Commentary on the book of Daniel by Steven Rudd
Daniel 2: The 5 kingdoms: Rome 49 BC + Church kingdom
Daniel 7: The 1260 Days, 42 months: Nero persecution: 64-68 AD
Daniel 8: 2300 days: Antiochus Epiphanes 167-164 BC
Daniel 9: The 70 weeks, 490 years ending at Resurrection
Daniel 12: The 1290 Days, 43 months: Ministry of Christ
Book of Daniel and Revelation:
1. Daniel 2: The 5 kingdoms: Rome 49 BC + Church kingdom
2. Daniel 7: The 1260 Days, 42 months: Nero persecution: 64-68 AD
3. Daniel 8: 2300 days + evenings = 1150 days: Antiochus Epiphanes 167-164 BC
4. Daniel 9: The 70 weeks, 490 years ending at Resurrection
5. Daniel 12: The 1290 Days, 43 months: Ministry of Christ
Bible Only Revelation Commentary by Steven Rudd
QUICK LINKS: Bible Only Revelation Commentary
“In the days of those kings the God of heaven will set up a kingdom which will never be destroyed, and that kingdom will not be left for another people; it will crush and put an end to all these kingdoms, but it will itself endure forever." (Daniel 2:44)
The five kingdoms of Daniel 2:
5. Church/Kingdom of Christ on Pentecost AD 33
Click on image to enlarge chronologies:
Daniel 7: Nero
1. Although Nero fits best, neither Nero, Titus and Domitian as the little horn fit perfect. Futurists are hopeless with their speculations as depicted in fictional movies like “left behind” and the rise of the antichrist.
2. The primary focus of Daniel 7 is the little horn who “wages war with Christians”. While Daniels visions are presented in a chronological sequential order of the four kingdoms, (Dan 2, 7) the ten kings are out of chronological sequence to make Nero the horn to be noticed. The vision of Daniel sees a total of 11 kings that indeed sequential from Julius to Titus, but first he sees 10 kings, EXCEPT for Nero, the 6th. While looking at the entire collection of kings, then AFTER HE SEES them all together, the spotlight shines on the rise of King 6, which although is out of chronology, it does powerfully draw attention to how he is different from the other 10. So Daniel 7 focuses not on the order of the ten kings, but how one king was different in that he “persecuted Christians” unlike any of the other 10. Notice that while Daniel sees the ten all at the same time, Nero rises “between them”, but in the vision he comes up AFTER them.
a. Daniel’s initial vision: “After this I kept looking in the night visions, and behold, a fourth beast, dreadful and terrifying and extremely strong; and it had large iron teeth. It devoured and crushed and trampled down the remainder with its feet; and it was different from all the beasts that were before it, and it had ten horns. “While I was contemplating the horns, behold, another horn, a little one, came up among/between [literally “between, Strongs 997-see Dan 7:5 “between teeth”] them, and three of the first horns were pulled out by the roots before it; and behold, this horn possessed eyes like the eyes of a man and a mouth uttering great boasts." (Daniel 7:7-8)
b. Daniel retells the vision: "and the meaning of the ten horns that were on its head and the other horn which came up, and before which three of them fell, namely, that horn which had eyes and a mouth uttering great boasts and which was larger in appearance than its associates. “I kept looking, and that horn was waging war with the saints and overpowering them" (Daniel 7:20–21)
c. Angel interprets: “Thus he said: ‘The fourth beast will be a fourth kingdom on the earth, which will be different from all the other kingdoms and will devour the whole earth and tread it down and crush it. ‘As for the ten horns, out of this kingdom ten kings will arise; and another will arise after them, and he will be different from the previous ones and will subdue three kings. ‘He will speak out against the Most High and wear down the saints of the Highest One, and he will intend to make alterations in times and in law; and they will be given into his hand for a time, times, and half a time. ‘But the court will sit for judgment, and his dominion will be taken away, annihilated and destroyed forever." (Daniel 7:23-26)
3. Nero fits best:
a. The single problem is that the Angel indicates he arose AFTER the 10 but the Angel may merely be echoing the way Daniel saw the vision with the 10 all together, then Nero who is different rising, to continue to keep the focus on Nero the chronological 6th of the 11 kings. So the reason the last horn was seen coming up last among all the others was because he was different, not because he was chronologically the last one to rule in time. The angel merely echoed what Daniel saw and was not making a chronological statement. The gospels will often change order to make a point. That is what happens in Dan 7.
