The Exodus Route: Mt. Sinai at Mt. Lawz

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Mt. Sinai

(first covenant)

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Introduction:

  1. We can prove from the Bible that Mt. Sinai is in Arabia, not the wilderness of Egypt (Sinai Peninsula).
  2. We propose Jebel al-Lawz (Mt. Lawz) as Mt. Sinai. At 2,580 metres, Lawz is the tallest mountain in northern Arabia.
  3. The there are three reasons why we chose Mt. Lawz as Mt. Sinai. First, it is in Arabia. Second, Josephus said Mt. Sinai was the tallest mountain in the region. Third, there are a number of archeological features that may be connected with the Exodus.
  4. A warning needs to go out to any and all who are promoting the many "fantastic" claims of the archeology at Mt. Lawz. Every single one of the Geographic and archeological markers that you might expect to find at mount Sinai, have been "claimed" to have been found at Mt. Lawz. These claims were the result of a few day hikes around the mountain by men who had no formal training in archeology. These same men have made some rather irresponsible claims about discovering Noah's Ark, Sodom and Gomorrah, the ark of the covenant etc. They have done damage to real and serious study of Mt. Lawz as a candidate for Mt. Sinai.

A. Why Mt. Sinai is at Mt. Lawz:

  1. Since almost every geographer from 900 BC down to 1800 AD had no concept of the Gulf of Aqaba or the Sinai Peninsula, this forced the idea that they crossed the red sea at the northern tip of the Gulf of Suez.
  2. In 1446 BC the Edomites, the Midianites and the Ishmaelites did not live in the Wilderness of Egypt (Sinai Peninsula). For those bent on defending Mt. Sinai at Mt. Musa they must create the myth that Edom, the Midianites or the Ishmaelites lived nearby at the time of Moses. At the time of the Exodus in 1446 BC, neither Edom, the Midianites or the Ishmaelites controlled or owned the Wilderness of Egypt (Sinai Peninsula). It was Egypt's land and they controlled it.
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  3. In 54 AD, when Apostle Paul wrote Gal 4:25, the wilderness of Egypt (Sinai Peninsula) was never called Arabia. In 50 AD, the Nabataeans never referred to the Wilderness of Egypt as "Arabia" and it was not until the Roman's annexed the Wilderness of Egypt from the Egyptians in 106 AD that it was first called "Arabia".
  4. Apostle Paul taught that Mt. Sinai was located in Arabia in Gal 4:25, where Ishmael lived.
  5. Egyptian controlled mining in the Wilderness of Egypt (Sinai Peninsula) at the time of the Exodus: Copper mines include those at Timna and Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai. The traditional exodus route to Mt. Musa, takes Israel right past the copper mine Serabit el-Khadim that was active in 1446 BC:
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  6. When Moses saw the burning bush, it says that he wandered in the rear wilderness. The fact that no other reference is given means that the only logical conclusion is that it was the rear wilderness of Midian. The Bible says that Moses went to the "behind side [Hebrew: "achar"] of the wilderness" Literally: achar "the hind or following part" (NASB Hebrew dictionary). So the east side of the Lawz would most certainly be described at the "behind wilderness". It is kind of like saying that Moses went to "the back forty".

B. Ancient record of Mt. Sinai in Arabia:

  1. 225 BC Demetrius the Chronographer: Demetrius believed that Mt. Sinai was in Arabia. He lived and worked in Alexandria, which meant he had access to the largest library in the world. Demetrius located Mt. Sinai in the city of Madyan (al Bad) in northwestern Arabia. This information comes from Eusebius in his work: Preaparatio Evangelica 9:29.1-3
  2. Josephus said that Mt. Sinai was the largest Mountain in the region.
  3. Since 325 AD Mt. Sinai is located at Mt. Musa in the wilderness of Egypt. It is important to know that wilderness of Egypt was never called the "Sinai" or the Sinai Peninsula" before 325 AD. Queen Helena, Constantine's mother, chose Mt. Musa in a dream. This proves that it required a "special revelation from God" to locate Mt. Sinai and that no one of her day agreed with her.
  4. Eusebius has a dictionary of places called the Onomasticon which he wrote at the same time Helena chose Mt. Musa in a dream. It is interesting that Eusebius has not entry for Mt. Sinai although he does mention under the "Horeb" entry that Mt. Sinai is beside Horeb. We believe this is because he located Mt. Sinai in Arabia and this conflicted with Helena's choice. But a careful reading of Eusebius proves he believed that Mt. Sinai and Mt. Horeb, Wilderness of Shur, Midian, the desert of the Saracens, wilderness of Paran, Arabian Desert were all were all transjordan.

