and she said, “If it is so, why then am I this way?” So she went to inquire of the Lord. The Lord said to her, “Two nations are in your womb; And two peoples will be separated from your body; And one people shall be stronger than the other; And the older shall serve the younger.” When her days to be delivered were fulfilled, behold, there were twins in her womb. Now the first came forth red, all over like a hairy garment; and they named him Esau. Afterward his brother came forth with his hand holding on to Esau’s heel, so his name was called Jacob; and Isaac was sixty years old when she gave birth to them." (Genesis 25:22–26)

 

1986 BC: At age 20, Esau sold his birthright to Jacob:

  1. Esau and Jacob are 20 years old.
  2. At this time, Isaac is 80 years old.
  3. "When Jacob had cooked stew, Esau came in from the field and he was famished; and Esau said to Jacob, “Please let me have a swallow of that red stuff there, for I am famished.” Therefore his name was called Edom. But Jacob said, “First sell me your birthright.” Esau said, “Behold, I am about to die; so of what use then is the birthright to me?” And Jacob said, “First swear to me”; so he swore to him, and sold his birthright to Jacob. Then Jacob gave Esau bread and lentil stew; and he ate and drank, and rose and went on his way. Thus Esau despised his birthright." (Genesis 25:29–34)

 

1966-1950 BC: At age 40, Esau marries four women and has 5 sons in Canaan.

  1. Isaac was 100 years old.
  2. Esau and Jacob are 40 years old.
  3. Esau's family grew in this 16 year period:
    1. 4 wives: Judith (Barren or died), Basemath, Adah, Oholibamah
    2. 5 sons: Eliphaz, Reuel, Jeush, Jalam, Korah
  4. Esau married these wives and had these children before he move to Seir:
    1. "When Esau was forty years old he married Judith the daughter of Beeri the Hittite, and Basemath the daughter of Elon the Hittite; and they brought grief to Isaac and Rebekah." (Genesis 26:34–35)
    2. "Esau took his wives from the daughters of Canaan: Adah the daughter of Elon the Hittite, and Oholibamah the daughter of Anah and the granddaughter of Zibeon the Hivite; also Basemath, Ishmael’s daughter, the sister of Nebaioth. Adah bore Eliphaz to Esau, and Basemath bore Reuel, and Oholibamah bore Jeush and Jalam and Korah. These are the sons of Esau who were born to him in the land of Canaan." (Genesis 36:2–5)
  1. Rebekah gets annoyed with Esau's pagan wives: Genesis 26:34–35

 

1950 BC: Stolen blessing: Esau's grudge and desire to kill Jacob, Jacob flees to Laban for 21 years.

  1. Chronological notes:
    1. At this time, Isaac is 116 years old.
    2. Esau and Jacob are 56 years old.
    3. Esau has 4 wives and 5 sons but Jacob is unmarried.
  2. Rebekah's Grief:
    1. 16 years had past since Esau married the four foreign women which annoyed Rebekah.
    2. This is when Rebekah felt the grief of Esau marrying pagan women: "When Esau … married Judith the daughter of Beeri the Hittite, and Basemath the daughter of Elon the Hittite; and they brought grief to Isaac and Rebekah." (Genesis 26:34–35)
  1. Jacob steals Esau's firstborn blessing:
    1. "And he said, “Your brother came deceitfully and has taken away your blessing.” Then he said, “Is he not rightly named Jacob, for he has supplanted me these two times? He took away my birthright, and behold, now he has taken away my blessing.” And he said, “Have you not reserved a blessing for me?" (Genesis 27:35–36)
  1. Esau's grudge and death plot against Jacob:
    1. "So Esau bore a grudge against Jacob because of the blessing with which his father had blessed him; and Esau said to himself, “The days of mourning for my father are near; then I will kill my brother Jacob.” Now when the words of her elder son Esau were reported to Rebekah, she sent and called her younger son Jacob, and said to him, “Behold your brother Esau is consoling himself concerning you by planning to kill you. “Now therefore, my son, obey my voice, and arise, flee to Haran, to my brother Laban! “Stay with him a few days, until your brother’s fury subsides, until your brother’s anger against you subsides and he forgets what you did to him. Then I will send and get you from there. Why should I be bereaved of you both in one day?” Rebekah said to Isaac, “I am tired of living because of the daughters of Heth; if Jacob takes a wife from the daughters of Heth, like these, from the daughters of the land, what good will my life be to me?”" (Genesis 27:41–46)
    2. Esau wrongly assumed Isaac was soon to die because Isaac lived another 64 years.
  1. Rebekah learns of Esau's death plot and immediately sends Jacob to Laban:
    1. Wisely Rebekah tells Esau to flee because of the death threat but doesn't tell Isaac.
    2. Instead Rebekah uses their mutual annoyance of Esau's pagan Hittite wives as the reason to get Isaac to send Jacob to Laban to get a wife.
    3. Isaac is unaware of the death threat but agrees with Rebekah's clever manipulation to get Jacob a wife and save his life.
    4. Women are amazingly clever, sneeky and wise creatures!
    5. "He [Jacob] who finds a wife [Rebekah] finds a good thing And obtains favor from the Lord." (Proverbs 18:22)
    6. "An excellent wife, who can find? For her worth is far above jewels. The heart of her husband trusts in her, And he will have no lack of gain. She does him good and not evil All the days of her life." (Proverbs 31:10–12)
    7. Rebekah was wise in looking out for the welfare of her husband by sending Jacob away to Laban for 21 years.

 

1950-1926 BC: 21 years: Genesis of Edom: 1950 - 1926 BC

  1. Esau conquers the Horites during the 21 year period Jacob is in Haran with Laban:
  2. Esau moves to Seir (Edom) for the first time after he loses his birthright (1950 BC) and before Jacob returns from Laban (1929 BC)
  3. Isaac had pronounced upon Esau:
    1. "Then Isaac his father answered and said to Esau, “Behold, away from the fertility of the earth shall be your dwelling, And away from the dew of heaven from above. “By your sword you shall live, And your brother you shall serve; But it shall come about when you become restless, That you will break his yoke from your neck.”" (Genesis 27:39–40)
    2. When Jacob left, Esau took the blessing seriously and MOVED to Mt. Seir and displaced the Horites.
  4. When Esau moved to Seir, he killed off the Horites and took over the land.
    1. "The Horites formerly lived in Seir, but the sons of Esau dispossessed them and destroyed them from before them and settled in their place, just as Israel did to the land of their possession which the Lord gave to them." Deut 2:12.
    2. Esau had continuous occupation of "Seir" from the time he first moved there, down to the Exodus in 1446 BC: "just as He did for the sons of Esau, who live in Seir, when He destroyed the Horites from before them; they dispossessed them and settled in their place even to this day." Deuteronomy 2:22
  1. When Jacob returns after 21 years it took a few years (3years) for Esau to move all his flocks out of Canaan to Edom.
    1. 1950 - 21 = 1929 BC
    2. 1929 - 3 years = 1926 BC
  1. We learn that when Jacob returns, that Esau still had flocks near Hebron but with competition for grazing land between him and Jacob, Esau finally moves his flocks Transjordan to Mt. Seir.
  2. So the Genesis of Seir as a territory of the Edomites dates to between 1950 - 1926 BC
    1. 1950 -1945 BC Esau conquers the Horites and sets up and administrative command center at Mt. Seir in Edom while leaving his family and flocks to graze in Canaan near Hebron.
    2. 1929 BC: When Jacob returns Esau's "home base" is already in Mt Seir (Edom) but his family and flocks are still near Hebron: Genesis 33:14-16
    3. 1929-1926 BC: Now that the "heir" of Isaac has returned, it took a few years, probably three, for Esau to realize that there was not enough room for his flocks and Jacobs.
    4. 1926 BC: Esau moves EVERYTHING out of Canaan into Mt. Seir formally founding the nation of Edom: Genesis 36:6-8

                    

1929 BC: Jacob returns from Laban after 21 years to Hebron and fears Esau will still try to kill him.

  1. At this time, Isaac is 137 years old.
  2. Esau and Jacob are 77 years old and has 11 sons (Benjamin will be born after Jacob returns from Laban)
  3. Upon returning Jacob meets Esau at the crossing point of the Jabbok river.
    1. This is Transjordan.
    2. At this time, Edom already was known to live in Seir: "Please let my lord pass on before his servant, and I will proceed at my leisure, according to the pace of the cattle that are before me and according to the pace of the children, until I come to my lord at Seir." Esau said, "Please let me leave with you some of the people who are with me." But he said, "What need is there? Let me find favor in the sight of my lord." So Esau returned that day on his way to Seir." Genesis 33:14-16
  4. Esau had ALREADY moved to Seir 21 years after Jacob stole his blessing in 1950 BC.

 

1926 BC: Age 80, Esau moves EVERYTHING (flocks) to Seir

  1. "Then Esau took his wives and his sons and his daughters and all his household, and his livestock and all his cattle and all his goods which he had acquired in the land of Canaan, and went to another land away from his brother Jacob. For their property had become too great for them to live together, and the land where they sojourned could not sustain them because of their livestock. So Esau lived in the hill country of Seir; Esau is Edom." (Genesis 36:6–8)
  2. This echoes the time when Lot separated from Abraham.
  3. It is interesting that just as Jacob fled from the "face" of Esau, now Esau is fleeing from the face of Jacob.

