Bible Prophecy Fulfilled through Jesus the Messiah
Tabernacle Messianic Prophecy
The Begotten Son
The Virgin Birth
The Suffering Servant
Subjection under his feet
A King builds the Temple
He shall be called a Nazarene
Heaven and Earth shaken
Destruction of Temple
Abomination of Desolation
Baptism Reenactment Rituals
Origin of Baptism
Communion Reenactment Rituals
“Remember the former things long past, For I am God, and there is no other; I am God, and there is no one like Me, Declaring the end from the beginning, And from ancient times things which have not been done, Saying, ‘My purpose will be established, And I will accomplish all My good pleasure’" (Isaiah 46:9-10)
1. All messianic prophecies fall into three broad categories:
a. Texts that were universally recognized as predicting a single, clearly defined future messianic event at the time they were written. These texts can be used a proof that the Bible is inspired. The event prophecy of the rise of 5 kingdoms in Daniel 2 and the time prophecy of the arrival of the Messiah in Daniel 9 are two examples.
b. Texts that were prophetic of a specific event that was fulfilled shortly thereafter, but later understood to be a dual prophecy also fulfilled in Jesus the Messiah. One example is 2 Sam 7:14 which predicted that the son of David would build the temple, was first fulfilled in Solomon, then later by Christ. A second example is the prophecy in Isa 7:14 of the maiden giving birth to the Emmanuel child which was first fulfilled in Isaiah’s own son then also by Mary who gave birth to Jesus.
c. Texts that nobody understood to predict future messianic events until after they were identified in the New Testament as having been fulfilled. Taken by themselves, there is no indication they were prophetic in any way. These texts can be used as a proof of God’s foreknowledge by causing two historical events centuries apart to mirror one another. The two historic events are based upon well-established history making the typology obvious for all to see. Matthew 2:15 assigns messianic features to God calling Israel out of Egypt in 1446 BC during the Exodus which was a type of Joseph bringing Jesus out of Egypt in 1 BC.
2. What is the Midrashic Hermeneutic Interpretation method:
a. A hermeneutic is a generic term for one of many ways of interpreting the Bible. The Midrash Hermeneutic is one specific method of interpreting the Bible and was the one used by used by Jesus, the Holy Spirit, Old Testament prophets and inspired New Testament writers.
b. The clearest examples of Midrashic Hermeneutic method are the Gospel of Matthew, Paul’s writings and especially the book of Hebrews (written by Paul).
c. The Olivet Discourse becomes a triple prophecy using the Midrashic Hermeneutical method of first, the Christ coming in his kingdom on Pentecost AD 33, second, the coming of Christ in destruction in AD 70 and third, the “second coming” in Judgement at the end of time. Many elements of the Jesus’ prophecy in Matthew 24 are dual prophecies of both the coming of the Lord in Judgment in AD 70 and the future second coming. Our modern thinking wants to identify each verse in Matthew 24 as speaking either of the destruction of Jerusalem in AD 70 or the future second coming but this is impossible with most Midrashic prophetic messianic texts. The final product is a nice neat list of two sets of verses, each applying to two separate events. The error of this approach is becomes evident when you try to do the same thing in the dual prophecies of Isaiah 7:14; Isaiah 53 and 2 Samuel 7:14. The correct approach is to view all of Matthew 24 as a dual or triple prophecy.
d. Ezekiel was dual prophecy of the destruction of Jerusalem in 587 BC and AD 70. Revelation itself is an exact chapter by chapter, thought by thought remake of the book of Ezekiel. The Midrashic Hermeneutic allows us to use Ezekiel to decodes Revelation.
e. Modern Jewish Rabbis use the Midrashic hermeneutic in their synagogues and are intimately familiar with it. When Jewish Rabbis today are critical with the way Matthew connected messianic prophecy in the Tanakh to Jesus of Nazareth, they are being hypocritical because their own methods seen in their own rabbinical writings are many times more spatial, abstract and speculative.
f. Midrash is how Christians today determine faith and doctrine in the church which includes obeying the silence of scripture, direct command, approved apostolic example and inference as witnessed in how the Christians in Acts 15 refuted the need for the gentiles to be circumcised to be saved.