C. What authorities say about Mt. Sinai in Arabia: 

  1. Sinai in Arabia and of Midian, Beke, Charles T. (London, 1878): Land of Midian, east of Gulf of Eilat
  2. The Route of the Exodus of the Israelites from Egypt, Lucas, Alfred (London, 1938) Upper north of Midian, northeast of Aqaba: Jebel Baghir
  3. The Site of the Biblical Mount Sinai, Neilsen, D., (Copenhagen, 1928), Land of Edom, near Petra
  4. "The Epic Traditions of Early Israel," in The Poet and the Historians, ed. Richard Elliot Friedman,(Cambridge, MA, 1983): Land of Midian
  5. "Volcanic interpretation of Ex. 19:16-18 has led some to place Sinai in northwest Arabia. near Midian. where the nearest volcanoes active in historical times are located. Another argument supporting this site involves Moses' marriage into a Midianite family (Ex. 3:1: 18:11). Moses' father-in-law Jethro is also called a Kenite (Judges 1:16: 4:11), and the Kenites were a clan of wandering smiths (Nu. 10:29) whose presence near the mines of Sinai would hardly be surprising." (ISBE Sinai)
  6. "Greene's Theory: Another theory, put forward by Mr. Baker Greene (The Hebrew Migration from Egypt). ... Mr. Greene supposed Elim (Ex 15:27) to be Elath (De 2:8), now 'Ailah at the head of the Gulf of 'Akabah; and that Sinai therefore was some unknown mountain in Midian." (International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, ISBE, 1911 AD, Sinai)

D. Bible translators who believe Mt. Sinai was in Arabia:

  1. "While Moses was still in Midian, the Lord said to him, "Go back to Egypt, for all those who wanted to kill you are dead." Exodus 4:19 (Good news for modern man)
  2. "God said to Moses in Midian: "Go. Return to Egypt. All the men who wanted to kill you are dead." Exodus 4:19 (The message)

E. There is no indication in the Bible that Moses ever left Midian when he saw the burning bush

  1. There is no reason why the burning bush could not be near Midian in Arabia.
  2. The Bible does not say that Moses made a long journey away from Midian.
  3. The Bible does not say that Moses went into the Sinai Peninsula.
  4. If Queen Helena had not chosen Mt. Sinai in 325 AD in a dream, the natural reading of the texts show that Moses was in Midian when at the foot of Mt. Sinai.
  5. "When Pharaoh heard of this matter, he tried to kill Moses. But Moses fled from the presence of Pharaoh and settled in the land of Midian, and he sat down by a well. Now the priest of Midian had seven daughters; and they came to draw water and filled the troughs to water their father's flock." Exodus 2:15-16
  6. At Mt Sinai: "Now Moses was pasturing the flock of Jethro his father-in-law, the priest of Midian; and he led the flock to the back side of the wilderness and came to Horeb, the mountain of God. " Exodus 3:1
  7. After leaving Sinai and back home in Midian: "Now the Lord said to Moses in Midian, "Go back to Egypt, for all the men who were seeking your life are dead." Exodus 4:19
  8. "Now the Lord said to Aaron, "Go to meet Moses in the wilderness." So he went and met him at the mountain of God and kissed him. " Exodus 4:27
  9. At Mt Sinai: "Now Jethro, the priest of Midian, Moses' father-in-law, heard of all that God had done for Moses and for Israel His people, how the Lord had brought Israel out of Egypt. " Exodus 18:1 "Then Jethro, Moses' father-in-law, came with his sons and his wife to Moses in the wilderness where he was camped, at the mount of God. " Exodus 18:5 "Then Moses bade his father-in-law farewell, and he went his way into his own land." Exodus 18:27