 

1900 BC: The Story of Sinuhe: 1900 BC: mentions Edomite chief Jeush of Gen 36:15-18

  1. It is our conclusion that the story of Sinuhe is a literal reference to the actual Bible Edomite character named Jeush of Gen 36:15
  2. The date of the story (1900 BC) is exactly when Joseph was in Egypt (1899 BC) and shorty after Esau moved to Edom in 1926 BC.
    1. The oldest extant manuscript dates from Amenemhat III (1800 BC)
    2. The Story of Sinuhe is an extant papyrus that dates from 1900 BC that names Edomite chief Jeush of Gen 36:15-18 and echoes both contemporary Joseph later, Moses (1486-1446 BC).
  3. In the Story of Sinuhe, we have a reference to one of the "Jeush, one of the Chiefs of Edom" mentioned in Gen 36:15-18.
    1. The Story of Sinuhe says: "May then your Majesty command to have brought to you the prince of Meki from Qedem, Jeush the mountain chiefs from Kushu." [Khentiaush from Khentkesh = Jeush the mountain chiefs from Kushu]
    2. The Egyptians referred to the land of Edom as the Kushu. In the story of Sinuhe, dated 1900 BC, there is a reference to one of the "chiefs of the Kushu" whose name is Jeush.
    3. Jeush is listed as one of the chiefs of Edom in Gen 36:15-18. Amazingly, the Jeush of Gen 36 lived at the same time as the story of Sinuhe was written.
  1. This shows that Edom was an organized and recognized nation in 1900 BC.
  2. Translation: "Your Majesty is the conquering Horus; your arms vanquish all lands. May then your Majesty command to have brought to you the prince of Meki from Qedem [lit: sons of the east], Jeush the mountain chiefs from Edom [Kushu -see map], and the prince of Menus from the lands of the Fenkhu [Phoenicians]. (Story of Sinuhe lines 219-220)
  3. The storyline of exile-reconciliation echoes Flight and return of Moses in 1486-1446 BC and Joseph's life (1899 - 1406 BC BC). The main character begins in Egypt, is exiled to from Egypt to Canaan, (Joseph was exiled from Canaan to Egypt, whereas Moses from Egypt) then returns home again. A man from leaves behind a life of wealth and privilege when he moves to a foreign land and lives with strangers only to become prosperous in that land, until he is reconciled to his homeland.
  4. See outline on the Story of Sinuhe.

 

1800 BC: Egyptian sources for Moab and Edom:

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1463-1446 BC: The conquest of Thutmoses III

  1. Thutmose III was a mega-builder in the same level of greatness with Herod the Great.
  2. Thutmoses III also conducted 17 annual military campaigns, many of which "softened up" the land of Canaan in preparation for the Exodus of Moses in 1446 BC and the Conquest of Joshua in 1406 BC.
  3. "It is possible that the Semitic place name was in use as early as the fifteenth century BC, if Edom is identified with one of the place names (’i-d-má) from the list of Thutmose III (1463-1446 BC). (The Baker Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Edom, 2013 AD)

 

1406 BC: The Edomites refused to let Moses and Israel to cross from Kadesh Barnea (Petra) through their Transjordan land (Modern Jordan) on route to Canaan.

  1. God foresaw the hatred between Edom and Israel in 1406 BC: "You shall not detest an Edomite, for he is your brother; you shall not detest an Egyptian, because you were an alien in his land." (Deuteronomy 23:7)
  2. "From Kadesh Moses then sent messengers to the king of Edom: “Thus your brother Israel has said, ‘You know all the hardship that has befallen us; that our fathers went down to Egypt, and we stayed in Egypt a long time, and the Egyptians treated us and our fathers badly. ‘But when we cried out to the Lord, He heard our voice and sent an angel and brought us out from Egypt; now behold, we are at Kadesh, a town on the edge of your territory. ‘Please let us pass through your land. We will not pass through field or through vineyard; we will not even drink water from a well. We will go along the king’s highway, not turning to the right or left, until we pass through your territory.’ ” Edom, however, said to him, “You shall not pass through us, or I will come out with the sword against you.” Again, the sons of Israel said to him, “We will go up by the highway, and if I and my livestock do drink any of your water, then I will pay its price. Let me only pass through on my feet, nothing else.” But he said, “You shall not pass through.” And Edom came out against him with a heavy force and with a strong hand. Thus Edom refused to allow Israel to pass through his territory; so Israel turned away from him." (Numbers 20:14–21)
  3. "‘For when they came up from Egypt, and Israel went through the wilderness to the Red Sea and came to Kadesh, then Israel sent messengers to the king of Edom, saying, “Please let us pass through your land,” but the king of Edom would not listen. And they also sent to the king of Moab, but he would not consent. So Israel remained at Kadesh. ‘Then they went through the wilderness and around the land of Edom and the land of Moab, and came to the east side of the land of Moab, and they camped beyond the Arnon; but they did not enter the territory of Moab, for the Arnon was the border of Moab." (Judges 11:16–18)

 

1450 BC: King Saul defeats the Edomites: "Now when Saul had taken the kingdom over Israel, he fought against all his enemies on every side, against Moab, the sons of Ammon, Edom, the kings of Zobah, and the Philistines; and wherever he turned, he inflicted punishment." (1 Samuel 14:47)

 

1294-1279 BC: Edom at the time of Seti I

  1. "Late 2nd millennium BC: 19th-20th Dynasties, c. 1300-1170 BC: In terms of Egypt east of the Jordan, Sethos I [Seti 1] (c. 1294/90-1279 BC) follows on from the evidence of the Amarna letters. They showed Egyptian overlordship in Geshur and Bashan, north of the Yarmuk — and at Tell esh-Shihab was found a stela of Sethos I (PM VII:383; text in KRI 1:17). Regrettably, only the top half has survived, showing the king before the deities Amun and Mut of Thebes — any historical details have been lost with the now missing lower half that would have contained the main text of the monument. Tell esh-Shihab itself may have been the Kheni (`Ain?)-anab of EA 256, and the Qiryath-`Anab of Papyrus Anastasi I under Ramesses 11.20 In the topographical lists of Sethos I, the sole Transjordanian location known to be named is Pahil (Pella), and this repeatedly.21 The people of Pahil were reported as siding with the rebel chief of nearby Hammath in seizing the Egyptian centre at Beth-Shan.22 A list of toponyms on a granite sphinx now at the Palace of Diocletian at Split may date to this reign or — probably — earlier; at No. 28, it mentions Ashteroth (of Bashan) (KRI 1:36:13, No.8)." (Early Edom And Moab, Egyptian evidence on Ancient Jordan; K. A. Kitchen, Editor: Piotr Bienkowski, 1992 AD)

 

1279-1213 BC: Edom at the time of Ramesses II:

  1. Although the Bible says that the exodus took place at 1446 BC, most Christians blindly follow the lead of Bible trashing archeologists who teach the exodus took place in 1250 BC, where Ramesses II was the pharaoh. In fact Tuthmoses III was the pharaoh of the exodus.
  2. There is some rather stunning archeological evidence at the time of Ramesses II, that Edom was an organized nation. This should not surprise us, since the Bible says that Moses asked permission of both Edom and Moab to cross their land in 1406 BC. Ramesses II was 250 years later!
  3. Ramesses II boasts of defeating "the mountain of Seir" and "plunders the mountain ridges of the Shasu". He also makes direct reference to Dibon, in the land of Moab.
  4. "Under Ramesses II (c. 1279-1213 BC), our information shows a definite increase. In his topographical lists at Karnak, Pahil recurs. ... More important are the explicit references to Moab and Seir/Edom from Ramesses II through to Ramesses III and later. First, we may deal with Seir/Edom. The sometimes disputed mention of Seir in the Amara West list, under Shasu-lands, would simply have been copied from that of Amenophis III at Soleb, in a part not now extant. In texts of his own time, Ramesses II twice describes himself as one 'who plunders the mountain of Seir with his valiant arm; in context, Shasu is used in parallel phrases.24 On another stela from Tell er-Retabeh (east Delta), he 'plunders their [=the Shasu's] (mountain) ridges, slaying their people and building with towns (dmi) bearing his name'.25 The location of this Shasu (not paralleled by Seir) remains uncertain. But the mountain of Seir is already a fixed expression, reminiscent of the Hebrew phrase Mount Seir.26 What we learn from this is limited but of some value, namely that Seir was hilly (as in Hebrew sources), and that in the 13th century BC it was worth Ramesses II either raiding it or claiming it as subdued." (Early Edom And Moab, Egyptian evidence on Ancient Jordan; K. A. Kitchen, Editor: Piotr Bienkowski, 1992 AD)
  5. "Now we return north, to Moab, and back in time to Ramesses II. For over 80 years, the occurrence of Moab as an undoubted place-name in a topographical list of Ramesses II has been universally recognized.31 Therefore it is hardly surprising that further records of Moab in this reign should have come to light. A few decades ago, clearances by the exterior east wall of the forecourt of Ramesses II at the temple of Luxor laid bare two whole registers of war-scenes of Ramesses II (Kitchen 1964; texts, recollated, KRI II:179-183). The names of forts in the upper register indicated a Syrian locale for the events there depicted: an Apheq and Krmyn, known from other Syrian war-scenes of this reign. In the lower register, the place-names are mostly palimpsest. The names of places captured were plastered-over, and the new surface recut with names that relate to the Syrian locale of the upper register: Shabduna, the Shabtuna of Qadesh fame, and Da[l]at=Silul, 'Door of the Locusts', only otherwise known from a Ramesses II topographical list at Luxor itself. But our interest is in the original names of the lower register. In the first (north) scene, captives are led away from below a conventionally-drawn fort, whose original label reads very clearly: "Town (dmi) that Pharaoh's arm captured in the land of Moab: Btrt (Butartu)." Despite being inscribed in palimpsest with the plaster gone, almost every significant sign of both versions can be read with complete assurance. So, the scenario of this activity is in Moab beyond any possible dispute.35 The case for identifying Btrt as Raba Batora was made long ago, and is not easily bettered, locating this place at some 14 miles/23 km. south of the Arnon, or about 57 miles/92 km. south of Amman. The second scene has two places. The first has resisted any convincing identification: Yn( ?)d... or Y(..)d... in the mountain of Mrrn. The second is labelled, again, with no possible doubt as to the reading: "Town (dmi) that Pharaoh's arm [captur]ed: Tibunu." In this strictly Moabite context, this name is, and can only be, Dibon. In the third scene, no further names are readably preserved. There is, therefore, no factual doubt whatsoever about the readings of the names Moab, Butartu, Tibunu, and no convincing alternative to interpreting these three names as standing for Moab, (Raba) Batora and Dibon. That is — or should have been — the end of the matter, if normal scholarly standards were to prevail. Unfortunately, in biblical studies, they do not; and a veritable 'ignoramus choir' has done its best to evade the clear impact of this evidence." (Early Edom And Moab, Egyptian evidence on Ancient Jordan; K. A. Kitchen, Editor: Piotr Bienkowski, 1992 AD)

 

1206 BC: Pharaoh Merenptah: "Edom":

  1. Edom was used by Moses in 1446 in the first five books of the Bible.
  2. Pharaoh Merenptah uses the term Edom, as opposed to Shatu, for the Edomites.
  3. This does not mean that the term Edom was not used earlier than 1206 BC, it just represents the first solid proof from archeology of the term "Edom."
  4. Before this Edom was referred to as Shatu or Seir.