3. After AD 70, Rabbinical Judaism used the Midrashic hermeneutic method in writing the Mishnah (AD 200), the Tosefta (AD 250), Jerusalem Talmud (AD 400) and the Babylonian Talmud (AD 500). As Pharisaic legalism increased after AD 70, Rabbinical Midrash became increasingly mystical, imaginative and speculative in order to create new rules used by Jews today to maintain ritual purity, kosher and Sabbath compliance.
a. Boiling a goat in its mother’s milk was prohibited (Exodus 23:19). Kosher laws today prohibit the consumption of any dairy product for the evening meal or any mammal meat product for breakfast, lest the law is violated. Moses never outlawed drinking the milk of the mother goat, while eating the kid goat that had been roasted in fire. Midrashic interpretation extended the law not only to prohibit consuming any goat milk with any goat meat, but to outlaw consuming any kind of milk with any kind of red meat (mammal).
b. Kindling a fire on the sabbath (Ex 35:3) was prohibited Automatic programmed elevators on Sabbath days that stop at every floor so that law is not violated when a spark is created when the elevator button is pushed. (But a Jew will ride an elevator if a Gentile pushes the button.) All engines are outlawed on the Sabbath because they have spark plugs that generate a fire inside the cylinders. (But a Jew will ride in a bus driven by a Gentile) Its prohibited to change the thermostat temperature of your house because you are “kindling a fire” but its ok to set the thermostat before the sabbath and let the Thermostat “kindle the fire” hundreds of times a day as it cycles the furnace off and on. Midrash hermeneutic is the interpretation method used by the Jews in creating these laws but the reasoning is hundreds of times more spatial and speculative than the Midrash of the writers of the New Testament.
4. Midrash is a hermeneutic used in both the writing and interpretation of the Bible:
a. The Holy Spirit used the Midrashic hermeneutic when He inspired men to write the 66 books of the Bible:
b. Ezra used the Midrashic hermeneutic when studying the Law: "For Ezra had set his heart to study (Hebrew: drs = midrash) the law of the LORD and to practice it, and to teach His statutes and ordinances in Israel." (Ezra 7:10)
c. The Book of Kings (1st and 2nd King) was written by Jeremiah using the Midrashic hermeneutic: "As to his sons and the many oracles against him and the rebuilding of the house of God, behold, they are written in the midrash (Hebrew: mdrs = midrash) of the Book of the Kings. Then Amaziah his son became king in his place." (2 Chronicles 24:27)
d. Inspired prophets used the Midrashic Hermeneutic: "Now the rest of the acts of Abijah, and his ways and his words are written in the midrash (Hebrew: mdrs = midrash) of the prophet Iddo." (2 Chronicles 13:22)
e. Countless examples of New Testament writers quoting Old Testament passages and applying them using the Midrashic Hermeneutic method.
f. Jesus interpreted scripture using the Midrashic Hermeneutical Method.
5. Midrash was used by ancient Jews:
a. The Dead Sea Scrolls used the Midrash Hermeneutic:
b. Midrash used in Qumran library: “Mdrš conveys a variety of meanings in the literature from Qumran. It refers to judicial investigation, study of law, and interpretation. Although mdrš alone does not necessarily refer to biblical interpretation when it appears by itself in the Qumran texts, when it is used in connection with a verse from Scripture it does seem to have a more comprehensive meaning than either pyrwš or pšr” (ABD, Midrash)
c. Misha and Talmud used Midrash Hermeneutic: “Although in the rabbinic corpus mdrš may mean study or inquiry in a general sense, its main use in these documents is to designate Scriptural interpretation. In the rabbinic collections the term signifies both the process whereby Scripture is expounded and the product of that exegesis.” (ABD, Midrash)
6. Jews who dismiss New Testament fulfillments are often both ignorant and hypocritical:
a. The interpretive methods used by modern Rabbis in the Tanakh is far more spatial and speculative than any of the New Testament writers who used the Old Testament to prove Jesus was the Messiah.
b. Hypocritical: Jewish Rabbis activists like Tovia Singer are being hypocritical when they are critical of the way Apostle Matthew connected the Tanakh to the events in the life of Jesus Christ because he knows the Mishna, Tosefta and Talmud are 100x more speculative and nuttier on every page than anything he attacks Matthew for doing. Anti-Christian Jewish Rabbis who crusade against how the New Testament finds messianic fulfilment in the Tanakh, use arguments that destroy also their own Mishna, Tosefta and Talmud. Any argument they use to destroy the New Testament also destroys the Old Testament (Tanakh). The arguments used by modern Jewish Rabbi anti-Christian crusaders like Tovia Singer who attack messianic prophecy in the New Testament are identical to how atheist Bible-trashers attack prophecy within the Old Testament.
c. Ignorant: Jewish Rabbis who are ignorant of the Midrashic interpretation method and challenge how New Testament writers found fulfillment in Old Testament prophetic texts are being very “unjewish” because they are applying their modern rational thinking over top of a first century Jewish Midrashic hermeneutic style.