F. Geographic and archeological markers at Sinai:

  1. Elijah's Cave: 1 Ki 19:8-9
  2. Cleft of the rock when God passed by Moses: Ex 33:22
  3. A volcano with blackened summit? : Ex 19:18-19. Geologist Dr. John Morris told the author, that the Jebel al-Lawz rock he examined is normal metamorphic rock typical for the volcanic area it came from, there was nothing strange about it nor any sign of plants melted into the rock.
  4. The plateau where Moses Aaron, Nadab, Abihu and the 70 elders stood: Ex 24:1-11
  5. Boundary markers that are "18 feet in diameter and 5 feet apart": Ex 19:12, 21-24
  6. The location of where the golden calf altar was built: Ex 32:5
  7. The twelve pillars Moses built: Ex 24:4
  8. The Rock that Moses struck and the resulting river bed that resulted.

F. Archeology at Mt. Lawz:

  1. A warning needs to go out to any and all who are promoting the many "fantastic" claims of the archeology at Mt. Lawz. Every single one of the Geographic and archeological markers that you might find at mount Sinai, have been "claimed" to have been found at Mt. Lawz. These claims were the result of a few day hikes around the mountain by men who had no formal training in archeology. These same men have made some rather irresponsible claims about discovering Noah's Ark, Sodom and Gomorrah, the ark of the covenant etc. They have done damage to real and serious study of Mt. Lawz as a candidate for Mt. Sinai.
  2. About all you can really say about Mt. Lawz for certain is that it is in Arabia like Paul said. It is the highest Mountain like Josephus said. It is a volcano as the bible indicates. Unlike Mt. Musa, Mt. Lawz does have a cave that might be "Elijah's cave". And there is a plateau half way up the mountain where the 70 elders could have stood.
  3. Here is just one example of the kind of irresponsible claims being made about what has been fount at Lawz: "The very rock that Moses struck for water!" Wow!!! Unfortunately, not only is it on the wrong side of the mountain, it is very unlikely that such a rock like this would remain in the same appearance as it was in Moses day considering the earthquakes in the area. Petra was leveled in about 350 AD. Those who chose this very interesting looking rock forgot that this was Israel's water supply for the year they were at Sinai. If the camp is on the east side, and the water supply was on the west side, this would mean the Hebrews would have to haul water about 100 km around the mountain, or risk climbing on the forbidden mountains and be killed by God. The rock Moses struck was on the east side of Lawz. However they soon discovered a second rock on the east side of Lawz to solve the problem. They actually teach their were two rocks that Moses struck at Sinai although there is only a record of one. We need to be very careful in making such claims.
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  4. Having said all this, very little archeological work has been done at Lawz. Remember this is Saudi Arabia where Mecca is. Muslims don't like the idea of allowing formal research that will prove the Jews have a valid right to the promised land.
  5. The first step of discovering the archeology of the Hebrew presence at Mt. Lawz, is getting the word out that this is Mt. Sinai.