 

1205 BC: Papyrus Anastasi VI 1205 BC says:

  1. "We have finished letting the Bedouin tribes of Edom pass the Fortress" (ANET, 259)
  2. "Some 60 or more years later, in the eighth year of Merenptah, c. 1206 BC, the term Edom appears for the first time. Papyrus Anastasi VI contains the following well-known report (lines 51-61): "We have finished with allowing the Shasu clansfolk of Edom to pass the fort of Merenptah that is in Succoth ['Tjeku'], to the pools (brkt) of Pi-Atum of Merenptah that (is/are) in Succoth, to keep them alive and to keep alive their livestock, by the will of Pharaoh, LPH, the good Sun of Egypt, along with the names from the other days on which the fort of Merenptah that is in Succoth was passed [by such people...] (text, Gardiner 1937:76-77; translations, e.g. ANET:259; with notes, Caminos 1954:293)." (Early Edom And Moab,  Egyptian evidence on Ancient Jordan; K. A. Kitchen, Editor: Piotr Bienkowski, 1992 AD)
  3. "The earliest reference to Edom comes from Egypt, where Papyrus Anastasi VI preserves the report of an official from the reign of Merneptah (c. 1220 BC). He noted that the Bedouin tribes of Edom were trying to pass an Egyptian fortress to “the pools of Per-Atum” to keep themselves and their cattle alive. It is possible that the Semitic place name was in use as early as the fifteenth century BC, if Edom is identified with one of the place names (’i-d-má) from the list of Thutmose III (1490–1436 BC). (The Baker Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Edom, 2013 AD)

 

1184-1153 BC: Edom at the time of Ramesses III:

  1. Ramesses III makes direct claims to having destroyed Edom. He uses Seirites interchangeably with Shasu.
  2. It also shows that they had tents and where shepherds. Being tent dwelling shepherds does not diminish the fact they were an organized kingdom.
  3. "The picture is one of pastoralists with their livestock, which agrees well with the next item in the dossier. That in turn comes from the reign of Ramesses III (c. 1184-1153 BC). Between accounts of his conflicts with the Sea Peoples and with the Libyans (also attested on the walls of his temple at Medinet Habu), there appears the following passage (Papyrus Harris I, 76:9-11): "I destroyed the Seirites, the clans of the Shasu, I pillaged their tents [using the West Semitic term 'ohel, with their people, their property, and their livestock likewise, without limit..." (text, Erichsen 1933:93; translation, e.g. ANET:262:I; cf. Grdseloff 1947:87-88)." (Early Edom And Moab, Egyptian evidence on Ancient Jordan; K. A. Kitchen, Editor: Piotr Bienkowski, 1992 AD)

 

1001 BC: King David defeats the Edomites

  1. "For it came about, when David was in Edom, and Joab the commander of the army had gone up to bury the slain, and had struck down every male in Edom (for Joab and all Israel stayed there six months, until he had cut off every male in Edom)" (1 Kings 11:14–17)
  2. Edom met David in the Arabah valley for battle. This proves Edom did not encroach west of the Arabah valley: "Moreover Abishai the son of Zeruiah defeated 18,000 Edomites in the Valley of Salt. " 1 Chronicles 18:12 "So David made a name for himself when he returned from killing 18,000 Arameans (Edomites) in the Valley of Salt. He put garrisons in Edom. In all Edom he put garrisons, and all the Edomites became servants to David. And the Lord helped David wherever he went." 2 Samuel 8:13-14
  3. Title to Ps 60: "For the choir director; according to Shushan Eduth. A Mikhtam of David, to teach; when he struggled with Aram-naharaim and with Aram-zobah, and Joab returned, and smote twelve thousand of Edom in the Valley of Salt."
  4. "Then he put garrisons in Edom, and all the Edomites became servants to David. And the Lord helped David wherever he went." 1 Chronicles 18:13
  5. "Papyrus Moscow 127" is dated around 1001 BC.
    1. Manuscript, Papyrus Moscow 127 dates to the same time that the king of Edom named Hadad, fled to Egypt as a boy when David Attacked Edom. After David died, Hadad returned to Edom.
    2. Papyrus Moscow 127 was written by Wermai (Egyptian official) who diarizes how he was driven from his position and fled to the people of Seir. (Edomites) Incredibly, Wermai's story is not only contemporary with Hadad the Edomite (1 Kings 11:14-22) but it echoes the story of Hadad itself. Was the story inspired by Hadad or could Wermai be Hadad's Egyptian name? It could be that Wermai was in fact, and Edomite.
    3. "A century or more later brings us to a peculiar, perhaps literary letter of c. 1000 BC (at least in our extant MS — composition may have been earlier). Here, one dispossessed Egyptian official begs of another that his dire plight might be relieved (Papyrus Moscow 127; Caminos 1977:66-69, 72, pls.11/12, Co1.5:4-5). Right at the end, the man utters in rhetorical vein: 'Oh that I could send him [his local oppressor] off to Nahar(in),27 to fetch the hidden tmrgn,28 with whom he had (previously) gone to those of Seir!'29 This comes close in date to the reported flight of the baby prince of Edom into 21st- Dynasty Egypt (1 Kings 11:14-22).30 Thus, we have at least some evidence for an inhabited Edom/Seir — and having intermittent relations with Egypt — from the 13th into the 10th centuries BC." (Early Edom And Moab, Egyptian evidence on Ancient Jordan; K. A. Kitchen, Editor: Piotr Bienkowski, 1992 AD)

 

960 BC: King Solomon took control of the sea port of Ezion-geber from Edom:

  1. "King Solomon also built a fleet of ships in Ezion-geber, which is near Eloth on the shore of the Red Sea, in the land of Edom." (1 Kings 9:26)
  2. "Then Solomon went to Ezion-geber and to Eloth on the seashore in the land of Edom." (2 Chronicles 8:17)

 

950 BC: King Solomon loses control of Edom:

  1. "Then the Lord raised up an adversary to Solomon, Hadad the Edomite; he was of the royal line in Edom. For it came about, when David was in Edom, and Joab the commander of the army had gone up to bury the slain, and had struck down every male in Edom (for Joab and all Israel stayed there six months, until he had cut off every male in Edom), that Hadad fled to Egypt, he and certain Edomites of his father’s servants with him, while Hadad was a young boy. They arose from Midian and came to Paran; and they took men with them from Paran and came to Egypt, to Pharaoh king of Egypt, who gave him a house and assigned him food and gave him land. Now Hadad found great favor before Pharaoh, so that he gave him in marriage the sister of his own wife, the sister of Tahpenes the queen. The sister of Tahpenes bore his son Genubath, whom Tahpenes weaned in Pharaoh’s house; and Genubath was in Pharaoh’s house among the sons of Pharaoh. But when Hadad heard in Egypt that David slept with his fathers and that Joab the commander of the army was dead, Hadad said to Pharaoh, “Send me away, that I may go to my own country.” Then Pharaoh said to him, “But what have you lacked with me, that behold, you are seeking to go to your own country?” And he answered, “Nothing; nevertheless you must surely let me go.” … So he was an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon, along with the evil that Hadad did; and he abhorred Israel and reigned over Aram." (1 Kings 11:14–25)

 

848-872 BC: King Jehoshaphat is in alliance with Edom at Ezion-geber.

  1. At the time of King Jehoshaphat (848-872 BC) Edom was still using the same system of tribal Chiefs (sheiks) that Esau had initiated in 1926 BC: "Now there was no king in Edom; a deputy was king.""Now there was no king in Edom; a deputy was king. Jehoshaphat made ships of Tarshish to go to Ophir for gold, but they did not go for the ships were broken at Ezion-geber. Then Ahaziah the son of Ahab said to Jehoshaphat, “Let my servants go with your servants in the ships.” But Jehoshaphat was not willing." (1 Kings 22:47–49)
  2. (1 Kings 22:47) These tribal chiefs were called kings: "Now these are the kings who reigned in the land of Edom before any king of the sons of Israel reigned. Bela was the son of Beor, and the name of his city was Dinhabah." (1 Chronicles 1:43)
  3. "Jehoshaphat also made peace with the king of Israel." (1 Kings 22:44)
  4. While Jehoshaphat had the approval of the king of Edom to build ships in the Edomite seaport of Ezion-geber, it seems to be the king of Israel who destroyed the ships when his request to share the profits of the venture was denied by Jehoshaphat.