For example: There is no indication in Num 24:17 that this is a
messianic prophecy, yet all first century Jews understood it to be a messianic prophecy
because the Prutah of Alexander Jannaeus (Widow’s Mite) featured the messianic
star. This was the most common coin in wide circulation at the time of Jesus
and was universally understood to be based upon Balaam’s prophecy. Bible
Trashers borrow the approach of Tovia Singer by arguing it is not a messianic
prophecy because it could easily be viewed as being fulfilled by either king
David and Solomon. Modern Rabbis must reject the messianic interpretation of
Num 24:17 that all their first century brothers both believed and taught if
they reject the manner in which Apostle Matthew applied messianic prophecy.
7. Most Christians are completely unaware of the Midrashic style of interpretation of Messianic prophecy used as a hermeneutic in the New Testament for their fulfillment. While command, example, inference and obeying the silence of scripture is true and valid hermeneutic in determining morals, doctrine and liturgy, this system is almost irrelevant in decoding Messianic prophecy in the New Testament.
a. Many Christians, including Full-Preterists, apply flawed 21st century black and white hermeneutical thinking (Epistemology, John Locke, René Descartes etc.) to interpret ancient Jewish messianic prophecy written in the Midrashic style.
b. Most Christians today expect prophecy to be clearly predictive of a future event, that when fulfilled, is obvious without need of explanation but that is not how the Holy Spirit designed most Messianic prophecy.
c. Most Messianic prophecies become obvious only after the fact of fulfillment.
d. Some Christians only accept messianic prophecies that are clearly indicated as such in the New Testament. These will reject all character antitypes as coincidence and unworthy of any pulpit time discussing. These reject as coincidence the 75 clear parallels, echoes and antitypes between Joseph and Christ, 25 between Moses and Paul and 40 between Elijah/Elisha and John/Christ. Since none of these antitypes are specifically identified as such in the New Testament, these Christians conclude they are invalid or wild speculation. Yet most of the central messianic prophecies were fulfilled in much looser terms and less obvious specifics than these dual character types and antitypes. If they reject these antitypes, they would also need to reject many of the messianic prophecies which are founded on character and historical parallels not viewed as messianic until after the resurrection of Christ. Just as the apostles looked back, after the fact, and saw messianic parallels in both men of old and history, so too we need to be alert that the entire history of the world is the result of God’s direction, power and choice. Historical events, therefore were often directed by God in such a way to lay down patterns that become obvious to Christians which the Jews were unable to see before the time of Christ.
8. Messianic prophecy generally required a Midrashic style of interpretation to understand:
a. As seen in the four Synoptic gospels, the Midrashic style often ignores chronology or reverses chronology to make a thematic point.
b. As seen in how New Testament writers quoted Old Testament texts, the Midrashic style will pull together a series of seemly unrelated events or Bible texts to make a thematic point.
c. As seen in how New Testament writers quoted Old Testament texts, the Midrashic style changes, updates or deletes words and phrases to make a thematic point.
9. The Midrashic style allowed God to record messianic prophecy in such a way so as to keep the actual meaning as hidden mystery until the Messiah, Jesus came.
a. While a small handful of Messianic prophecy are effective proofs of Bible inspiration, the vast majority of Old Testament Messianic texts cannot be used in this way.
b. The Holy Spirit designed that most messianic prophecies were deliberately vague in order to keep future events a mystery before they happened, but clearly prophetic after they happened. Many New Testament Passages speak of how the mystery of the Old Testament was now made known in the New Testament long after the events were fulfilled by Christ.
c. Jesus often pointed out how event in his life specifically fulfilled Old Testament prophecy which surprised his listeners.
d. The power of messianic prophecy is not only clearly predicting a future event before it happens, but also looking back after the fact and seeing how two major Bible events are synchronistic.
e. This is how the Holy Spirit wrote the entire Bible.