G. Major events at Mt. Sinai
(and the wilderness of Sinai where the camp was located)

  1. The Hebrews will spend 11 months, 5 days at Sinai before moving north.
  2. Remember that while Moses had access to Mt. Sinai, the Hebrew camp was 5-10 km east of Sinai. Most of the events that took place at Sinai, happened in the wilderness camp, not at the mountain.
  3. Moses saw the burning bush in the wilderness of Sinai, not at Mt. Sinai: Acts 7:30. The burning bush marked the spot where Israel would camp several month later.
  4. God makes his first appearance, by "Dawning from the North" when he descended on Mt. Sinai. This spectacular hidden gem of information has been missed by most Gospel preachers. When the people were waiting at the foot of Mt. Sinai for God to descend, a small cloud appeared in the distant north from the direction of Mt. Paran or the land of Edom. This proves that Mt. Sinai must be due south of Edom. Scripture pictures the "throne of God" as being in the north. Amazingly, God "dawned from the north". There is a direct line north, from Mt. Lawz, through Mt. Paran (Edom) to Jerusalem. Jerusalem is due north of Mt. Lawz. More details.
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  5. Moses received the Ten Commandments.
  6. Moses may have built a barrier wall at the foot of the mountain as a line not to be crossed by the people. We do not know if barrier is a stone wall, a line of stones on the ground, human guards or a physical reference point, like "Do not cross the line between this tree and that cliff": "You shall set bounds for the people all around, saying, 'Beware that you do not go up on the mountain or touch the border of it; whoever touches the mountain shall surely be put to death." Exodus 19:12
  7. Moses brought water out of the rock. Detailed outline.
  8. The first of two census' was done at Mt. Sinai: Numbers 1:19. The second was just before crossing the Jordan 40 years later: Numbers 26:2. There were 2.5 million Jews in the Exodus, not 5,000 as some wrongly suggest. The Hebrew word for 1000 is "elep" and cannot mean "clans" in reference to the exodus population numbers.
  9. Nadab and Abihu offered strange fire and were killed: Numbers 3:4
  1. One stop before the wilderness of Sinai Amalekites attach Israel at Rephidim: Exodus 17:8

H. Sequence of events before Sinai:

  1. Moses left Egypt at the age of 80 and lived in Arabia, in the land of Midian: Ex 2:15
  2. While tending a flock of sheep that were owned by Jethro (Moses father in law), Moses took the sheep to the "behind side of the wilderness" and encountered God at the Burning bush. This would be just outside of the normal area that Jethro controlled, but beside it in an adjacent area. Ex 3:1
  3. At the same time that Moses saw God at the burning bush, God also told Aaron, who was in Egypt, to travel all the way to Midian and meet Moses at Mt. Sinai.
  4. Moses went back to Midian where God told Moses that the Pharaoh who tried to kill him were dead and to begin the journey to Egypt. Ex 4:18 Moses takes his wife and children with him. Although the Bible does not say, it must have been at this same time that God told Moses to get his son circumcised. While en route, God was going to kill Moses because he was listening to the protests of his wife over the commandment of God. Big mistake, when God tells you one thing and your wife another... obey God! Hot lip from God is worse than cold shoulder from your wife. Ex 4:24
  5. Although the Bible doesn't say, Moses must have been told to go to Mt. Sinai where he met up with his brother Aaron. They must have taken the route over top of the Gulf of Aqaba.
  6. They depart Mt. Sinai all travel back to Egypt where Aaron reports to the Hebrews that God cares for them. This causes the people to worship God. Ex 4:31.
  7. Detailed calendar for events between Goshen and Sinai: click here

I. Sequence of events at Sinai when they first arrived:

 

Calendar for events between Goshen and Sinai: click here

Sun

Mon

Tue

Wed

Thurs

Fri

Sat

39th day from Egypt

40

41st day from Egypt

42

43

44

arrive in Wilderness of Sinai: Sivan 1 Ex 19:1

45

Rested on second Sabbath day 42 of Pentecost

46

Moses brings water from Rock

47th day from Goshen

48th day from Goshen

49

50th day from Goshen

51

52 day from Goshen and day 49 of Pentecost, 7th Sabbath from Egypt, third sabbath actually kept by Israel.

53 day from Goshen
Pentecost day

1st ascension
Ex 19:3-6

Moses Ascends Mt. Sinai and returns with law

54

2nd ascension
Ex 19:7-14

Moses ascends Mt. Sinai 2nd time. God says be ready on the third day

55

56

God dawns from Seir and descends on Mt. Sinai on the morning of the third day.

3rd ascension
Ex 19:20

57

4th ascension
Ex 19:21

Moses descends to warn people 2nd time, ascends with Aaron.

58

5th ascension
Ex 24:9-11

Moses descends with Aaron and ascends with Aaron, Nadab, Abihu, 70 elders.