 

848 BC: King Jehoram (Joram) of Israel (841-852 BC) and Jehoshaphat and Edom join forces to defeat Moab:

  1. This where the Mesha stone was produced by Mesha, king of Moab.
  2. "Jehoshaphat said, “The word of the Lord is with him.” So the king of Israel and Jehoshaphat and the king of Edom went down to him." (2 Kings 3:12)
  3. "When the king of Moab saw that the battle was too fierce for him, he took with him 700 men who drew swords, to break through to the king of Edom; but they could not." (2 Kings 3:26)
  4. The Mesha stone dates to 848 BC:

 

941-848 BC: After Jehoshaphat died, Edom rebels from the time of King Jehoram of Judah down to the time when Jeremiah wrote the book in 561 BC.

  1. "In his days (Jehorah, king of Judah) Edom revolted from under the hand of Judah, and made a king over themselves. Then Joram crossed over to Zair, and all his chariots with him. And he arose by night and struck the Edomites who had surrounded him and the captains of the chariots; but his army fled to their tents. So Edom revolted against Judah to this day. Then Libnah revolted at the same time." (2 Kings 8:20–22)
  2. The book of 1 and 2 Kings was written by Jeremiah in 561 BC.

 

848 BC: Edoms appoints a formal king

  1. It appears that Edom did not have a formal king from the time of David to the death of Jehoshaphat but functioned tribally the way Israel did during the period of the Judges without a formal king.
  2. Around 848 BC Edom appoints a formal king, the way Saul was appointed in 1952 BC.
  1. "In his days (Jehorah, king of Judah) Edom revolted against the rule of Judah and set up a king over themselves. Then Jehoram crossed over with his commanders and all his chariots with him. And he arose by night and struck down the Edomites who were surrounding him and the commanders of the chariots. So Edom revolted against Judah to this day. Then Libnah revolted at the same time against his rule, because he had forsaken the Lord God of his fathers." (2 Chronicles 21:8–10)

 

796 BC: Adad-nirari III, king of Assyria defeats Ben Hadad III, king of Aram: 2 Kings 13:5

  1. Omri Stela of Adad-nirari III 796 BC: Outline on Adad-Nirari III king of Assyria
  2.  “Adad-nirari [III], … great king of Assyria …  by Ashur,  his lord; who has made submit  to his feet the princes within the four rims  of the earth; conquering … the Hittites,  Amurru, Tyre, Sidon, Palestine [Philistines] [Joash of] Israel [lit. Omri], Edom,    … submit to my feet, imposing tribute …  king Mari [Ben-Hadad-III] of Damascus  I received 2,300 talents of silver,  20 talents of gold, 5,000 talents of iron,  garments of linen with multicolored  trimmings, a bed (inlaid) with ivory,  a couch mounted  and  inlaid with ivory...” (Omri-land Stela from Calah/Nimrod of Adad-nirari III, 796 BC)

 

795 BC: Amaziah defeats Edom, but Edom continues in rebellion:

  1. "For about a century, Judah was unable to push forward again into Edom, which during this period evidently worked the mines in the Wadi Arabah. Edom, however, was not long to enjoy its independence. Amaziah of Judah waged successful war against it, capturing Sela, whose name he changed to Joktheel (2 Kings 14:7; 2 Chronicles 25:11-12)." (The Civilization of the Edomites, Nelson Glueck, 1947 AD)
  2. In 796 BC Adad-nirari III, king of Assyria defeats Ben Hadad III, king of Aram: 2 Kings 13:5
    1. Earliest reference to Edom outside the Bible in ASSYRIAN sources is the Omri-land stele: 796 BC
    1. Papyrus Anastasi VI references Edom in 1205 BC: "We have finished letting the Bedouin tribes of Edom pass the Fortress" (ANET, 259)
    2. The Before this time, foreign nations referred to Edom as "Kushu" or Kushan.
    3. "Local epigraphic data and Assyrian sources also suggest that the political development of Edom occurred no earlier than the eighth century B.C. The earliest reference to Edom in Assyrian inscriptions appears on the Nimrud Slab, a list of states subjugated by Adad-nirari III ca. 796 B.C. The next mention is a tribute list of Tiglath-pileser III that refers to events ca. 732 B.C. The list names the first known Edomite king, “Kaushmalaku of Edom [U-du-mu-a-a]”. From that time on, references to Edom, or Edomite kings, in Assyrian sources are usual. The earliest local epigraphic material that can be confidently dated is a royal seal impression from Umm el-Biyara referring to a personality that has been identified as “Qos-Gabr, King of Edom” (qws g[br]/mlk ’[dm]). This ruler is mentioned twice in Assyrian inscriptions from the reigns of Esarhaddon and Ashurbanipal, which date to ca. 670 B.C. While this seventh century B.C. impression only provides us with a terminus post quem for the site and its pottery, since Umm el-Biyara is essentially a one-period site, the date of the settlement cannot be too much earlier." (Journal of Hebrew Scriptures, Vol. 6, No. 56, p10, 2006 AD)
  1. Shockingly, after defeating Edom, he seeks guidance from the god's of Edom who false prophecy that the king of Judah will defeat Joash, the king of Israel if he goes to war against Israel. Joash defeats Amaziah at Beth-shemesh, takes him to Jerusalem but does not kill him (2 Chro 25:25). He then proceeds to tear down part of the wall of Jerusalem, loot the temple of Solomon and take hostages back to Samaria.
  2. "He (Amaziah) killed [the men] of Edom in the Valley of Salt 10,000 and took Sela by war, and named it Joktheel to this day." (2 Kings 14:7)
  3. "But Amaziah would not listen, for it was from God, that He might deliver them into the hand of Joash because they had sought the gods of Edom." (2 Chronicles 25:20)
  4. "And Amaziah, the son of Joash king of Judah, lived fifteen years (767 BC) after the death of Joash (782 BC), son of Jehoahaz, king of Israel." (2 Chronicles 25:25)

 

780 BC: Edom has recaptured their territory from Judah and Amos condemns them:

  1. We know from 2 Kings 14:21-22, that Azariah reconquered Edom who controlled Elat.
  2. This means that Edom had reversed the defeat under Amaziah.

 

762 BC: Amos condemns Edom: Amos 1:11–12

  1. "Thus says the Lord: For three transgressions of Edom, and for four, I will not revoke the punishment; because he pursued his brother with the sword and cast off all pity; he maintained his anger perpetually, and kept his wrath forever. So I will send a fire on Teman, and it shall devour the strongholds of Bozrah." (Amos 1:11–12)
  2. Amos Condemns Edom's hate of Israel in 1407 BC when they refused to allow Moses to cross their land on the kings Highway.
  3. The punishment will come quick under Amaziah's son: Azariah (see 2 Kings 14:21-22)

 

762 BC: Azariah fulfills the prophecy of Amos 1:11-12 and conquers Edom

  1. Azariah recaptures Elat: "All the people of Judah took Azariah, who was sixteen years old, and made him king in the place of his father Amaziah. He built Elath and restored it to Judah after the king slept with his fathers." 2 Kings 14:21-22
  2. Elat was directly beside Ezion-Geber, both of which were in Edomite territory.

 

733 BC: After Azariah died, Judah is forever driven from Elat by Syria (Rezin king of Aram)

  1. "At that time King Ahaz sent to the kings of Assyria for help. For again the Edomites had come and attacked Judah and carried away captives. The Philistines also had invaded the cities of the lowland and of the Negev of Judah, and had taken Beth-shemesh, Aijalon, Gederoth, and Soco with its villages, Timnah with its villages, and Gimzo with its villages, and they settled there." (2 Chronicles 28:16–18)
  2. The Edomites still have their Transjordan territory in modern Jordan.

 