1. The Holy Spirit’s hermeneutic in establishing Bible authority is revealed in Acts 15. When Jewish Christians began speaking where God was silent in demanding the gentiles be circumcised in order to be saved, the silence was restored by Peter, Paul and Barnabas and James.
a. Peter used “inference” by arguing if the Holy fell upon the Gentiles without circumcision then they could be saved without circumcision. We use inference to determine that Christians are to not only assemble every Sunday, but are also to partake of the Lord’s supper based upon Acts 20:6 and 1 Cor 16:2. Inference is an example of the Midrashic hermeneutic.
b. Paul and Barnabas used “approved apostolic example” by describing how they have saved thousands of Gentiles without circumcision and the Holy Spirit continued to perform miracles to confirm their work was approved.
c. James used “direct command” by quoting Amos 9:11 as a messianic prophecy of when the tabernacle of David was rebuild (i.e. the church on AD 33) the gentiles would be included.
d. False teachers had spoken when God was silent and began demanding circumcision as a requirement of salvation. The use of command, example and inference restored that silence. Notice that in the letter sent out to the Gentiles regarding their salvation without circumcision, it did not say, “circumcision is not required”. Instead it restored the principle of silence and told them four things they needed to do. This is why we speak where the Bible speaks and are silent where the Bible is silent.
2. The letter sent out to the Gentiles (Acts 15:19-29) was clearly Midrashic Hermeneutical in that it listed four laws for the Gentiles only to obey:
a. Only fornication is a black and white moral issue, while the other three are Jewish Kosher laws.
b. While the letter prohibits eating meat sacrificed to idols, Paul later (1 Corinthians 8:7-13) clearly states that it is not a sin to eat meat sacrificed to idols in some circumstances.
c. Specifically, there is nothing in the New Testament that prohibits even the eating of blood, given Christ cleansed all foods but this was wisdom advice to help new Gentile Christians escape a past life of idolatry.
d. The three kosher laws for Gentiles after all kosher laws were formally abolished at the cross are perfect examples Midrashic Hermeneutic created for a special purpose at in unique times.
3. Paul used Midrashic Hermeneutic in his personal advice in marriage and divorce in 1 Cor 7.
a. First, he prohibits a wife divorcing her husband for “no cause”, then goes on to say if she does divorce him, she must remain unmarried or remarry her husband. None of this Midrashic advice changes the fact that you are not permitted to remarry without first divorcing your wife for fornication in Mt 19:9, it just enters the “grey zone” of what to do in special circumstances. Because “God hates divorce” (Mal 2:16) Midrashic hermeneutic appears to advise that it is sinful to divorce for no cause but in doing so you have not committed the greater sin adultery. Some Christians today conclude that the act of divorce alone is permitted as a non-sinful action if you remain single the rest of your life. Paul’s Midrashic interpretation comments on the degrees of action and their associated sins in the absence of specific law in these specific circumstances. If a woman has already committed the lesser sin (or unwise choice as some say) of no cause divorce, don’t make it worse by then remarrying and also committing the sin of adultery against your first husband. This kind of Midrashic interpretation by Paul under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit illustrates the hermeneutic of the Apostolic church and the general Jewish mindset of the day. Christians today are all familiar with debates regarding divorce and remarriage that begin with clear stated law in specific cases that must employ Midrashic inference to determine the will of God in the myriad of “but what if” cases. This does not mean we cannot know the will of God all these cases, just that we must move from “thus sayeth the Lord” into the arena of “inference”, both of which are equally valid hermeneutical tools in establishing Bible authority.
b. Paul recommends against singles getting married at all, given the tribulations Christians were enduring and about to endure under the 3 ½ year persecution of Nero in Rome. Then Paul goes on to say singles have the liberty to marry if they want. Again Paul’s advice to fathers in “doing well vs. doing better” (1 Cor 7:38) is an example of Midrashic hermeneutic.
c. Paul’s advice to widows to remarry only a Christian (1 Cor 7:39-40) follows the pattern of advice in the chapter of multiple permitted choices. Remaining an unmarried widow is best, marrying a Christian is good, marrying a non-Christian is legal but a bad choice. Unlike the previous cases, in 1 Cor 7 Paul leaves it up to the reader to infer through Midrashic hermeneutic that it is permitted for a widow to marry a non-Christian (Rom 7:1-3), but that it is a very poor choice. This inference draws upon applying a Midrashic interpretation of the prohibition of Jews to marry Gentiles under the Law of Moses (Deut 7:3) which then goes on to lay down ground rules if you do with the 30 day (sexless) trial marriage (Deut 21:10-14). To complicate matters, the reader must infer if Paul’s unqualified prohibition for widows to marry non-Christians is new legislation that changes Mosaic law or if it merely echoes mosaic law. This is a perfect example of where Paul leaves it up to the reader to infer that a widow marrying a non-Christian is permitted by God, but a poor and unwise choice that will probably cause you trouble, grief and possibly your soul (Josh 23:12-13).