b. Perfect fit of 42 months (November AD 64 - 9th June AD 68) persecution matches Rev 13:5 where the beast specifically also wages war with Christians.
c. Connecting the little horn of Dan 7 with the beast in Rev 17:10-11 fits on two counts. First in Revelation 17:10-11 the beast wages war with Christians = Nero=666. Second that matches Titus who reigned for “a short time” of 2 years and 3 months: 23 June 79 - 13 September 81. "and they are seven kings; five have fallen, one is, the other has not yet come [Titus]; and when he comes, he must remain a little while [a short reign]." (Revelation 17:10)
d. Nero is different from the rest of the Caesars in that he is the only one from Julius to Titus to persecute Christians. “Wages war with saints”. The primary focus of the little horn is that Nero literally persecuted Christians for 42 months. The little horn was primarily an enemy of Christians and secondarily the of the Jews in the destruction of Jerusalem where they are punished for their sins:
e. Nero removed three horn/three kings: literally (Vologases I, Tigranes, and Tiridates I) while alive in AD 66 and symbolically after he died (Galba, Otho and Vitellius).
i. While alive: three Parthian the kings, Vologases I, Tigranes, and Tiridates I
a) Tacitus Annals 15.29 records that Nero “uprooted” three Parthian the kings, Vologases I, Tigranes, and Tiridates I in the Armenian war Armenian wars AD 43-66. Tiridates I laying his crown at the foot of Nero’s statue and agreeing to accept it back again only from Nero in Rome . That certainly qualifies as humiliation and subjugation of a king. This is what I believe to be the meaning behind the little horn intending to “change times and law”.
b) “Then the Roman commended the young prince for abandoning rash courses, and adopting a safe and expedient policy. Tiridates first dwelt much on the nobility of his race, but went on to speak in a tone of moderation. He would go to Rome, and bring the emperor a new glory, a suppliant Arsacid, while Parthia was prosperous. It was then agreed that Tiridates should lay down his royal crown before Cćsar's image, and resume it only from the hand of Nero. The interview then ended with a kiss. After an interval of a few days there was a grand display on both sides; on the one, cavalry ranged in squadrons with their national ensigns; on the other, stood the columns of our legions with glittering eagles and standards and images of deities, after the appearance of a temple. In the midst, on a tribunal, was a chair of state, and on the chair a statue of Nero. To this Tiridates advanced, and having slain the customary victims, he removed the crown from his head, and set it at the foot of the statue; whereupon all felt a deep thrill of emotion, rendered the more intense by the sight which yet lingered before their eyes, of the slaughter or siege of Roman armies. "But now," they thought, "the calamity is reversed; Tiridates is about to go, a spectacle to the world, little better than a prisoner."” (Cornelius Tacitus, The Annals 15:29)
ii. After his death or from the grave, symbolically caused those three who followed: Galba, Otho and Vitellius
a) If another man claims to be Caesar while Nero was alive it is automatic execution.
b) If Nero really had come back to life after committing suicide, he would surely execute these three kings.
c) The rumour that Nero was still alive (risen from dead) would cause automatic execution for the following three “unofficial” Caesars who followed: Galba, Otho and Vitellius. This theme of the wounded head coming alive again is specifically applied to Nero three times in Revelation:
1. "I saw one of his heads as if it had been slain, and his fatal wound was healed. And the whole earth was amazed and followed after the beast;" (Revelation 13:3)
2. "He exercises all the authority of the first beast in his presence. And he makes the earth and those who dwell in it to worship the first beast, whose fatal wound was healed." (Revelation 13:12)
3. "“The beast that you saw was, and is not, and is about to come up out of the abyss and go to destruction. And those who dwell on the earth, whose name has not been written in the book of life from the foundation of the world, will wonder when they see the beast, that he was and is not and will come." (Revelation 17:8)
f. The odd human descriptor in Daniel 7 “Eyes like a man” is connected with “the number is that of a man-666” Rev 13:18. While the descriptions have composite animal beasts, the little horn and 666 are given oddly human associations.