732 BC: Israel, Syrians, Philistines and Edomites attack Jerusalem: 2 Kings 16:6; 2 Chronicles 28:5-20; Isaiah 7:1

  1. At this point in Edom's history, they were making raids into the Judean Negev and taking captives back to modern Jordan.
    1. Edom at this time DID NOT occupy any of the Judean Negev.
    2. From the time of the Exodus (1446 BC) Edom is Transjordan.
    3. Only at the time of Nebuchadnezzar's first attack on Jerusalem in 605 BC did Edom first move into and occupy the Judean Negev.
  2. Pekah, king of Israel (Samaria) attacks Jerusalem:
    1. "Wherefore, the Lord his God delivered him into the hand of the king of Aram; and they defeated him and carried away from him a great number of captives and brought them to Damascus. And he was also delivered into the hand of the king of Israel, who inflicted him with heavy casualties. For Pekah the son of Remaliah slew in Judah 120,000 in one day, all valiant men, because they had forsaken the Lord God of their fathers. And Zichri, a mighty man of Ephraim, slew Maaseiah the king’s son and Azrikam the ruler of the house and Elkanah the second to the king. The sons of Israel carried away captive of their brethren 200,000 women, sons and daughters; and they took also a great deal of spoil from them, and brought the spoil to Samaria." (2 Chronicles 28:5–8)
  1. Judah is attacked by Syrian, Philistines and Edomites.
    1. The Syrians recapture Elat, the turn to attack Jerusalem
    2. The Edomites and Philistines attack the Negev
    3. The Edomites capture and deport Judeans back to Edom from the Negev.
  1. Ahaz pays tribute to Tiglath-pileser III (Pul) for protection against Syria, Philistines and Edomites, but is himself attacked by Assyria!
    1. Ahaz king of Judah petitions Tiglath-pileser III, king of Assyria by giving him gifts, but instead it backfires and he is placed in submission to Assyria.
    2. "For the Lord humbled Judah because of Ahaz king of Israel, for he had brought about a lack of restraint in Judah and was very unfaithful to the Lord. So Tilgath-pilneser king of Assyria came against him and afflicted him instead of strengthening him. Although Ahaz took a portion out of the house of the Lord and out of the palace of the king and of the princes, and gave it to the king of Assyria, it did not help him. Now in the time of his distress this same King Ahaz became yet more unfaithful to the Lord." (2 Chronicles 28:19–22)
    3. Tiglath-pileser III (Pul) kills the king of Aram who attacked Elat and Jerusalem.
    4. Tiglath-pileser III (Pul) collects tribute from Judah, Israel, Ammon, Moab and Edom
  1. Bible passages:
    1. "Now it came about in the days of Ahaz, the son of Jotham, the son of Uzziah, king of Judah, that Rezin the king of Aram and Pekah the son of Remaliah, king of Israel, went up to Jerusalem to wage war against it, but could not conquer it." (Isaiah 7:1)
    2. "At that time King Ahaz sent to the kings of Assyria for help. For again the Edomites had come and attacked Judah and carried away captives. The Philistines also had invaded the cities of the lowland and of the Negev of Judah, and had taken Beth-shemesh, Aijalon, Gederoth, and Soco with its villages, Timnah with its villages, and Gimzo with its villages, and they settled there." (2 Chronicles 28:16–18)
    3. "Then Rezin king of Aram and Pekah son of Remaliah, king of Israel, came up to Jerusalem to wage war; and they besieged Ahaz, but could not overcome him. At that time Rezin king of Aram recovered Elath for Aram, and cleared the Judeans out of Elath entirely; and the Arameans came to Elath and have lived there to this day. So Ahaz sent messengers to Tiglath-pileser king of Assyria, saying, “I am your servant and your son; come up and deliver me from the hand of the king of Aram and from the hand of the king of Israel, who are rising up against me.” Ahaz took the silver and gold that was found in the house of the Lord and in the treasuries of the king’s house, and sent a present to the king of Assyria. So the king of Assyria listened to him; and the king of Assyria went up against Damascus and captured it, and carried the people of it away into exile to Kir, and put Rezin to death." (2 Kings 16:5–9)
  1. Tiglath-Pileser III conquers Judah, Israel, Ammon, Moab and Edom: 2 Chron 28:19-22
    1. "For the Lord humbled Judah because of Ahaz king of Israel, for he had brought about a lack of restraint in Judah and was very unfaithful to the Lord. So Tilgath-pilneser king of Assyria came against him and afflicted him instead of strengthening him. Although Ahaz took a portion out of the house of the Lord and out of the palace of the king and of the princes, and gave it to the king of Assyria, it did not help him. Now in the time of his distress this same King Ahaz became yet more unfaithful to the Lord." (2 Chronicles 28:19–22)
    1. Detailed outline of the building inscription of Tiglath-Pileser III that dates to 732 BC
    2. Translation of lines 56-63 of the building inscription: "[I received] the tribute of … Sanipu of Ammon, Salamanu of Moab, … Mitinti of Ashkelon, Jehoahaz [Ahaz] (Ia-ú-ḫa-zi) of Judah (Ia-ú-da-a-a), Kaush-malaku of Edom, Hanno (Ḫa-a-nu-ú-nu) of Gaza (Ḫa-za-at-a-a): gold, silver, tin, iron, antimony, linen garments with multicolored trimmings, garments of their native [industries] dark purple wool … all kinds of costly objects be they products of the sea or of the continent, the (choice) products of their regions, the treasures of (their) kings, horses, mules (trained for) the yoke.… from Metenna of Tyre 150 talents of gold.… (Tiglath-Pileser III campaigns against Syria and Palestine, lines 56-63, ANET, 282)
  1. Edom is conquered by Assyria along with Judah, Ammon, Moab.

 

721-705 BC: Sargon II collected tribute from Israel, Philistines and Edom:

  1. "[Aziru, king] of Ashdod (lacuna) on account of [this crime … ] from … Ahimiti … his younger brother over [them … ] I made (him) ruler … tribute … like (those of) the [former] kings, I imposed upon him. [But these] accursed [Hittites] conceived [the idea] of not delivering the tribute and [started] a rebellion against their ruler; they expelled him … (Ia-ma-ni) a Greek, comm[oner without claim to the throne] to be king over them, they made sit down [on the very throne] of his (former) master and [they … ] their city of (or: for) the at[tack] (lacuna of 3 lines) … its neighborhood, a moat [they prepared] of a depth of 20 + x cubits.… it (even) reached the underground water, in order to … Then [to] the rulers of Palestine (Pi-liš-te), Judah (Ia-ú-di), Ed[om], Moab (and) those who live (on islands) and bring tribute [and] tâmartu -gifts to my lord Ashur—[he spread] countless evil lies to alienate (them) from me, and (also) sent bribes to Pir’u, king of Musru—a potentate, incapable to save them—and asked him to be an ally. But I, Sargon, the rightful ruler, devoted to the pronouncements (uttered by) Nebo and Marduk, (carefully) observing the orders of Ashur, led my army over the Tigris and the Euphrates, at the peak of the(ir) flood, the spring flood, as (if it be) dry ground. This Greek, however, their king who had put his trust in his own power and (therefore) did not bow to my (divinely ordained) rulership, heard about the approach of my expedition (while I was still) far away, and the splendor of my lord Ashur overwhelmed him and … he fled …" (The broken Prism A published by H. Winckler, I, 186–189, II, 44. Translation: Luckenbill, AR, II, §§193-195. Fragment D, ANET p 287)

 

732-701 BC: Edomite kings:

  1. List of Edomite kings from archeological stele and inscriptions:
    1. 732 BC: Qausmalaku
    2. 701 BC: Aiarammu
    3. 680 BC Qausgabri
  2. "These Assyrian references outline a period of Edom’s history on which the OT is silent. Three Edomite kings are named: Qausmalaku in 732 b.c., Aiarammu in 701 b.c., and Qausgabri in the reigns of Esarhaddon and Assurbanipal, contemporary with Manasseh of Judah. Qausgabri’s name is confirmed by a seal found at Umm el-Biyarah (Bennett 1966: 399–401). The lengths of their reigns are unknown, though Qausgabri’s was perhaps fairly long. There is perhaps room for another king between Qausmalaku and Aiarammu, and another between Aiarammu and Qausgabri, and certainly for several between Qausgabri and the end of the Edomite monarchy under the Babylonians in the 6th century. However, while we know that the capital was in Bozrah, the nature of royal succession is unknown." (ABD, Edom)

 

727 BC: Hezekiah conquers Gaza and Edom: Edom irrelevant in 723 BC

  1. Hezekiah ruled 728 - 686 BC
  2. 728 BC: In the first year of Hezekiah, he rebelled against Tiglath-pileser III (Pul).
    1. "And the Lord was with him; wherever he went he prospered. And he rebelled against the king of Assyria and did not serve him." (2 Kings 18:7)
  3. 727 BC: Hezekiah launches an attack in the Negev and defeats both Gaza and Edom:
    1. "He defeated the Philistines as far as Gaza and its territory, from watchtower to fortified city." (2 Kings 18:8)
    2. "These, recorded by name, came in the days of Hezekiah king of Judah, and attacked their tents and the Meunites who were found there, and destroyed them utterly to this day, and lived in their place, because there was pasture there for their flocks. From them, from the sons of Simeon, five hundred men went to Mount Seir, with Pelatiah, Neariah, Rephaiah and Uzziel, the sons of Ishi, as their leaders. They destroyed the remnant of the Amalekites who escaped, and have lived there to this day." 1 Chronicles 4:41-43
    3. Hezekiah sent Simeon to inhabit Mt. Seir about 700 BC.
  1. This proves that during the Assyrian captivity of 723 BC Edom was irrelevant.

 

701 BC: Sennacherib (704–681) "Siege of Jerusalem Oriental Institute Prism of Sennacherib the final edition of the Annals"

  1. "In 701 b.c., when Sennacherib punished Hezekiah for rebellion, Aiarammu of Edom, together with the kings of Moab, Beth-Ammon, Ashdod, Byblos, Arvad, Sidon, and Samsimuruna, hastened to bring tribute (ANET, 287)." (ABD, Edom)
  2. See also the Taylor Prism which is a duplicate record. cf. Rawlinson, Vol. 1, Pls. xxxvii–xlii)" collected tribute from Hezekiah king of Judah and Aiarammu king of Edom.
  3. "In my third campaign (701 BC) I marched against Hatti. Luli, king of Sidon, whom the terror-inspiring glamor of my lordship had overwhelmed, fled far overseas and perished. … I besieged Abdili’ti from Arvad, Urumilki from Byblos, Mitinti from Ashdod, Buduili from Beth-Ammon, Kammusun-adbi from Moab (and) Aiarammu from Edom, they brought sumptuous gifts (igisû) and—fourfold—their heavy tâmartu -presents to me and kissed my feet. Sidqia, however, the king of Ashkelon, who did not bow to my yoke, I deported and sent to Assyria… Joppa, Ekron … and had handed him over to Hezekiah, the Jew (Ha-za-qi-(i)a-ú amelIa-ú-da-ai)—(and) he (Hezekiah) held him in prison, … Timnah (Ta-am-na-a), … Ekron and killed the officials and hung their bodies on poles surrounding the city. … I made Padi, their king, come from Jerusalem (Ur-sa-li-im-mu) and set him as their lord on the throne, imposing upon him the tribute (due) to me (as) overlord. As to Hezekiah, the Jew, he did not submit to my yoke, I laid siege to 46 of his strong cities, walled forts and to the countless small villages in their vicinity, and conquered (them) by means of well-stamped (earth-) ramps, and battering-rams brought (thus) near (to the walls) (combined with) the attack by foot soldiers, (using) mines, breeches as well as sapper work. I drove out (of them) 200,150 people, young and old, male and female, horses, mules, donkeys, camels, big and small cattle beyond counting, and considered (them) booty. Himself I made a prisoner in Jerusalem, his royal residence, like a bird in a cage. I surrounded him with earthwork in order to molest those who were leaving his city’s gate. His towns which I had plundered, I took away from his country and gave them (over) to Mitinti, king of Ashdod, Padi, king of Ekron, and Sillibel, king of Gaza. Thus I reduced his country, but I still increased the tribute and the katrû-presents (due) to me (as his) overlord which I imposed (later) upon him beyond the former tribute, to be delivered annually. Hezekiah himself, whom the terror-inspiring splendor of my lordship had overwhelmed and whose irregular and elite troops which he had brought into Jerusalem, his royal residence, in order to strengthen (it), had deserted him, did send me, later, to Nineveh, my lordly city, together with 30 talents of gold, 800 talents of silver, precious stones, antimony,5 large cuts of red stone, couches (inlaid) with ivory, nîmedu -chairs (inlaid) with ivory, elephant-hides, ebony-wood, boxwood (and) all kinds of valuable treasures, his (own) daughters, concubines, male and female musicians. In order to deliver the tribute and to do obeisance as a slave he sent his (personal) messenger." (D. D. Luckenbill, The Annals of Sennacherib. Translation: ibid., and Luckenbill, AR, II, §§233 ff., col. ii 37–iii 49, 1924 AD)