4. Inference is Midrashic: As one of the three methods of establishing Bible authority, inference is close to, but not identical with the Midrashic hermeneutic which Jesus, Matthew, Peter, Paul and John used.
a. Types and shadows of old testament characters fulfilled in the messianic age not specifically identified in the New Testament. There are over 75 ways that Joseph is a type of Christ. There are 25 ways that Moses was a type of Apostle Paul. There are over 40 ways that Elijah was a type of Christ and Elisha was a type of John the Baptist. There are 15 ways that Abraham was a type of Christians. In all these, no new doctrine or event is created. The lives of two Bible characters are recorded in scripture and are found to have parallels. God’s power and foreknowledge was able bring about specific events in the first character, with a view to it being echoed in the specific life events of a second Bible character.
b. Misuse: Harold Camping and Chris McCann find what they think are parallels to predict the second coming of Christ over 15 times between 2011 and 2020 AD. They also began to teach that nobody could be saved after May 21st 2011 AD. This is a significant theological change from what scripture clearly records about salvation being available until the second coming of Christ.
c. Inferential Midrashic Hermeneutics will never teach something that contradicts theological principles directly established by direct command or direct statement.
1. Citing direct, literal fulfillment in Old Testament texts widely understood before the time of Christ to be messianic prophecies without any other possible fulfillment:
a. The book of Daniel: Daniel 2:44 and Isaiah 2:2-5 were clearly predictive of the arrival of the Messiah once Rome (4th kingdom) conquered the Greek kingdom. Daniel 9:24-27 was clearly predictive that the messiah would arrive in AD 33 which was 490 years (70 weeks) after the decree to rebuild Jerusalem (Ezra 7). These two-time prophecies, along with many other messianic prophecies sparked great expectation at the time of John the Baptist, who baptized Jesus during the 70th week of Dan 9: Luke 3:15.
b. The branch-king-child to be born (Isa 4:2; 7:14; Isaiah 9:6-7; 11:1-2; 53:2) and key sections of the suffering servant in Isa 53 are all exclusive to the messiah. The messianic branch-king in Jer 23:5; Zech 3:8 is expanded to the messianic branch-king-priest in Zechariah 6:12-13.
2. Dual prophecies and secondary fulfilments of prophetic events being applied to Jesus:
a. 2 Sam 7:14 was not initially viewed as messianic until Zechariah 6:12-13 stated that the messianic branch-king-priest would also build a temple of God after the death of Solomon. Acts 2:29-31 and Heb 1:5 directly applies this to Jesus. However no New Testament passage directly names Jesus as the builder of a temple (His body/church) by quoting 2 Sam 7.
b. Isaiah 7:14 was fulfilled in 733 BC when Isaiah’s son was born in Isaiah 8, but Matthew finds new secondary fulfillment in the Mary’s virgin birth after the fact in Mt 1:23. Isaiah 7:14 was a dual prophecy first fulfilled in Isaiah himself in 733 BC, then Mary in 2 BC.
c. Dan 8 & 11 specifically prophesied the 167 BC Abomination of Desolation by Antiochus IV, but Jesus reapplies this prophecy in a new way to AD 70 in Mt 24:15.
d. Haggai 2:2-23 finds full fulfillment in Zerubbabel in 515 BC but then Paul in Hebrews finds two new and distinct fulfillments first on Pentecost then the second coming.
e. Isaiah 53 was fulfilled first by Isaiah himself when he was sawed in half by king Manasseh while hiding in a tree in 685 BC and then by Christ when he was crucified on a tree in AD 33.
f. Psalm 2 is spoken in the first person by David who was God’s son, God’s king and God’s anointed. Yet we find in Acts 13:32–33 that this is fulfilled when Christ was begotten at the resurrection of Christ. It was after the resurrection that “all authority on heaven and earth” (Mt 28:18; Eph 1:20-23)
3. Messianic application of historic events in Bible characters that were not viewed as messianic at the time when it originally happened. Through God’s power, providence and foreknowledge these historical events were deliberately and specifically intended by God to be later echoed by both Jesus and Christians in the messianic age.
a. The exodus narration was not messianic yet, just as God called Israel out of Egypt, so too God called Jesus out of Egypt: Mt 2:15.
b. Jesus words on the cross, “My God why have you forsaken me” (Psalm 22:1) were mouthed by David at a time he thought he was about to be captured and killed by King Saul when he was surrounded in 1 Sam 23:26. David escaped death at the hands of Saul but Jesus was crucified.