g. Nero alters time and law by breaking the treaty between Jews and Romans in 161 BC.
iii. In the Bible “changing times and seasons” means changing kings.
a) "Every person is to be in subjection to the governing authorities. For there is no authority except from God, and those which exist are established by God." (Romans 13:1)
b) "Daniel said, “Let the name of God be blessed forever and ever, For wisdom and power belong to Him. “It is He who changes the times and the epochs; He removes kings and establishes kings; He gives wisdom to wise men And knowledge to men of understanding." (Daniel 2:20–21)
c) "So when they had come together, they were asking Him, saying, “Lord, is it at this time You are restoring the kingdom to Israel?”" (Acts 1:6)
d) "“The God who made the world and all things in it, since He is Lord of heaven and earth, does not dwell in temples made with hands; nor is He served by human hands, as though He needed anything, since He Himself gives to all people life and breath and all things; and He made from one man every nation of mankind to live on all the face of the earth, having determined their appointed times and the boundaries of their habitation" (Acts 17:24–26)
iv. In declaring war on Jerusalem, Nero officially changed the treaty law between Israel and Rome that dates to 161 BC. Nero sent Vespasian to destroy Jerusalem in December AD 66 as an act of formally breaking the treaty.
a) "And so Judas selected Eupolemus son of John of Accos and Jason son of Eleazar and sent them to Rome to establish with them a friendship and alliance, and to lift the yoke from them because they saw the kingdom of the Greeks oppressing Israel with slavery And they went to Rome, and the journey was very long, and they entered into the senate chamber and reported, “Judas, also called Maccabeus, and his brothers and the population of the Judeans sent us to you to establish with you an alliance and peace, and that we might be written in with your allies and friends.” And the message was pleasing before them. And this is the transcript of the writing that they wrote in response on a bronze tablet and sent to Jerusalem to be with them there as a memorial of the peace and alliance: “May it be well for the Romans and the nation of the Judeans in the sea and on dry land into the age; and the sword and enemy, may they be far removed from them. If war should come to Rome first or any of their allies in all their power, the nation of the Judeans will act as allies as the occasion should indicate to them with a full heart. And to those who fight, they will not give nor supply grain, weapons, gold, or ships, as Rome has determined, and they will keep their obligations, receiving nothing in return. By the same standards, if against the nation of the Judeans war should happen first, the Romans will act as allies from the soul as the occasion should indicate to them. And to those fighting with the Judeans, there will be given no grain, weapons, or gold, as Rome has determined, and they will keep these obligations and do so with no deceit. By these words, thus, the Romans have established a treaty with the people of the Judeans. But if after these words both parties should decide to add or remove, they may do so from their free choice, and what they should add or remove will be lawful. And concerning the wrongs that King Demetrius is doing against them, we have written to him saying, ‘For what reason do you make heavy your yoke on our friends, the Judean allies? If therefore they appeal again against you, we will show them judgment and will fight with you by sea and by dry land.’ ”" (1 Maccabees 8:17-32 161 BC,)
b) “But Hyrcanus the high priest was desirous to renew the league of friendship they had with the Romans: accordingly he sent an embassage to them; and when the senate had received their epistle, they made a league of friendship with them, after the manner following:—(260) “Fanius, the son of Marcus, the praetor, gathered the senate together on the eighth day before the Ides of February, in the senate house, when Lucius Manlius, the son of Lucius, of the Mentine tribe, and Caius Sempronius, the son of Caius, of the Falernian tribe, were present. The occasion was, that the ambassadors sent by the people of the Jews, Simon, the son of Dositheus, and Apollonius, the son of Alexander, and Diodorus, the son of Jason, who were good and virtuous men, (261) had somewhat to propose about that league of friendship and mutual assistance which subsisted between them and the Romans, and about other public affairs, who desired that Joppa, and the havens, and Gazara, and the springs [of Jordan] and the several other cities and countries of theirs, which Antiochus had taken from them in the war, contrary to the decree of the senate, might be restored to them; (262) and that it might not be lawful for the king’s troops to pass through their country, and the countries of those that are subject to them; and that what attempts Antiochus had made during that war, without the decree of the senate, might be made void: (263) and that they would send ambassadors, who should take care that restitution be made them of what Antiochus had taken from them, and that they should make an estimate of the country that had been laid waste in the war: and that they would grant them letters of protection to the kings and free people, in order to their quiet return home. (264) It was therefore decreed as to these points, to renew their league of friendship and mutual assistance with these good men, and who were sent by a good and friendly people.” (Josephus Antiquities 13.258-265, 161 BC)
4. Titus [AD 79-81] as the little horn doesn’t fit:
b. Titus never persecuted Christians or “Wages war with the saints”.