59

4th Sabbath kept by Israel since wilderness of Sin

60
6th ascension
Ex 24:18
Moses spends 40 days at summit

61 - 100
40 days Moses was on the Mt. Sinai
God reveals for the first time, the 10 Commandments and the plan for the tabernacle.
The people party and build the Golden calf. from day 56 to day 96 when Moses returns.
So about 100 days after leaving Egypt, Moses descends Mt. Sinai.
Moses physically throws 10 commandments at the people who had made the golden calf.

95-99

Moses still on Mountain at then end of which he descends.

100
7th ascension
Ex 32:30-35
God tells Moses is to take them into promised land.

101

Sabbath

101 - 140 days from Goshen
8th ascension
Ex 34:1-9
Moses spends another forty more days on the mountain, then returns. God replaces 2 tablets, God passes by while Moses was in the cleft of the rock. God said he would perform new miracles and Moses face is shining in view of the people so he puts a veil over his face. Ex 34:1-9; 2 Cor 3.

Israel departs from Sinai for promised land after spending11 months, 5 days at Sinai: Numbers 10:11-12

 

  1. On Friday, they arrive at the Wilderness of Sinai on the 44th day from Egypt and rest on the following Sabbath day.
  2. The next day, on Sunday, Moses brings the life giving water from Rock that God promised 4 days earlier when they were at Rephidim (Meribah). This is an antitype of Jesus who gave living waters of salvation when he rose from the dead on Sunday.
  3. For the week after they arrive at Sinai, the people settle in and rest from the exodus journey.
  4. 1st ascension: The next Sunday is Pentecost and Moses ascends Mt. Sinai (1st) and returns with the first installment of the law (Ex 19:3-6). He returns to the camp and asks the people if they will keep the law. The people reply yes. This is not the ten commandments, but other Laws of God. It must be disheartening for Seventh-day Adventists and other Sabbath keepers, to learn that the Ten Commandments were not even given to Moses until after he had ascended the mountain the 6th time and after spending 40 days after the 6th ascension. Apparently the statues of the law were more important than the 10 commandments. The Sabbath is the 7th day of the week (Saturday). The first time in history anyone kept the Sabbath is in the Wilderness of Sin. The word Sabbath is not even found in the Book of Genesis. The weekly Sabbath was abolished and nailed to the cross. Col 2:14-16
  5. 2nd ascension: On Monday, Moses ascends Mt. Sinai (2nd) to give God the people's "yes" answer. God says to be ready on the third day (Wednesday) when he will descend on the Mountain in fire: Ex 19:7-14. The people are told to walk to the base of the mountain from their camp and be ready for God's coming. God tells Moses to set up boundaries around the mountain so the people cannot break through, climb the mountain and die.
  6. As the Israelites waited as instructed the third day, for God to descend on Mt. Sinai, they suddenly looked due north 100 km and saw God in the wilderness of Paran. God "dawns from Seir" like a sunrise in its glory, until He is hovering directly over Mt. Sinai. The Israelites watched in wonder and were amazed at the beauty and splendor of God as He came closer and closer to them where they stood. One of the most interesting facts about the Wilderness of Paran, is its connection with God's appearing at Mt. Sinai. When Israel was encamped at the foot of Mt. Sinai (Mt. Al-Lawz), God thundered, in a volcanic level display that terrified the Israelites. But three verses explicitly tell us that God dawned from the north like a sunrise, or like Elijah's small cloud the size of a man's fist in the distance that became a storm (1 Kings 18:44). God dawned from Mt. Seir until he came to Mt. Sinai and made the mountain turn to fire before Israel. They were terrified. The four key verses that describe "dawning from the north" are: Deut 33:2; Isa 63:1-2; Judg 5:4; Hab 3:3-7. 40 years later, when Israel was at Mt. Seir, God gave the "go ahead" to finally start their way to the promised land by the command, "Now turn North". In fact Mount Seir is absolute due south of Jerusalem and absolute due north of Mt. Sinai in modern Saudi Arabia. There are several passages that repeat this pattern of God coming "from the North". Most notably is Ezekiel's vision where God came from a distant storm in the North finally to overshadow him. (Ezekiel 1:4) Job describes God as coming from the North in golden splendor. (Job 37:22-23) Lucifer, the king of Babylon describes God's throne as being in the far north. (Isaiah 14:13-14) Psalm 48:1-2 describes Jerusalem as being located in the "far north". Further detailed study.
  7. 3rd ascension: After God descends on Mt. Sinai and calls Moses to climb the mountain (3rd). Ex 19:20
  8. 4th ascension: God tells Moses to go back down and warn the people again to stay away from the mountain so they will not die, then come up again (4th) with Aaron. Ex 19:21
  9. Moses and Aaron hear the Ten Commandments and various other laws. God tells Moses to descend and return with Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, and 70 elders of Israel. Moses goes back down and tells the people what God has said. Deut 24:1-3