c. In Psalm 68:18, God ascends to the summit of Mt. Sinai to take his seat on the throne in 1446 BC during the Exodus. Paul in Eph 4:8 applies this to the ascension of Christ in AD 33 when He received the kingdom days before Pentecost. Just as God supernaturally endowed the workmen to build the tabernacle, so too Jesus endowed the early church with 9 supernatural gifts. Yet the Midrashic application of Sinai is expanded to include the death, burial, resurrection in Eph 4:9-10 where Paul explains his choice of quoting Ps 68:18. If Paul had never made the application this way, nobody would have ever guessed that God on Mt. Sinai was a type of the death, burial, resurrection and ascension of Christ to sit and rule far above all rule and authority in heaven!
4. New allegorical interpretations and typology based upon known Old Testament stories:
a. The Sarah, Hagar story is applied to Christians and Jews in Gal 4.
b. Peter’s application to water saving Noah from the sins of the world become the allegorical foundation of the water baptism saving the lost from their own sins: 1 Pe 3:20-21. Up to this point the ark was viewed as the saving vehicle of Noah form the water that killed the sinners. Through inspiration Peter presents something new and surprising by focusing, not on how Noah was saved by the ark from the water, but rather how the water saved Noah by washing away the sins of the entire world. While water baptism by full immersion for the remission of sins had been taught since Pentecost AD 33 (Act 2:38) and Paul had his sins “washed away” through water baptism in AD 36 (Acts 22:16), Peter’s associating the flood waters of Noah to Christian baptism was revolutionary and new theology. In fact all 5 metaphors for water baptism are typical Midrashic interpretation style: Water baptism is a washing (Acts 2:38; 22:16) , a new birth (Jn 3:3-5), a clothing (Gal 3:27), a circumcision (Col 2:12) and an imitation of the death burial and resurrection of Christ (Rom 6:3-7)
c. The crossing of the Red Sea at the Straits of Tiran in 1446 BC was not a messianic event, yet Paul in 1 Corinthians 10:1-4 connected the full immersion crossing during the Exodus to water baptism. It was already understood that we are baptized into Christ but Paul reaches back to the Red Sea crossing as a type where Israel was baptized into Moses. This is a brand new concept and meaning of Israel’s relationship with Moses. "For I do not want you to be unaware, brethren, that our fathers were all under the cloud and all passed through the sea; and all were baptized into Moses in the cloud and in the sea; and all ate the same spiritual food; and all drank the same spiritual drink, for they were drinking from a spiritual rock which followed them; and the rock was Christ." (1 Corinthians 10:1–4)
d. The husband and wife relationship is allegorically applied to Christ and the church in Eph 5:22-33.
5. Connecting Jesus to Old Testament prophecies through “word plays”.
a. two “word plays” in Mt 2:23: The first word play is based upon how the Greek word for Nazareth sounded like the Hebrew word for Branch so that He shall be called a Nazarene = Jesus the branch of David grew up in “branchland” (Nazareth). The second play is based upon how Nazareth and Nazarite are similar sounding words in Greek and that the LXX substitutes "Holy one of God" in place of “Nazarite” both in Judg 13:7 and 16:7. Jesus was universally known as the "Holy one of God". The messiah was to be holy one of God. Samson the Nazarite was also the holy one of God.
6. Reenactment rituals of Old Testament events in the church.
a. The Lords Supper is a reenactment ritual of the death of Christ founded on the Passover (Ex 12) and Manna (Ex 16/Jn 6).
b. Water baptism is a reenactment ritual of the death, burial and resurrection of Christ (Rom 6:3-4).
7. New Testament ritual with multiple Old Testament types:
a. Lord’s Supper: Manna, Passover and the Table of Shewbread are three types of the Lord’s Supper in the church.
b. Baptism: Noah’s flood, Circumcision, Red Sea crossing, the Tabernacle bronze laver, the healing of Naaman of Leprosy by immersing seven times in the Jordan, wearing white clothes after immersion in Synagogue Mikveot, are five types of Christians full immersion water baptism for the remission of sins. There are 5 metaphors of baptism: ritual purity washing, circumcision, clothing, new birth, reenactment of death, burial and resurrection.