c. Titus was a righteous man who took steps to protect the Jewish temple from being destroyed while Nero burns Rome.
d. There is simply no correspondence with Titus and 3.5 years and they simply ignore it as a literal time period.
e. Titus does fit as the 11th king from Julius.
f. Titus did subdue the three Jewish rebel leaders in Jerusalem Eleazar ben Simon, Simon ben Giora, John of Gischala.
g. Connecting Titus as the little horn in Dan 7 Rev 17:10-11 fits but causes problems. While he reigns a short time, he is NOT the beast of Rev 17:10-11.
5. Domitian [AD 81-96] as the little horn doesn’t fit:
a. Titus does NOT fit as the 11th king from Julius, but is the 12th.
b. The 42 months is simply ignored as a real time period.
c. Subduing three kings is totally ignored.
d. Totally ignoring the 42 months and skipping Julius as the first of the kings is an astronomically larger problem then those faced with either Nero or Titus.
e. Domitian reigned 15 long years! Rev 17:10, says the little horn had a short reign and Domitian had a 15 year reign.
f. Domitian did “Wages war with the saints” but not like Nero and not for 42 months like Nero.
"Out of one of them came forth a rather small horn which grew exceedingly great toward the south, toward the east, and toward the Beautiful Land. It grew up to the host of heaven and caused some of the host and some of the stars to fall to the earth, and it trampled them down. It even magnified itself to be equal with the Commander of the host; and it removed the regular sacrifice from Him, and the place of His sanctuary was thrown down. And on account of transgression the host will be given over to the horn along with the regular sacrifice; and it will fling truth to the ground and perform its will and prosper. Then I heard a holy one speaking, and another holy one said to that particular one who was speaking, “How long will the vision about the regular sacrifice apply, while the transgression causes horror, so as to allow both the holy place and the host to be trampled?” He said to me, “For 2,300 evenings and mornings; then the holy place will be properly restored.”" (Daniel 8:9–14)
1. 2300 sacrifices, one each morning and evening for about 3.5 years and exactly 1150 days.
2. In 167 BC Antiochus IV, king of the Seleucid kingdom, defiled the Jewish temple.
a. "And Antiochus turned after attacking Egypt in the one hundred and forty-third year, and he went up against Israel and Jerusalem with a fierce army. And he entered the sanctuary in arrogance and took the gold altar and the lampstand for the light, and all its accessories, and the table of presentation and the drink offering cups and the bowls and the golden censers and the veil and the crowns and the golden adornment applied to the face of the temple walls, and he peeled it all off. And he took the gold and silver and the valuable accessories. And he took the hidden treasures that he found. And having taken everything, he departed to his land. And he made a massacre and spoke with great disdain." (1 Maccabees 1:20–24)
3. The period of time recorded in 1 Maccabees is 1,105 days using a solar calendar, and 1,090 days using a lunar calendar of thirty days per month. Daniel’s figure of 1,150 days does not exactly agree with the number from Maccabees, but it is close enough.