  10. Moses writes down the words in the book of the law, which will eventually be placed on the side of the ark. Ex 24:4
  11. Moses builds an alter with 12 pillars at the foot of the mountain for the twelve tribes. He then sprinkles the alter with blood. Ex 24:4-6
  12. Moses read the book of the law to the people and after they agreed, he sprinkled the people with blood of the covenant. Ex 24:8
  13. 5th ascension: Moses now returns to the mountain (5th) with Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, and 70 elders of Israel. After seeing God and eating the group descend to the foot of the mountain. Ex 24:9-11
  14. God then calls Moses up with Joshua to the mountain to receive the two tablets of stone with the ten commandments written by the finger of God. Ex 24:12
  15. 6th ascension: Moses spends 40 days on the mountain (6th) where God reveals the plan for the tabernacle. Ex 24:18.
  16. After 40 days, Aaron makes the golden calf as Moses was on the mountain for 40 days. In one of the most fascinating interaction between a man and God in the Bible, God tells Moses He will kill all the Hebrews who sinned and make Moses into a great nation. Moses pleads for the people. Then God changes his mind and says he won't kill them. Moses goes down and rebukes Aaron and grinds up the golden calf and makes them drink the gold dust. Then Moses command the Levites to kill about 3000 of the idol worshippers. Ex 32:7-29
  17. 7th ascension: The next day, Moses climb Mt. Sinai (7th). God tells Moses is to take them into the promised land with God's angel as protection, but God himself will not go with them. Moses goes down the mountain. God strikes down a number of the Hebrews who sinned. Ex 32:30-35
  18. When the people hear that God's angel will lead them but God himself will not go with them, the people get sad and they remove all their jewelry. Ex 33:2-6
  19. Moses continues to plead with God for the people and says, "I pray You, show me Your glory!" God says He will show Moses his Glory on the Mountain. Ex 33:18-23
  20. 8th ascension: God tells Moses to cut out two replacement tablets and God calls Moses back up to Mt. Sinai (8th), where God passes by while Moses was in the cleft of the rock. Again Moses asks God to join them on the journey to the promised land. God changes his mind finally and tells Moses he will lead them to the promised land. Moses spends forty more days on the mountain, then returns. God said he would perform new miracles and Moses face is shining in view of the people so he puts a veil over his face. Ex 34:1-9; 2 Cor 3.
  21. Sometime during the time at Sinai, but after Moses had received the law, Jethro visits and gives advice to Moses to set up thousands, hundreds and tens to help judge the people: Ex 18.
  22. On the first day of the first month (Nissan 1) of the second year, the tabernacle is set up for the first time. this is about 7 months after they had arrived at Sinai and 15 days short of one year since they left Egypt. Ex 40:2,17
  23. Sometime during the month of Nissan, second year, Nadab and Abihu are killed by God for using strange fire. They were drunk did not focus on the seriousness of the Holiness of God. Lev 10:1-9; Numbers 3:4
  24. On the first of the second month Moses takes a census: Num 1:1
  25. Moses asked Hobab the son of Reuel the Midianite, Moses' father-in-law, to join them and be a scout for them. At first they say no, but then, like the parable of the two sons, changed his mind and joined Moses. They got an inheritance with the tribe of Judah: Judges 1:16; 4:11. This shows that Mt. Sinai must be near Midian since Hobab must have been familiar with the local area to be scout. How could a Midianite be a scout in the modern Sinai peninsula, since the traditional Mt. Sinai (Mt. Musa) is 300 km from the town of Midian (modern Al Bad)? Num 10:29-32. It is very sad that 40 years later, likely long after Jethro died, the Midianites joined with the Moabites to curse Israel through Baalam. The Kenites were representing the elders of Midian: Num 22:4,7 + 24:18. Perhaps God knew this would be the tragic outcome and that is why Moses asked Hobab to join them. Just as Jesus asked the rich young ruler to give everything up and join Him for a promised future reward, Moses asked Hobab. The rich young ruler refused and was eternally lost, but Hobab accepted and gained a better inheritance. One generation later: Pharaoh who knew Joseph was kind, but the next Pharaoh enslaved them. (Ex 1:8). In the same way, Jethro the priest of Midian and his son Hobab, were allies to Moses, but 40 years later, likely after Jethro died, the elders of Midian were enemies of Moses. (Num 22:6)
  26. On the 20 of the second month year 2, Israel leave Sinai and head for the wilderness of Paran: Numbers 10:11-12. They arrived on the 1st of the third month and left on the 20 of the second month the following year. This means they spent a total of 11 months, 5 days in Sinai.