8. Cherry picking phrases from a multiple of Old Testament texts to form a single New Testament quotation:
a. Romans 9:23-31 = Hos 2:23 + Hos 1:10 + Isa 10:22-23 + Isa 1:9
b. Romans 10:18-21 = Ps 19:1 + Deut 32:21 + Isa 65:1-2
c. Romans 15:8-12 = 2 Sam 22:50 + Deut 32:43 + Ps 117:1 + Isa 11:10
d. 2 Corinthians 6:16-18 = Ex 29:45 + Midrashic paraphrase Is 52:11 + Midrashic paraphrase 2 Sam 7:14
Eph 6:14-17 = Isa 11:5 + Isa 59:17 + Isa 52:7 + Isa 49:2 Paul cherry
picks a series of disconnected phrases from Isaiah and sews them together into
a single unit interspersed with Roman soldier imagery. The flaming arrows of
the Satan is a reference to the “Roman Scorpion Engine” was a catapult which
launched flaming spears and arrows.
9. Paraphrases that add and subtract information from the original source and are applied to Jesus:
a. Ephesians 5:4 paraphrases Isaiah 60:1-2 and applies language previously assigned to YHWH in a new way to Jesus. In the original God is shining but in Ephesians Christ is shining.
10. Midrashic allusions and inferences:
a. In the great incarnation of Christ passage of Phil 2:6-10, Paul applies language in Is 45:23 where every knee will bow and every tongue will confess to YHWH, to Jesus.
b. Paul twice applies the Mosaic law of not muzzling the ox while it is threshing in Deut 25:4 to Christian preachers drawing wages for their work in 1 Corinthians 9:7-14 and 1 Tim 5:18. This concept is never applied to anyone under the mosaic age and represents an entirely new and surprising prophetic text.
c. The key phrase “let all the angels of God worship Him” is quoted almost exactly in four ancient sources: Dead Sea scroll 4Q44, Septuagint, Odes 2:43 Apocrypha LXX and Justin Martyr.
Hebrews 1:5 quotes Deut 32:43 (LXX) and Psalm
97:7 (LXX) as a messianic prophecy that the Angels are to worship Christ during
his earthly ministry. Dead Sea Scroll 4Q44 validates the Septuagint reading
that Angels are to worship Jesus in Heb 1:8. What we learn from 4Q44 is that
Heb 1:8 was primarily quoting Deut 32:43 LXX not Ps 97:7. In both Deut 32:43
(LXX) and Psalm 97:7 passage to indicate the object of worship is YHWH which is
specifically applied to Jesus. In other words without Heb 1:6 we would have no
idea this was a messianic prophecy of Jesus. Even more striking is that these
are the last words of the Song of Moses immediately before his death. Deut
32:43 therefore serves as a bridge between Moses and Christ based upon Deut
18:18 where Moses understood he would be replaced by Christ. Most important, we
clearly understand that Jesus is Yahweh (YHWH) GOD to be worshiped. When we
couple this with Hebrews 1:10-12, we learn Jesus is also the creator YHWH/GOD.
This verse not only proves Jesus is God it also proves Jesus is not an angel.
e. Hebrews 1:8-9 quotes Psalm 45:6-7: "But of the Son He says, “Your throne, O God, is forever and ever … Therefore God, Your God, has anointed You." Ps 45:6 the Father is called God, but in Heb 1:8 Jesus is called God by the Father. This standard Midrashic hermeneutic would be a surprising new development to the historic Jewish interpretation of the passage. While Jews might object that Jesus is God or the Messiah they would not object to the way Paul connected the two verses because it was the same method they had used countless times.
f. Hebrews 1:10-12 quotes Psalm 102:25-27 as a messianic proof text that Jesus is the creator God in Genesis 1:1. This would come as a shocking surprise to Torah compliant Jews who had converted to Christianity. There is nothing in Ps 102 that indicates it is messianic and it had been universally been applied to the Father by the Jews until the arrival of Christianity.
g. Psalm 8:6 echoes Gen 1:26 that God put all earth animals in submission under mankind’s feet. Suddenly and without any warning Ps 8:6 is directly applied to Jesus in Heb 2:9 and 1 Cor 15:27. Looking back we now understand Gen 1:26 as a messianic prophecy of the time when Christ would have all authority on heaven and earth between the resurrection and the second coming as Mt 28:18 confirms.