 

721-669 BC: Sargon II and Esarhaddon

  1. "Two minas of gold from the inhabitants of Bit-Ammon (matBît-Am-man-na-a-a); one mina of gold from the inhabitants of Moab (matMu-’-ba-a-a); ten minas of silver from the inhabitants of Judah (matIa-ú-da-a-a); [ … mi]nas of silver from the inhabitants of [Edom] (mat[U-du-ma]-a-a).… (reverse) … the inhabitants of Byblos, the district officers of the king, my lord, have brought." (Receipt of Tribute from Palestine, BrM text K 1295 is a receipt of tribute brought from Palestine, published by R. F. Harper, ABL, Vol. vi, No. 632)

 

673 BC: Esarhaddon (680-669 BC) "Prism A" collected tribute from Manasseh king of Judah and Qaushgabri king of Edom:

  1. I called up the kings of the Hatti-land Ba’lu, king of Tyre, Manasseh (Me-na-si-i) king of Judah (Ia-ú-di), Qaushgabri king of Edom, Musuri king of Moab, Sil-Bel king of Gaza, Metinti king of Ashkelon, Ikausu king of Ekron, Puduil king of Ammon, Ahimilki king of Ashdod … 22 kings of Hatti … all these I made transport building material for my palace under terrible difficulties to my capital city of Nineveh. (Prism B, R. Campbell Thompson, pp. 25 f, v 54–vi 1, ANET 291)
  2. I called up the kings of the country Hatti and (of the region) on the other side of the river (Euphrates) (to wit): Ba’lu, king of Tyre, Manasseh (Me-na-si-i), king of Judah (Ia-ú-di), Qaushgabri, king of Edom, Musuri, king of Moab, Sil-Bel, king of Gaza, Metinti, king of Ashkelon, Ikausu, king of Ekron, Milkiashapa, king of Byblos, Matanba’al, king of Arvad, Abiba’al, king of Samsimuruna, Puduil, king of Beth-Ammon, Ahimilki, king of Ashdod—12 kings from the seacoast; Ekishtura, king of Edi’il (Idalion), Pilagura (Pythagoras), king of Kitrusi (Chytros), Kisu, king of Sillu’ua (Soli), Ituandar, king of Pappa (Paphos), Erisu, king of Silli, Damasu, king of Kuri (Curium), Atmesu, king of Tamesi, Damusi, king of Qarti-hadasti (Carthage), Unasagusu, king of Lidir (Ledra), Bususu, king of Nuria,—10 kings from Cyprus (Iadnana) amidst the sea, together 22 kings of Hatti, the seashore and the islands; all these I sent out and made them transport under terrible difficulties, to Nineveh, the town (where I exercise) my rulership, as building material for my palace: big logs, long beams (and) thin boards from cedar and pine trees, products of the Sirara and Lebanon (Lab-na-na) mountains, which had grown for a long time into tall and strong timber, (also) from their quarries (lit.: place of creation) in the mountains, statues of protective deities (lit.: of Lamassû and Shêdu) made of a š n a n -stone, statues of (female) abzaztu, thresholds, slabs of limestone, of a š n a n -stone, of large- and small-grained breccia, of alallu-stone, (and) of g i. r i n. ḫ i. l i. b a -stone. (Prism B, R. Campbell Thompson, pp. 25 f, v 54–vi 1, ANET 291)

 

668-633 BC: Ashurbanipal (668-633) "Kings List Cylinder C from fragments"

"Ba’al, king of Tyre, Manasseh (Mi-in-si-e), king of Judah (Ia-ú-di), Qaushgabri, king of Edom, Musuri, king of Moab, Sil-Bel, king of Gaza, Mitinti, king of Ashkelon, Ikausu, king of Ekron, Milkiashapa, king of Byblos, Iakinlu, king of Arvad, Amminadbi, king of Beth-Ammon, Ahumilki, king of Ashdod, servants who belong to me, brought heavy gifts (tâmartu) to me and kissed my feet. I made these kings accompany my army over the land—as well as (over) the sea-route with their armed forces and their ships (respectively). Quickly I advanced … Tirhakah, king of Egypt (Muṣur)" (Ashurbanipal (668-633) "Kings List Cylinder C from fragments" M. Streck, op.cit., pp. 139 ff. Translation: Luckenbill, AR, ii, §876., i 24–46)

 

668-633 BC: Ashurbanipal (668-633) "Kings List Cylinder C from fragments"

"In my ninth campaign, I called up my troops (and) marched directly against Uate’, king of Arabia (Aribu) because he had broken the (agreements protected by) oaths (sworn to) me, did not remember that I had treated him with clemency;…  Upon the oracle-command of Ashur, and Ishtar ‹I called up› my army and defeated him in bloody battles, inflicted countless routs on him … in Edom, in Beth-Ammon, … in Moab, … They set fire to the tents in which they live and burnt (them) down. Uate’ had misgivings4 and he fled, alone, to the country Nabate." (Ashurbanipal Campaign against the Arabs, From the Rassam Cylinder (cf. above). Translation: Luckenbill, AR, ii, §§817–831., col. vii 82—x 5)

 

605-587 BC: Edom also bent before Nebuchadnezzar, the Neo-Babylonian king (Jer 27:2-3; 49:7-22; Ezek 32:29).

  1. "Thus the Lord said to me: Make yourself a yoke of straps and bars, and put them on your neck. Send word to the king of Edom, the king of Moab, the king of the Ammonites, the king of Tyre, and the king of Sidon by the hand of the envoys who have come to Jerusalem to King Zedekiah of Judah." (Jeremiah 27:2–3)
  2. "Envoys representing five neighboring kings have come to Jerusalem, or will arrive shortly, to talk rebellion against Nebuchadnezzar. Zedekiah will host the conference, but whether he presently is of a mind to rebel is unclear. As an appointee of Nebuchadnezzar, with presumably pro-Babylonian sympathies, he will likely have reservations about the wisdom of such action (Skinner 1926: 254). But Streane notes that in Ezek 17:15 Zedekiah is seen taking the initiative in negotiations with Egypt against Babylon. He could be doing the same here. It is significant that Egypt is not represented at the conference. Since the rebellion never took place, Cornill thinks it was because Egypt was not part of the plan. It could also be that Jeremiah’s advice was heeded. Ashkelon and Ekron are not present because both were destroyed a decade earlier, in 604 b.c. Kida (1993: 179) thinks that Jeremiah’s message to the kings may correlate with oracles spoken against foreign nations, which is possible. The kings appear here in the same order as in 25:21–22." (AYBC, Jeremiah 27:3)
  3. "the king of Edom. Edom’s presence at the conference indicates that for the present, at least, it has common cause with Judah in opposing Babylonian suzerainty in the area. Edom will shift loyalty soon afterward, because the nation is remembered bitterly by the Jews for helping in the destruction of Jerusalem (Obad 9–14; Ezek 25:12–14; 35:15; Ps 137:7; Joel 4:19[Eng 3:19]; 1 Esd 4:45). Edom appears to have escaped punitive action by Nebuchadnezzar in 588–586 b.c., also in 582 b.c. when both Ammon and Moab were attacked (see Note for 49:10). But at some point Edom will have to drink Yahweh’s cup of wrath (25:21; cf. 9:24–25[Eng 9:25–26]), and Jeremiah thus delivers oracles of judgment against it (49:7–22). In the seventh-sixth centuries b.c., Edom is a kingdom to be reckoned with; currently it is threatening Judah on its southern front, although Bartlett (1999) thinks that Edom does not make substantial inroads into southern Judah and the Negeb until later." (AYBC, Jeremiah 27:3)

 

586 BC: Condemnation for Edom for its role in the 587 BC destruction of Judah and Temple: Obadiah 10-14, Ps. 137:7; Lam. 4:21; Ezek. 25:12-14; 32:29; 35:1-15. 1 Esdras 4:45. Jeremiah 27:1-3; 49:13, 16-18