a. "And on the fifteenth day of Chislev, on the one hundred and forty-fifth year, they built an abomination of desolation on the altar, and in the cities around Judah, they built altars." (1 Maccabees 1:54)
b. "And they rose early in the morning of the twenty-fifth of the ninth month, this is the month Chislev, the one hundred and forty-eighth year, and they offered up sacrifices according to the law on the altar for the burnt offerings, the new one that they made." (1 Maccabees 4:52–53)
4. In 166 BC John Maccabees revolts founding the Hasmonean kingdom.
5. In 164 BC the Jews liberated the Jerusalem temple and Hanukkah was born.
a. "But Judas and his brothers said, “Look, our enemies are broken. We should go up to cleanse the holy place and to dedicate it.” And the entire army assembled and went up to Mount Zion. And they saw our sanctuary stripped bare and the altar profaned and the gate burned. And in the courtyard, plants were overgrown like in a forest or like on one of the mountains, and the priest’s chamber was torn down. And they tore their robes and mourned with great lamentation and covered themselves with ashes upon their head. And they fell on their face upon the ground, and they sounded the trumpets, giving the signal, and they cried out to heaven. Then Judas ordered men to fight against those in the citadel until he had cleansed the holy place. So he selected priests who were blameless, eager for the law, and they cleansed the holy place and removed the stones that defiled it to an unclean place. And they deliberated about the altar for the burnt offering, which was profaned: What should they do with it? And good counsel fell to them to take it down, lest it might become for them as a disgrace because the nations defiled it. And they tore down the altar and stored the stones on a mountain temple in a suitable place until a prophet was available to report about them. And they took unhewn stones according to the law and built a new altar just like the previous one. And they rebuilt the holy place and the inside of the temple and sanctified the courtyards. And they made new holy vessels and brought the lampstand and the altar of whole burnt offerings and of incense and the table into the temple. And they burned incense on the altar and kindled the lamps on the lampstand and appeared in the temple. And they put bread loaves on the table and spread out the curtain. And they completed all the work that they had begun. And they rose early in the morning of the twenty-fifth of the ninth month, this is the month Chislev, the one hundred and forty-eighth year, and they offered up sacrifices according to the law on the altar for the burnt offerings, the new one that they made. At the season on the day during which the nations defiled it, on that day, they dedicated it with songs and lutes and lyres and with cymbals. And all the people fell on their face and bowed and gave praise to heaven, which had caused them to prosper. And they performed the dedication of the altar for eight days and offered up burnt offerings with celebration and sacrificed the deliverance and thanksgiving sacrifice. And they decorated the surface of the temple with gold crowns and small shields and consecrated the gate and the priest’s chamber and fitted them with doors. And an incredibly great celebration took place among the people, and the reproach of the nations was removed. And Judas and his brothers and the entire assembly of Israel established that the days of dedication of the altar should be celebrated during their times, year by year, for eight days beginning from the twenty-fifth of the month of Chislev, with celebration and joy. And they built during that time, all around the mountain of Zion, high walls and strong towers, lest when they arrived, the nations would destroy them as they did before." (1 Maccabees 4:36–60)
6. Jesus used the Hanukkah celebration as an opportunity to teach: Jn 10:22
a. "Now it happened on the day in which the temple was defiled by the foreigners, on that same day, the purification of the temple was made, the the twenty-fifth of the same month, Chislev. And they observed with merriment eight days in the manner of the Feast of Tabernacles, remembering how shortly before, during the Feast of Tabernacles, they were feeding on the mountains and in the caves like wild animals. Therefore, holding ivy wreathed wands and branches with ripe fruit and still also date palm fronds, they were thankful to the one who helped to cleanse his own place. And with a common ordinance and vote, they decreed to the entire nation of the Judeans to observe ten days every year." (2 Maccabees 10:5–8)