J. Photos and maps:

The view of Lawz from about 10 km from the foot of the mountain.

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This is the way Lawz would look from ground level from where Israel stood and watched God descend on Mt. Sinai.

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Here is a line of site from the wilderness of Sinai looking due north.

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The Israelites viewed the Dawning of God looking due west at the summit. God dawned from the right hand side and hovered over the mountain and made it quake.

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K. Arguments against Al-Lawz, refuted:

  1. False argument: "Mt. al-Lawz was not Jethro's own county, although only 18 Km away. This proves Moses was near the traditional Mt. Sinai at Mt. Musa." Refuted
  2. Why would the Amalekites attack in Midian? Explained The Amalekites lived transjordan and not in the wilderness of Egypt (Sinai Peninsula)

L. Bible texts:

  1. "Then they set out from Elim, and all the congregation of the sons of Israel came to the wilderness of Sin, which is between Elim and Sinai, on the fifteenth day of the second month after their departure from the land of Egypt." Exodus 16:1
  2. "In the third month after the sons of Israel had gone out of the land of Egypt, on that very day they came into the wilderness of Sinai. When they set out from Rephidim, they came to the wilderness of Sinai and camped in the wilderness; and there Israel camped in front of the mountain." Exodus 19:12
  3. "and let them be ready for the third day, for on the third day the Lord will come down on Mount Sinai in the sight of all the people." Exodus 19:11
  4. "Now Mount Sinai was all in smoke because the Lord descended upon it in fire; and its smoke ascended like the smoke of a furnace, and the whole mountain quaked violently." Exodus 19:18
  5. "The Lord came down on Mount Sinai, to the top of the mountain; and the Lord called Moses to the top of the mountain, and Moses went up." Exodus 19:20
  6. "Moses said to the Lord, "The people cannot come up to Mount Sinai, for You warned us, saying, 'Set bounds about the mountain and consecrate it.' " Exodus 19:23
  7. "The glory of the Lord rested on Mount Sinai, and the cloud covered it for six days; and on the seventh day He called to Moses from the midst of the cloud." Exodus 24:16
  8. "When He had finished speaking with him upon Mount Sinai, He gave Moses the two tablets of the testimony, tablets of stone, written by the finger of God." Exodus 31:18
  9. "So be ready by morning, and come up in the morning to Mount Sinai, and present yourself there to Me on the top of the mountain." Exodus 34:2
  10. "So he cut out two stone tablets like the former ones, and Moses rose up early in the morning and went up to Mount Sinai, as the Lord had commanded him, and he took two stone tablets in his hand." Exodus 34:4
  11. "It came about when Moses was coming down from Mount Sinai (and the two tablets of the testimony were in Moses' hand as he was coming down from the mountain), that Moses did not know that the skin of his face shone because of his speaking with Him." Exodus 34:29
  12. "Afterward all the sons of Israel came near, and he commanded them to do everything that the Lord had spoken to him on Mount Sinai." Exodus 34:32
  13. "which the Lord commanded Moses at Mount Sinai in the day that He commanded the sons of Israel to present their offerings to the Lord in the wilderness of Sinai." Leviticus 7:38
  14. " The Lord then spoke to Moses at Mount Sinai, saying," Leviticus 25:1