  1. "Remember, O LORD, against the Edomites the day of Jerusalem’s fall, how they said, “Tear ["Raze it" NASB] it down! Tear it down! Down to its foundations!”" (Psalm 137:7)
  2. "Rejoice and be glad, O daughter Edom, you that live in the land of Uz; but to you also the cup shall pass; you shall become drunk and strip yourself bare." (Lamentations 4:21)
  3. "Thus says the Lord GOD: Because Edom acted revengefully against the house of Judah and has grievously offended in taking vengeance upon them, therefore thus says the Lord GOD, I will stretch out my hand against Edom, and cut off from it humans and animals, and I will make it desolate; from Teman even to Dedan they shall fall by the sword. I will lay my vengeance upon Edom by the hand of my people Israel; and they shall act in Edom according to my anger and according to my wrath; and they shall know my vengeance, says the Lord GOD." (Ezekiel 25:12–14)
  4. "Because you cherished an ancient enmity, and gave over the people of Israel to the power of the sword at the time of their calamity, at the time of their final punishment;" (Ezekiel 35:5)
  5. "“Because you have said, ‘These two nations and these two lands will be mine, and we will possess them,’ although the Lord was there," (Ezekiel 35:10)
  6. "“As you rejoiced over the inheritance of the house of Israel because it was desolate, so I will do to you. You will be a desolation, O Mount Seir, and all Edom, all of it. Then they will know that I am the Lord.” ’" (Ezekiel 35:15)
  7. "“Because of violence to your brother Jacob, You will be covered with shame, And you will be cut off forever. “On the day that you stood aloof, On the day that strangers carried off his wealth, And foreigners entered his gate And cast lots for Jerusalem— You too were as one of them. “Do not gloat over your brother’s day, The day of his misfortune. And do not rejoice over the sons of Judah In the day of their destruction; Yes, do not boast In the day of their distress. “Do not enter the gate of My people In the day of their disaster. Yes, you, do not gloat over their calamity In the day of their disaster. And do not loot their wealth In the day of their disaster. “Do not stand at the fork of the road To cut down their fugitives; And do not imprison their survivors In the day of their distress." (Obadiah 10–14)
  8. "You also vowed to rebuild the temple which the Edomites set on fire when Judah was devastated by the Chaldeans." (1 Esdras 4:45)
  9. "In the beginning of the reign of Zedekiah the son of Josiah, king of Judah, this word came to Jeremiah from the Lord, saying— thus says the Lord to me—“Make for yourself bonds and yokes and put them on your neck, and send word to the king of Edom, to the king of Moab, to the king of the sons of Ammon, to the king of Tyre and to the king of Sidon by the messengers who come to Jerusalem to Zedekiah king of Judah." (Jeremiah 27:1–3)
  10. "“For I have sworn by Myself,” declares the Lord, “that Bozrah will become an object of horror, a reproach, a ruin and a curse; and all its cities will become perpetual ruins.”" (Jeremiah 49:13)
  11. "“As for the terror of you, The arrogance of your heart has deceived you, O you who live in the clefts of the rock, Who occupy the height of the hill. Though you make your nest as high as an eagle’s, I will bring you down from there,” declares the Lord. “Edom will become an object of horror; everyone who passes by it will be horrified and will hiss at all its wounds. “Like the overthrow of Sodom and Gomorrah with its neighbors,” says the Lord, “no one will live there, nor will a son of man reside in it." (Jeremiah 49:16–18)
  12. 586 BC Obadiah: Archeology shows that Edom was front and center in destroying Jerusalem and moved into the Negev after 587 BC as seen in the Arad Ostraca. By 536 BC the Edomite empire was totally destroyed as witnessed that there are zero references to Edom when Judah returned after the decree of Cyrus in 536 BC in the books of Ezra, Nehemiah etc. The only reference chronologically to the Edomites after 536 BC is Malachi 1:1–5 where the small scattered population of Edom wanted to rebuild their former empire but God was going to prevent it. Edom becomes a key moral point in the New Testament in the statements of "Jacob I loved, Esau I hated". Even though this choice was made by God before they were born, the choice was divinely wise given the history of hatred Edom had against Jacob throughout history and especially in 587 BC.

 

550 BC: Edom goes extinct

  1. "With Arab pressure on Edomite territory is to be linked to some extent at least the Edomite occupation of the Negeb to the south of Judah. Apparently the Negeb was removed from Judah’s control in 597 B.C., and whether or not the Babylonians formally handed the region over to the Edomites or merely filled the vacuum left by Judah, they were certainly the beneficiaries. According to 1 Esdras 4:50, by the time of Darius I, Edomites had occupied Jewish villages, and the postexilic province of Judah extended only as far south as Beth-zur, north of Hebron. To what extent was this infiltration due to Arab pressure upon the Edomite homeland? A seal of a local Edomite official of Ezion-geber, Qaus’anal, was assigned by Albright to a probable date after 600 B.C., while an ostracon from there which he dated in the first half of the sixth century lists names of which four are specifically Edomite and none is definitely Arabic. Evidently the Edomites were still in control of their native land until after 550 B.C. However, by the fifth century Arab names had appeared at Ezion-geber. In the Persian period the land of Edom had no sedentary occupation. The Edomites were displaced by nomadic Arab tribes." (The Books of Joel, Obadiah, Jonah, and Micah, L. C. Allen, NICOT, p130, 1976 AD)

 

522 BC: "Then Darius I (522-485 BC) the king arose and kissed him, and wrote letters on his behalf to all the stewards, subordinate district magistrates, commanders, and governors to grant safe conduct to him and all those who were going up with him to rebuild Jerusalem. 48 He also wrote letters to all the subordinate magistrates in Coelesyria and Phoenicia, and especially to those in the Libanus, who were to transport cedar logs from the Libanus to Jerusalem and so help him rebuild the city. 49 He further issued letters of immunity for all the Jews who were going up from his kingdom to Judah to the effect that no official, governor, subordinate district magistrate, or steward should force his way into their doors; 50 that all the land which they were to occupy should be free from tribute for them, that the Edomites give up the villages which they took over from the Jews; 51 that twenty talents be given yearly for the reconstruction of the temple until it is finished; 52 that ten talents [be given] yearly toward the daily burnt offering—inasmuch as they are commanded to offer seventeen" (1 Esdras 3:1–4:63)

 

432 BC: Extinction predicted for Edom: Malachi 1:1–5

  1. Since about 550 BC, Edom had lost their territory both in Modern Jordan and in the Judean Negev and wanted to return and rebuilt.
  2. God prevented Edom from every regaining lands and was absorbed into the nations like the ten lost tribes of Israel.
  3. "The oracle of the word of the Lord to Israel through Malachi. “I have loved you,” says the Lord. But you say, “How have You loved us?” “Was not Esau Jacob’s brother?” declares the Lord. “Yet I have loved Jacob; but I have hated Esau, and I have made his mountains a desolation and appointed his inheritance for the jackals of the wilderness.” Though Edom says, “We have been beaten down, but we will return and build up the ruins”; thus says the Lord of hosts, “They may build, but I will tear down; and men will call them the wicked territory, and the people toward whom the Lord is indignant forever.” Your eyes will see this and you will say, “The Lord be magnified beyond the border of Israel!”" (Malachi 1:1–5)

 

Josephus' Idumeans are Nabateans not Edomites

  1. Idumeans in Josephus are not Edomites but the Nabateans who now occupy the historic Transjordan lands Edom occupied.
  2. The first reference to the Idumeans dates to 520 BC, but this is a period of time when the Edomites had been displaced by the proto-Nabateans and Josephus uses the term in a territorial/geographical sense as opposed to identifying a specific people.
  3. The rest of the references to the Idumeans are Nabateans.
  4. 520 BC "So the king was pleased with what he had said, and arose and kissed him; and wrote to the toparchs, and governors, and enjoined them to conduct Zerubbabel [520 BC] and those that were going with him to build the temple. (60) He also sent letters to those rulers that were in Syria and Phoenicia to cut down and carry cedar trees from Lebanon to Jerusalem, and to assist him in building the city. He also wrote to them, that all the captives who should go to Judea should be free; (61) and he prohibited his deputies and governors to lay any king’s taxes upon the Jews: he also permitted that they should have all the land which they could possess themselves of without tributes. He also enjoined the Idumeans and Samaritans, and the inhabitants of Celesyria, to restore those villages which they had taken from the Jews; and that, besides all this, fifty talents should be given them for the building of the temple. (62) He also permitted them to offer their appointed sacrifices, and that whatsoever the high priests and the priests wanted and those sacred garments wherein they used to worship God, should be made at his own charges; and that the musical instruments which the Levites used in singing hymns to God should be given them. (63) Moreover, he charged them, that portions of land should be given to those that guarded the city and the temple, as also a determinate sum of money every year for their maintenance: and withal he sent the vessels. And all that Cyrus intended to do before him relating to the restoration of Jerusalem, Darius also ordained should be done accordingly." (Josephus, Antiquities 11.58-63, Zerubbabel, 520 BC)
  5. 163 BC "The man Judas [Judas Maccabaeus, 163 BC] and his brothers, however, received great respect from all Israel and from all the gentiles who heard of their fame. 64 Crowds gathered around them with joyful shouts of praise. 65 Again Judas and his brothers set out on an expedition, warring against the descendants of Esau in the territory to the south. He attacked Hebron and its suburbs and destroyed its fortifications and burned its circuit of towers. 66 Then Judas marched off to the land of the Philistines. (1 Maccabees 5:63-68, 163 BC, Translation, AYBC, 2008, Judas Maccabaeus, 163 BC)
  6. 135-104 BC "6. (62) However, at another time, when Antiochus was gone upon an expedition against the Medes, and so gave Hyrcanus [John Hycranus, 135-104 BC] an opportunity of being avenged upon him, he immediately made an attack upon the cities of Syria as thinking, what proved to be the case with them, that he should find them empty of good troops. (63) So he took Medaba and Samea, with the towns in their neighborhood, as also Shechem and Gerizzim; and besides these, [he subdued] the nation of the Cutheans, who dwelt round about that temple which was built in imitation of the temple at Jerusalem; he also took a great many other cities of Idumea, with Adoreon and Marissa. 7. (64) He also proceeded as far as Samaria, where is now the city of Sebaste which was built by Herod the king, and encompassed it all round with a wall, and set his sons, Aristobulus and Antigonus, over the siege; who pushed it on so hard that a famine so far prevailed within the city, that they were forced to eat what never was esteemed food." (Josphus, Wars of the Jews 1.61-64, John Hycranus, 135-104 BC)
  7. 135-104 BC "Hyrcanus [High Priest, John Hycranus I, 135-104 BC]took also Dora and Marissa, cities of Idumea, and subdued all the Idumeans; and permitted them to stay in that country, if they would circumcise their genitals, and make use of the laws of the Jews; (258) and they were so desirous of living in the country of their forefathers, that they submitted to the use of circumcision, and the rest of the Jewish ways of living; at which time therefore this befell them, that they were hereafter no other than Jews." (Antiquities 13.257–258, High Priest, John Hycranus I, 135-104 BC)
  8. 103-76 BC "But Alexander [Alexander Janneus, 103-76 BC] marched again to the city Dios, and took it, and then made an expedition against Essa, where was the best part of Zeno’s treasures, and there he encompassed the place with three walls; and when he had taken the city by fighting, he marched to Golan and Seleucia; (394) and when he had taken these cities, he, besides them, took that valley which is called The Valley of Antiochus, as also the fortress of Gamala. He also accused Demetrius, who was governor of those places, of many crimes, and turned him out; and after he had spent three years in this war, he returned to his own country; when the Jews joyfully received him upon this his good success. 4. (395) Now at this time the Jews were in possession of the following cities that had belonged to the Syrians, and Idumeans, and Phoenicians: At the seaside, Strato’s Tower, Apollonia, Joppa, Jamnia, Ashdod, Gaza, Anthedon, Raphia, and Rhinocolura; (396) in the middle of the country, near to Idumea, Adora, and Marissa; near the country of Samaria, Mount Carmel, and Mount Tabor, Scythopolis, and Gadara; of the country of the Gaulonites, Seleucia, and Gabala; (397) in the country of Moab, Heshbon, and Medaba, Lemba, and Oronas, Gelithon, Zara, the valley of the Cilices, and Pella; which last they utterly destroyed, because its inhabitants would not bear to change their religious rites for those peculiar to the Jews. The Jews also possessed others of the principal cities of Syria, which had been destroyed. 5. (398) After this, king Alexander, although he fell into a distemper by hard drinking, and had a quartan ague which held him three years, yet would not leave off going out with his army, till he was quite spent with the labors he had undergone, and died in the bounds of Ragaba, a fortress beyond Jordan. (Josephus, Antiquities 13.393-398, Alexander Janneus, 103-76 BC)