Daniel 9:24-27, LXX
"Seventy sevens have been decreed upon your people and upon the city, Zion, to complete the guilt and to deal with the unjust offenses and to wipe away the injustices and to fully understand the vision and to establish everlasting righteousness and to complete the visions and the prophet and to delight in the holy of holies. And you will know and understand and rejoice, and you will find commands to respond, and you will build Jerusalem, the city, for the Lord. And after seven periods of seven and sixty-two periods of seven, an anointed place will be removed, and it will not be. And a kingdom from among the nations will despoil the city and the holy place along with the anointed one, and his end will come with destructive anger until the set time of the consummation. There will be war upon war. And the covenant will be made strong for many, and it will recover again, and it will be built up in breadth and length. And at the end of the appointed times, and after seven periods of seventy appointed times and sixty-two years during the set time of the consummation of war, then the desolation will be taken away when the covenant prevails for many weeks. And at the completion of the period of seven, offering and drink-offering will be taken away, and upon the holy place there will be an abomination of desolation until the end. And a determined final destruction will be rendered upon the one making desolate.”" (Daniel 9:24–27, LXX)
Correct interpretation of Daniel 9:24 and the 70 Weeks:
1. The 70 weeks = 7 x 70= 490 years
2. It start with the decree to rebuild Jerusalem in April 458 BC (Ezra 7:7-26)
3. The last week is the resurrection of Christ in April 33 AD
4. Jesus the Messiah rose from the dead 490 solar years to the very day Artaxerxes issued his decree:
a. The decree to rebuild Jerusalem in Ezra 7:7-26 records Ezra departing Babylon for Jerusalem on 1st Nisan (first month in Jewish Calendar) in the 7th year of Artaxerxes in 458 BC which translates to 8 April 458 BC (Julian calendar) and to 3th April 458 BC (Solar/Gregorian Calendar).
b. The resurrection of Jesus was on 16th Nisan 33 AD (Jewish Calendar) which translates to 5 April 33 AD (Julian calendar) and to 3rd April AD (Solar/Gregorian Calendar).
c. The solar calendar (Gregorian Calendar) is God’s Calendar for a year because it is the exact time it takes the earth to orbit the Sun.
d. Today we use the Gregorian Calendar which requires leap years to keep it is in sync with God’s solar calendar. The 490 years of Daniel’s 70 weeks is exactly 490 solar years to the very day.
5. See: detailed outline on Daniel 9
"He said, “Go your way, Daniel, for these words are concealed and sealed up until the end time. “Many will be purged, purified and refined, but the wicked will act wickedly; and none of the wicked will understand, but those who have insight will understand. “From the time that the regular sacrifice is abolished and the abomination of desolation is set up, there will be 1,290 days [3 years 7 months=baptism of Jesus to cross]. “How blessed is he who keeps waiting and attains to the 1,335 days [3 years 8 months 13 days = 45 days after cross = between ascension of Christ and Pentecost when the kingdom of Dan 2:44 comes in the church/kingdom] ! “But as for you, go your way to the end; then you will enter into rest and rise again for your allotted portion at the end of the age.”" (Daniel 12:9-13)
1. Notice it is 43 months, NOT 42 months!
2. Daniel 12:9-13: Ministry of Christ from baptism to Cross: 1290 days = 3 years 7 months
3. 1290 days = 3 years 7 months = Ministry of Christ from baptism to Cross:
a. Start: Jesus was baptized by John July AD 29 = abolish sacrifice
b. End: Jesus was crucified 3 April AD 33 = abomination of desolation.
4. 1335 days = 3 years 8 months 13 days = 45 days after cross
a. Start: Jesus was baptized by John July AD 29
b. Stop: 45 days after cross and a few days after Jesus ascended. The time ends between ascension of Christ and Pentecost when the kingdom of Dan 2:44 comes in the church/kingdom.
5. Abomination of desolation = crucifixion:
a. It was an abomination that the Jews killed God, their Passover lamb, Messiah.
b. Jesus then desolated the physical temple as promised “destroy this temple and in three days raise it up”
Bible Only Revelation Commentary
Steven Rudd Feb 2018
DOWNLOAD: FREE PDF
Preface: Completely understand Revelation in 5 minutes
Intro 1: Ezekiel Decodes Revelation
Dating and Chronology
Daniel and Revelation
By Steven Rudd, Feb 2018: Contact the author for comments, input or corrections
By Steve Rudd February 2018: Contact the author for comments, input or corrections.