  15. "These are the statutes and ordinances and laws which the Lord established between Himself and the sons of Israel through Moses at Mount Sinai." Leviticus 26:46
  16. "These are the commandments which the Lord commanded Moses for the sons of Israel at Mount Sinai." Leviticus 27:34
  17. "Then the Lord spoke to Moses in the wilderness of Sinai, in the tent of meeting, on the first of the second month, in the second year after they had come out of the land of Egypt, saying," Numbers 1:1
  18. "just as the Lord had commanded Moses. So he numbered them in the wilderness of Sinai." Numbers 1:19
  19. "Now these are the records of the generations of Aaron and Moses at the time when the Lord spoke with Moses on Mount Sinai." Numbers 3:1
  20. "But Nadab and Abihu died before the Lord when they offered strange fire before the Lord in the wilderness of Sinai; and they had no children. So Eleazar and Ithamar served as priests in the lifetime of their father Aaron." Numbers 3:4
  21. "Then the Lord spoke to Moses in the wilderness of Sinai, saying," Numbers 3:14
  22. "Thus the Lord spoke to Moses in the wilderness of Sinai, in the first month of the second year after they had come out of the land of Egypt, saying," Numbers 9:1
  23. "They observed the Passover in the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month, at twilight, in the wilderness of Sinai; according to all that the Lord had commanded Moses, so the sons of Israel did." Numbers 9:5
  24. "and the sons of Israel set out on their journeys from the wilderness of Sinai. Then the cloud settled down in the wilderness of Paran." Numbers 10:12
  25. "But among these there was not a man of those who were numbered by Moses and Aaron the priest, who numbered the sons of Israel in the wilderness of Sinai." Numbers 26:64
  26. "'It is a continual burnt offering which was ordained in Mount Sinai as a soothing aroma, an offering by fire to the Lord." Numbers 28:6
  27. "They journeyed from Rephidim and camped in the wilderness of Sinai. They journeyed from the wilderness of Sinai and camped at Kibroth-hattaavah." Numbers 33:15-16
  28. "He said, "The Lord came from Sinai, And dawned on them from Seir; He shone forth from Mount Paran, And He came from the midst of ten thousand holy ones; At His right hand there was flashing lightning for them." Deuteronomy 33:2
  29. "The mountains quaked at the presence of the Lord, This Sinai, at the presence of the Lord, the God of Israel." Judges 5:5
  30. "Then You came down on Mount Sinai, And spoke with them from heaven; You gave them just ordinances and true laws, Good statutes and commandments." Nehemiah 9:13
  31. "The earth quaked; The heavens also dropped rain at the presence of God; Sinai itself quaked at the presence of God, the God of Israel." Psalm 68:8
  32. "The chariots of God are myriads, thousands upon thousands; The Lord is among them as at Sinai, in holiness." Psalm 68:17
  33. "After forty years had passed, an angel appeared to him in the wilderness of Mount Sinai, in the flame of a burning thorn bush." Acts 7:30
  34. "This is the one who was in the congregation in the wilderness together with the angel who was speaking to him on Mount Sinai, and who was with our fathers; and he received living oracles to pass on to you." Acts 7:38
  35. "This is allegorically speaking, for these women are two covenants: one proceeding from Mount Sinai bearing children who are to be slaves; she is Hagar. Now this Hagar is Mount Sinai in Arabia and corresponds to the present Jerusalem, for she is in slavery with her children." Galatians 4:24-25

 

By Steve Rudd: Contact the author for comments, input or corrections.

 

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