1. Without faith, it is impossible to please God and Bible scoffers who are unmoved by prophecy would likely be among 9 of the 10 lepers who were healed by Jesus but never offered thanks, among Judas who witnessed the miracles of Jesus but betrayed him, among the guards who were thrown to the ground by Jesus but went on to arrest him for crucifixion, among the Jewish Sanhedrin who knew Jesus had performed valid miracles but then stoned Stephen to death, among the Synagogue leaders to whom Paul powerfully refuted in public, demonstrating by the Scriptures that Jesus was the Christ.
a. A small handful of Messianic prophecies irrefutably and unassailable prove Jesus is the Messiah and the Bible was written and inspired by the divine Holy Spirit.
b. Bible prophecy silences unbelievers who attack scripture and will haunt their consciences all the way to their judgement.
2. It may be surprising for Christians to learn that the majority of Old Testament texts that were quoted in the New Testament as fulfilled messianic prophecy, were only understood as such after they were fulfilled. This does not belittle or invalidate the power of these messianic prophecies because they demonstrate God’s power and foreknowledge when we look back and see God shaping history according to His master plan. The human heart is awe-struck not only when God tells us in advance his eternal purpose and it is so, but also when we learn about His completed plan in the past.
a. When Christians use Bible prophecy for apologetic purposes to convince hostile unbelievers that the Bible is inspired, it is important to carefully chose only a select few the strongest examples.
b. This study highlights how Christians sometimes have a distorted view of Bible prophecy texts and their fulfillment.
c. Christians will compose a valid list 60 Old Testament prophecies and their corresponding fulfillment in the New Testament without looking at the original context of the Old Testament prophecy.
d. It is important for Christians to differentiate between prophecies that were understood to be predictive of future events before their fulfillment looking forward vs. prophecies that were understood to be predictive only after they were fulfilled when looking back.
3. The Midrashic Hermeneutic was the system of Bible interpretation that the Holy Spirit employed in writing the Bible through inspired men to find fulfillment in Jesus. There are nine different categories of how prophecy was considered fulfilled by New Testament writers:
a. Citing direct, literal fulfillment in Old Testament texts widely understood before the time of Christ to be messianic prophecies without any other possible fulfillment.
b. Multiple fulfillment prophecies where the first fulfillment is in a Bible character hundreds of years before Jesus and a secondary messianic fulfilment in Jesus. Many of the specific elements fulfilled in the original prophecy are either changed or ignored in the Messianic fulfillment.
c. Messianic application of historic events in Bible characters that were not viewed as messianic at the time when it originally happened. Through God’s power, providence and foreknowledge these historical events were deliberately and specifically intended by God to be later echoed by both Jesus and Christians in the messianic age.
d. New allegorical interpretations and typology based upon known Old Testament stories.
e. Connecting Jesus of Nazareth to Old Testament prophecies through “word plays”.
f. Old Testament historical events that became messianic reenactment rituals in the church.
g. Cherry picking out of context phrases from a multiple of Old Testament texts to form a single New Testament quotation.
h. Paraphrases of Old Testament texts that add and subtract information from the original source.
i. Midrashic style allusions and inferences in the Old Testament applied to Jesus of Nazareth.
Be like the Ethiopian Eunuch who became a Christian by reading Isaiah 53:
"Then the Spirit said to Philip, “Go up and join this chariot.” Philip ran up and heard him reading Isaiah the prophet, and said, “Do you understand what you are reading?” And he said, “Well, how could I, unless someone guides me?” And he invited Philip to come up and sit with him. Now the passage of Scripture which he was reading was this: “He was led as a sheep to slaughter; And as a lamb before its shearer is silent, So He does not open His mouth. “In humiliation His judgment was taken away; Who will relate His generation? For His life is removed from the earth.” The eunuch answered Philip and said, “Please tell me, of whom does the prophet say this? Of himself or of someone else?” Then Philip opened his mouth, and beginning from this Scripture he preached Jesus to him. As they went along the road they came to some water; and the eunuch said, “Look! Water! What prevents me from being baptized?” And Philip said, “If you believe with all your heart, you may.” And he answered and said, “I believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God.” And he ordered the chariot to stop; and they both went down into the water, Philip as well as the eunuch, and he baptized him. When they came up out of the water, the Spirit of the Lord snatched Philip away; and the eunuch no longer saw him, but went on his way rejoicing." (Acts 8:29–39)
Be like the Berean Synagogue Jews who became Christians by studying how Jesus fulfilled prophecy:
"Now these were more noble-minded than those in Thessalonica, for they received the word with great eagerness, examining the Scriptures daily to see whether these things were so. Therefore many of them believed, along with a number of prominent Greek women and men." (Acts 17:11–12)
By Steve Rudd 2020: Contact the author for comments, input or corrections.