 

Conclusion:

  1. Quick links in this document:

a.      Section I: Edom's territory and locating Kadesh Barnea during the Exodus: 1446 BC

b.      Section II: Edom's participation in Babylonian Captivity of 605-587 BC

c.       Section III: Historicity of Edom as a real nation just as the Bible says

d.      Section IV: Chronology of Edom from Esau to Extinction: 2006- 500 BC

  1. The Origin of the Edomites at Mt. Seir as a territory dates to between 1950 - 1926 BC
    1. 1950 -1945 BC Esau conquers the Horites and sets up and administrative command center at Mt. Seir in Edom while leaving his family and flocks to graze in Canaan near Hebron.
    2. 1929 BC: When Jacob returns Esau's "home base" is already in Mt Seir (Edom) but his family and flocks are still near Hebron: Genesis 33:14-16
    3. 1929-1926 BC: Now that the "heir" of Isaac has returned, it took a few years, probably three, for Esau to realize that there was not enough room for his flocks and Jacobs.
    4. 1926 BC: Esau moves EVERYTHING out of Canaan into Mt. Seir formally founding the nation of Edom: Genesis 36:6-8
  2. From the earliest time, Edom's geographic domain was Transjordan. The Edomites never lived in the Negev or the "land of Judah" until the Babylonian captivity began in about 605 BC, with the first of three attacks by Nebuchadnezzar. (605, 597, 587 BC)
    1. Edom played a central role, second only to the Babylonians, in the destruction of Jerusalem in 597 BC.
    2. For this, Edom went into extinction.
    3. Condemnation for Edom for its role in the 587 BC destruction of Judah and Temple: Obadiah 10-14, Ps. 137:7; Lam. 4:21; Ezek. 25:12-14; 32:29; 35:1-15. 1 Esdras 4:45. Jeremiah 27:1-3; 49:13, 16-18
  1. Carefully mapping the history of Edom as we have done we can date several Bible books:
    1. With a view to Edom, Obadiah Lamentations and Ps 137 clearly date to 586 BC.
    2. 586 BC Obadiah: Archeology shows that Edom was front and center in destroying Jerusalem and moved into the Negev after 587 BC as seen in the Arad Ostraca. By 536 BC the Edomite empire was totally destroyed as witnessed that there are zero references to Edom when Judah returned after the decree of Cyrus in 536 BC in the books of Ezra, Nehemiah etc. The only reference chronologically to the Edomites after 536 BC is Malachi 1:1–5 where the small scattered population of Edom wanted to rebuild their former empire but God was going to prevent it. Edom becomes a key moral point in the New Testament in the statements of "Jacob I loved, Esau I hated". Even though this choice was made by God before they were born, the choice was divinely wise given the history of hatred Edom had against Jacob throughout history and especially in 587 BC.

  1. Edom was an organized and recognized nation in 1900 BC.
    1. The Bible clearly states this.
    2. There is a vast amount of irrefutable evidence to prove this from Egyptian sources.
    3. Those "Bible trashing" archeologists who teach Edom was not a nation until about 700 BC stand in direct contradiction to not only the Bible, but actual archeological evidence.
  2. At the time of the exodus, Edom's border was the eastern mountain range of the Arabah valley. Their kingdom was in modern Jordan.
    1. This is a clear and powerful proof that Kadesh Barnea cannot be located at Qudeirat, since the border of Edom was next to Kadesh Barnea.
    2. Modern maps since 1916 AD have wrongly placed Kadesh at Qudeirat and therefore also placed Edom's border inside Judah beside Qudeirat.
    3. This is a gross and misleading error that is refuted by the Bible itself, but the testimony of Egyptian archeology and what we know from archeology in the Transjordan area.
  1. Esau was typified as an evil man in the New Testament:
    1. "And not only this, but there was Rebekah also, when she had conceived twins by one man, our father Isaac; for though the twins were not yet born and had not done anything good or bad, so that God’s purpose according to His choice would stand, not because of works but because of Him who calls, it was said to her, “The older will serve the younger.” Just as it is written, “Jacob I loved, but Esau I hated.” What shall we say then? There is no injustice with God, is there? May it never be! For He says to Moses, “I will have mercy on whom I have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I have compassion.” So then it does not depend on the man who wills or the man who runs, but on God who has mercy." (Romans 9:10–16)
    2. "By faith Isaac blessed Jacob and Esau, even regarding things to come." (Hebrews 11:20)
    3. "See to it that no one comes short of the grace of God; that no root of bitterness springing up causes trouble, and by it many be defiled; that there be no immoral or godless person like Esau, who sold his own birthright for a single meal. For you know that even afterwards, when he desired to inherit the blessing, he was rejected, for he found no place for repentance, though he sought for it with tears." (Hebrews 12:15–17)
  1. Esau, being wicked violated these basic rules that are important for every man to follow:
    1. Do not "cherish an ancient enmity" (Ezekiel 35:5)
    2. Do not "act revengefully" (Ezekiel 25:12–14)
    3. Do no act "violently towards your brother" (Obadiah 10–14)
    4. Do not say of your brother's life “Tear it down! Tear it down! Down to its foundations!”" (Psalm 137:7)
    5. Do not betray and "give him over to the power of the sword at the time of his calamity, at the time of his final punishment;" (Ezekiel 35:5)
    6. Do not covet your brother's wealth: and say, "his two nations [ie. Israel and Judah] will be mine, and we will possess them" (Ezekiel 35:10)
    7. Do not rejoice over your brother becoming financially desolate" (Ezekiel 35:15)
    8. Do not “stood aloof, On the day that strangers carried off your brother's wealth"  (Obadiah 10–14)
    9. Do not "gloat over your brother’s day of misfortune and destruction; Yes, do not boast In the day of their distress. (Obadiah 10–14)
    10. Do not “enter the house of your brother and steal his property in the day of his disaster. (Obadiah 10–14)
    11. Do not "loot your brother's wealth In the day of his disaster. (Obadiah 10–14)
    12. Do not "stand at the fork of the road To cut down their fugitives; And do not imprison their survivors In the day of their distress." (Obadiah 10–14)
    13. Do not "set your brother's spiritual temple on fire when he is devastated by the devil." (1 Esdras 4:45)
    14. Do not be "arrogant in your heart thinking you are morally superior to your brother and that his disaster can never fall upon you." (Jeremiah 49:16–18)
  1. Edom is an example for Christians today of what happens when you have unbridled hatred for another person: God destroys you and you go into extinction!
    1. Where is Edom today? Gone forever, like every wicked man.
    2. "But the wicked will perish; And the enemies of the Lord will be like the glory of the pastures, They vanish—like smoke they vanish away." (Psalm 37:20)
    3. "Let God arise, let His enemies be scattered, And let those who hate Him flee before Him. As smoke is driven away, so drive them away; As wax melts before the fire, So let the wicked perish before God." (Psalm 68:1–2)
    4. "Therefore they will be like the morning cloud And like dew which soon disappears, Like chaff which is blown away from the threshing floor And like smoke from a chimney." (Hosea 13:3)
    5. "let the rich man glory in his humiliation, because like flowering grass he will pass away. For the sun rises with a scorching wind and withers the grass; and its flower falls off and the beauty of its appearance is destroyed; so too the rich man in the midst of his pursuits will fade away." (James 1:10–11)

 

Exodus period Nations in Canaan

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The Amorites

The Moabites

The Edomites

 

By Steve Rudd: Contact the author for comments, input or corrections.

 

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